Musil in 1900
6 November 1880|
|Died||15 April 1942
|Alma mater||University of Berlin|
Robert Musil (German: [ˈmuːzɪl] or [ˈmuːsɪl]; 6 November 1880 – 15 April 1942) was an Austrian philosophical writer. His unfinished novel The Man Without Qualities (German: Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften) is generally considered to be one of the most important and influential modernist novels.
Musil was born in Klagenfurt, Kärnten, the son of engineer Alfred Edler von Musil (1846, Timișoara – 1924) and his wife Hermine Bergauer (1853, Linz – 1924). The orientalist Alois Musil ("The Czech Lawrence") was his second cousin.
Soon after Robert's birth, the family moved to Chomutov in Bohemia, and in 1891 Musil's father was appointed to the chair of Mechanical Engineering at the German Technical University in Brno, and awarded a hereditary nobility in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was baptized Robert Mathias Musil and his name was officially Robert Mathias Edler von Musil from 22 October 1917, when his father received a hereditary title of nobility Edler, until 3 April 1919, when the use of noble titles was forbidden in Austria.
Musil was short in stature, but strong and skilled at wrestling, and by his early teens already more than his parents could handle. They sent him to military boarding school at Eisenstadt (1892–1894) and then Hranice (1894–1897). These school experiences are reflected in his first novel, Die Verwirrungen des Zöglings Törless (The Confusions of Young Törless).
After graduating as a cadet, Musil studied briefly at a military academy in Vienna during the fall of 1897, but then switched to mechanical engineering, joining his father's department at Technical University in Brno. During his university studies he studied engineering by day, but at night read literature and philosophy, and went to the theatre and art exhibits. Nietzsche, Dostoyevsky, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Ernst Mach were particular interests of his university years. Musil finished his studies in three years, then in 1902–1903 served as an unpaid assistant to Professor Julius Carl von Bach, in Stuttgart. During this time he began work on Young Törless and invented the device "Musil'scher Farbkreisel", The Musil color top, a simple tool for continuous production of mixed colors by additive color mixing with two differently colored rotating disks.
Musil grew tired of engineering and what he perceived as the limited world-view of engineers. He launched a new round of doctoral studies (1903–1908) in psychology and philosophy at the University of Berlin under the renowned Professor Carl Stumpf. In 1905, Musil met his future wife, Martha Marcovaldi (née Heinemann, 21 January 1874 – 6 November 1949). She had already been widowed and remarried, with two children, and was seven years older than Musil. His first novel, Young Törless, was published in 1906.
In 1909 Musil completed his doctorate and Professor Alexius Meinong offered him a position at the University of Graz, which he turned down to concentrate on writing of novels. Over the next two years, he wrote and published two stories ("The Temptation of Quiet Veronica" and "The Perfecting of a Love") collected in Vereinigungen (Unions) published in 1911. During this same year, Martha's divorce was completed and Musil married her. As she was Jewish, they both converted to Protestantism as a sign of their union.   Until this time, Musil had been supported by his family, but he now found employment first as a librarian in the Technical University of Vienna, and then in an editorial role with the Berlin Literary Journal, He also worked on a play entitled Die Schwärmer (The Enthusiasts), which was published in 1921.
When World War I began, Musil joined the Army and was stationed first in Tirol and then at Austria's Supreme Army Command in Bolzano. In 1916 Musil visited Prague and met Franz Kafka, whose work he held in high esteem. After the war's end, and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Musil returned to his literary career in Vienna. He published a collection of short stories, Drei Frauen (Three Women), in 1924. He also admired the Bohemian poet Rainer Maria Rilke, at whose memorial service in 1926 in Berlin, Musil called "undervalued" for most of his life. He said that by the time of his death, Rilke had turned into "a delicate, well-matured liqueur suitable for grown-up ladies", but that his work is "too demanding" to be "considered relaxing".
In 1930 and 1933 in Berlin – 1,074-page he published Volume 1 (Part I: A Sort of Introduction, and Part II: The Like of It Now Happens) and 605-page unfinished Volume 2 (Part III: Into the Millennium (The Criminals)) of his masterpiece, The Man Without Qualities (Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften). Part III did not include 20 chapters withdrawn from Vol. 2 of 1933 while in printer's galley proofs. The novel deals with the moral and intellectual decline of the Austro-Hungarian empire through the eyes of the book's protagonist Ulrich, an ex-mathematician who has failed to engage with the world around him in a manner that would allow him to possess qualities. It is set in Vienna on the eve of World War I.
The Man Without Qualities brought Musil only mediocre commercial success. Though he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature, he felt he did not receive the recognition he deserved. He sometimes expressed annoyance at the success of more famous colleagues like Thomas Mann or Hermann Broch, who admired his work deeply, and tried to shield him from economic difficulties and encouraged his writing, even though Musil was initially critical of Mann.
In the early 1920s, Musil lived mostly in Berlin. In Vienna Musil was a frequent visitor to Eugenie Schwarzwald's salon (the model for Diotima in The Man Without Qualities). In 1932, the Robert Musil Society was founded in Berlin on the initiative of Thomas Mann. In the same year Thomas Mann was asked to name outstanding contemporary novels, and he cited only one, The Man Without Qualities. In 1936, Musil suffered his first stroke.
The last years of Musil's life were dominated by Nazism and World War II: the Nazis banned his books. He saw early Nazism first-hand while living in Berlin from 1931 to 1933. In 1938, when Austria became a part of the Third Reich, Musil and his Jewish wife Martha left for exile in Switzerland, where he died on 15 April 1942 at the age of 61. Martha wrote to Franz Theodor Csokor that he had suffered a stroke. Only eight people attended his cremation. Martha cast his ashes into the woods of Mont Salève. From 1933 until his death, Musil was working on Part III of The Man Without Qualities. In 1943 in Lausanne, Martha published a 462-page collection of material from his literary remains including the 20 galley chapters withdrawn from Part III before Vol. 2 appeared in 1933, as well as drafts of the final incomplete chapters and notes on the development and direction of the novel. She died in Rome in 1949.
After his death Musil's work was almost forgotten. His writings began to reappear during the early 1950s. The first translation of The Man Without Qualities in English was published by Ernst Kaiser and Eithne Wilkins in 1953, 1954 and 1960. An updated translation by Sophie Wilkins and Burton Pike, containing extensive selections from unpublished drafts, appeared in 1995. Musil's work has received more attention since that time, including the philosophical aspects of his novels. One of the most important philosophy journals, The Monist published a special issue on The Philosophy of Robert Musil in 2014, edited by Bence Nanay.
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- 1880 November 6, Robert Musil born in Klagenfurt. Father Engineer Alfred Musil, mother Hermine.
- 1881–1882 The Musils move to Chomutov in Bohemia.
- 1882–1891 The Musils move to Steyr (Austria). Robert attends the Elementary School and the first grade of the gymnasium.
- 1891–1892 Moves to Brno. Attends the Realschule.
- 1892–1894 Attends the military boarding school in Eisenstadt.
- 1894–1897 Attends the military Militär-Oberrealschule in Hranice (present-day in the Czech Republic) During his working with artillery Musil discovers his interest in technique.
- 1897 Attends the Technische Militärakademie in Vienna.
- 1898–1901 Quits officer training and starts studies at the Technical University in Brno. His father was a professor there since 1890. First literary attempt and first diary notations.
- 1901 doctoral examinations.
- 1901–1902 Musil enlists in the infantry regiment of Freiherr von Hess Nr. 49 in Brno.
- 1902–1903 Moves to Stuttgart to work at the University. Works on his first novel Die Verwirrungen des Zöglings Törless
- 1903–1908 Takes up studies in philosophy; his majors are "logic and experimental psychology".
- 1905 In his diaries he makes the first notes that develop into Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften.
- 1906 Die Verwirrungen des Zöglings Torless is published. Developed an apparatus to research colour experience in people.
- 1908 Beiträge zur Beurteilung der Lehren Machs is the title of his doctoral thesis. Declines an offer to upgrade his last military rank to an equal civilian rank in favour of writing.
- 1908–1910 Works in Berlin as an editor for the magazine Pan and on his Vereinigungen and Die Schwärmer.
- 1911–1914 Librarian at the Technical University of Vienna.
- 1911 on 15 April Musil marries Martha Marcovaldi. Vereinigungen is published.
- 1912–1914 Editor for several literary magazines, including Neue Rundschau.
- 1914–1918 During World War I, Musil is officer at the Italian front. Decorated several times.
- 1916–1917 July–April: publishes the "Soldaten-Zeitung".
- 1917 On 22 October, Alfred Musil was hereditary ennobled as Alfred Edler von Musil, making Robert Musil also a member of the nobility until it was abolished less than two years later.
- 1918 Takes up writing again.
- 1919–1920 Works for the Information Service of the Austrian foreign department in Vienna.
- 1920 April–June: lives in Berlin. Meets Ernest Rowohlt who will become his publisher in 1923.
- 1920–1922 Adviser for army matters in Vienna.
- 1921–1931 Works as theatre critic, essayist and writer in Vienna. Works on Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften.
- 1921 The play Die Schwärmer is published.
- 1923–1929 Is vice-president of Schutzverbandes deutscher Schriftsteller in Östereich. Meets Hugo von Hofmannsthal, who is president of the foundation.
- 1923 Awarded the Kleist Prize for Die Schwärmer. On 4 December Vinzenz und die Freundin bedeutender Männer is premièred in Berlin.
- 1924 on 24 January his mother and on 1 October his father die. Awarded the art prize of the city of Vienna. Drei Frauen is published.
- 1927 Delivers a speech following the death the previous year of Rainer Maria Rilke in Berlin.
- 1929 4 April première of Die Schwärmer. Over Musil's objections, the play is shortened and, according to him, incomprehensible. In the autumn awarded the Gerhart Hauptmann award.
- 1930 The first two parts of Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften are published. In spite of critical support, Musil's financial situation is precarious.
- 1931–1933 Lives and works in Berlin.
- 1932 Foundation of a Musil-Gesellschaft by Kurt Glaser in Berlin. The foundation aims to provide Musil with the means necessary to continue working on his novel. At the end of the year the third part of Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften is published.
- 1933 in May Musil leaves Berlin with his wife Martha. Via Karlovy Vary and Potstejn in Czechoslovakia they reach Vienna.
- 1934–1938 After the dismantling of the Berlin Musil-Gesellschaft, a new one is founded in Vienna.
- 1935 Lecture for the Internationalen Schriftstellerkongress für die Verteidigung der Kultur" in Paris.
- 1936 Publishes his collection of thoughts, observations and stories Nachlass zu Lebzeiten. Suffers a stroke.
- 1938 Via northern Italy Musil and his wife flee to Zürich. Two days after their arrival, on 4 September, they have tea at Thomas Mann's home in Küsnacht.
- 1939 In July moves to Geneva. Musil continues to work on his novel and grows lonelier with exile. Thanks to the Zürich vicar Robert Lejeune, Musil receives some financial support, including from the American couple Henry Hall and Barbara Church. In Germany and Austria Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften and Nachlaß zu Lebzeiten are banned. All his works are banned in 1941.
- 1942 April 15, Musil dies in Geneva.
- 1943 Martha Musil publishes the unfinished remains of Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften.
- 1952–1957 Adolf Frisé publishes the complete works of Robert Musil at Rowohlt.
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Die Verwirrungen des Zöglings Törleß (The Confusions of Young Torless, 1906), later made into a movie Der junge Törless
- Vereinigungen (1911) (Unions – a collection of two short stories)
- Die Schwärmer (1921)
- Vinzenz und die Freundin bedeutender Männer (1924)
- Drei Frauen (1924) (Three Women – a collection of three short stories)
- Nachlaß zu Lebzeiten (1936) (Posthumous Papers of a Living Author – a collection of short prose pieces)
- Über die Dummheit (1937)
- Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften (The Man Without Qualities, 1930, 1933, 1943, published in two volumes)
- He was baptized Robert Mathias Musil and his name was officially Robert Mathias Edler von Musil from 22 October 1917, when his father received a hereditary title of nobility Edler, until 3 April 1919, when the use of noble titles was forbidden in Austria.
- "Virtual Vienna Net – The Great Austrian Writer Robert Musil". Virtualvienna.net. 15 April 1942. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Gray, Sadie. The Times http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/the_tls/article6836668.ece. Missing or empty
- Robert Musil, Precision and Soul: Essays and Addresses, trans. Burton Pike and David S. Luft (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1995).
- Peter L. Stern & Company, Inc. "Book Details: MUSIL, ROBERT, Der Mann Ohne Eigenschaften (The Man Without Qualities)". Peter L. Stern & Company, Inc. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- Wikipedia. "Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften: Ausgaben". Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- Freed, Mark M. (5 May 2011). Robert Musil and the Nonmodern; A note on Musil's texts (1 ed.). New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. xi. ISBN 1-4411-2251-6.
- Der Monat 026/1950, pp. 185–189, on www.ceeol.com
- Markus Kreuzwieser http://www.sbg.ac.at/exil/lecture_5023.pdf
- The Man Without Qualities (2 volume set). "The Man Without Qualities (2 volume set): Robert Musil, Burton Pike, Sophie Wilkins: 9780394510521: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Smiley, Jane (17 June 2006). "Robert Musil: The Man without Qualities". The Guardian.
- Stefan Jonsson, Subject Without Nation: Robert Musil and the History of Modern Identity (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2000).
- Patrizia C. McBride, The Void of Ethics: Robert Musil and the Experience of Modernity. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2006.
- Philip Payne, Graham Bartram and Galin Tihanov (eds), A Companion to the Works of Robert Musil (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2007).
- B. Pike, Robert Musil: An Introduction to His Work, Kennikat Press, 1961, reissued 1972.
- Thomas Sebastian, The Intersection оf Science And Literature in Musil's 'The Man Without' (Rochester, NY: Camden House. 2005).
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