Robert Rubin

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Robert Rubin
Robert Rubin headshot.jpg
Rubin in 2014
Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations
In office
June 30, 2007 – July 1, 2017
Serving with Carla Hills
PresidentRichard Haass
Preceded byPeter George Peterson
Succeeded byDavid Rubenstein
70th United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
January 11, 1995 – July 2, 1999
PresidentBill Clinton
Preceded byLloyd Bentsen
Succeeded byLarry Summers
1st Director of the National Economic Council
In office
January 25, 1993 – January 11, 1995
PresidentBill Clinton
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byLaura Tyson
Personal details
Born
Robert Edward Rubin

(1938-08-29) August 29, 1938 (age 83)
New York City, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Judith Oxenberg
Children2
Education
London School of Economics
Signature

Robert Edward Rubin (born August 29, 1938) is an American retired banking executive, lawyer, and former government official. He served as the 70th United States Secretary of the Treasury during the Clinton administration. Before his government service, he spent 26 years at Goldman Sachs, eventually serving as a member of the board and co-chairman from 1990 to 1992.

During the Clinton administration, Rubin oversaw the loosening of financial industry underwriting guidelines which had been in place since the 1930s.[1] His post-government role includes serving as director and senior counselor of Citigroup, where he performed advisory and representational roles for the firm.[2] From November to December 2007, he served temporarily as chairman of Citigroup[3][4] and resigned from the company on January 9, 2009. He received more than $126 million in cash and stock during his tenure at Citigroup,[5] up through and including Citigroup's bailout by the U.S. Treasury.

Early life and education[edit]

Rubin was born on August 29, 1938, in New York City[6] to Jewish parents Sylvia (née Seiderman) and Alexander Rubin.[7][8] He moved to Miami Beach, Florida, at an early age and graduated from Miami Beach High School.[9][10] In 1960, Rubin graduated with an A.B. summa cum laude in economics from Harvard College.[11] He then attended Harvard Law School for three days before leaving to see the world.[12] He later attended the London School of Economics and received an LL.B. from Yale Law School in 1964.[11]

Early career[edit]

Rubin was an attorney at Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton in New York City from 1964 to 1966[11] before joining Goldman Sachs in 1966 as an associate in the risk arbitrage department. He later ran their stock and bond trading departments and became co-chairman in 1990.[12]

Clinton administration[edit]

From January 25, 1993, to January 10, 1995, Rubin served in the White House as Assistant to the President for Economic Policy. In that capacity, he directed the National Economic Council, which Bill Clinton created after winning the presidency.[13] The National Economic Council, or NEC, enabled the White House to coordinate closely the workings of the Cabinet departments and agencies on policies ranging from budget and tax to international trade and alleviating poverty. The NEC coordinated policy recommendations going into the President's office, and monitored implementation of the decisions that came out.[4] Robert S. Strauss credited Rubin with making the system work. "He's surely the only man or woman in America that I know who could make the NEC succeed," Strauss said in 1994. "Anyone else would have been a disruptive force, and the council wouldn't have worked."[14]

1993 Deficit Reduction Act[edit]

Rubin encouraged Clinton to focus on deficit reduction[15] and he was "one of the chief architects" of Clinton's 1993 Deficit Reduction Act plan.[16] Supporters said the Act helped create the late 1990s budget surplus and strong economic growth, while opponents noted it raised taxes.[16][17] As officials deliberated the deficit reduction plan, Rubin advocated for tax increases on those in the upper-income tax bracket.[18] The Baltimore Sun said that the budget deal "was critical" and "convinced nervous bond traders that the new Democratic president was serious about the deficit, lowering long-term interest rates, spurring economic growth and, ultimately, helping to balance the budget."[15]

Secretary of the Treasury[edit]

Clinton nominated Rubin as Treasury secretary in December 1994. On January 10, 1995, Rubin was sworn in as the 70th United States Secretary of the Treasury after the U.S. Senate confirmed him in a 99-0 vote.[19][20] Rubin's tenure with the Clinton administration, especially as the head of Treasury, was marked by economic prosperity in the U.S. Rubin is credited as one of the main individuals behind U.S. economic growth, creating near full-employment and bullish stock markets while avoiding inflation.[12] From the time he joined the White House until he announced his resignation from Treasury in 1999, U.S. unemployment fell from 6.9 percent to 4.3 percent; the U.S. budget went from a $255 billion deficit to a $70 billion surplus, and inflation fell.[15][21] Rubin was succeeded in early July 1999 as Treasury secretary by his deputy, Lawrence Summers.[22]

According to CNN Money, Rubin was "one of the architects of the Clinton administration's economic policy, and is often credited—along with Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan—for the booming eight-year economic expansion, the second-longest in U.S. history".[23]

Senator Chuck Hagel (R-NE) called Rubin "an ideal public servant who put policy before politics."[24] At the time of Rubin's resignation, Clinton called Rubin the "greatest secretary of the Treasury since Alexander Hamilton."[25]

1990s international crises[edit]

Rubin in 1999

Upon being sworn into office as Treasury secretary in January 1995, Rubin was confronted with the Mexican peso crisis, which threatened to result in Mexico defaulting on its foreign obligations.[26] President Bill Clinton, with the advice of Rubin and Greenspan, provided $20 billion in U.S. loan guarantees to the Mexican government through the Exchange Stabilization Fund.[17][26][27] Mexico recovered and the U.S. Treasury made a $580 million profit as a result of the loan agreement.[27][28]

In 1997 and 1998, Rubin, Greenspan, and Deputy Treasury Secretary Summers worked with the International Monetary Fund and others to promote U.S. policy in response to financial crises in Russian, Asian, and Latin American financial markets. On the cover of its February 15, 1999 edition, Time Magazine dubbed the three policymakers "The Committee to Save the World".[17]

Balanced budget agreement[edit]

Early in the Clinton administration, Rubin touted a balanced budget and a strong dollar as a way for the Fed to lower interest rates.[29] He also argued that a balanced federal budget's broad benefits to society outweighed concerns that one group could benefit more than others.[30] Rubin was the Clinton administration's chief negotiator with a Republican-controlled Congress on the balanced-budget deal.[15][31] The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 has been referred to as the "capstone" of Rubin's tenure as Treasury secretary.[32]

Regulation of derivatives[edit]

In 1998, Rubin and Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan opposed giving the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) oversight of over-the-counter credit derivatives when this was proposed by Brooksley Born, then head of the CFTC. Rubin and other senior officials recommended Congress relieve the CFTC of regulatory authority over derivatives in November 1999.[33] Over-the-counter credit derivatives were eventually excluded from regulation by the CFTC by the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000.[34] According to a PBS Frontline report, derivatives played a key role in the financial crisis of 2007–2008.[35]

Arthur Levitt Jr., a former chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, has said in explaining Rubin's strong opposition to the regulations proposed by Born that Greenspan and Rubin were "joined at the hip on this. They were certainly very fiercely opposed to this and persuaded me that this would cause chaos."[33] However, in Rubin's autobiography, he notes that he believed derivatives could pose significant problems and that many people who used derivatives did not fully understand the risks they were taking.[36] In 2008, The New York Times reported that the proposal in 1997 would not have improved oversight of derivatives. Rubin said the financial system "could benefit from better regulation of derivatives". However, "the politics would have made this impossible," he said.[37] Rubin said he had been concerned about derivatives' potential to create systemic risk since his time at Goldman Sachs.[38]

In an interview on ABC's This Week program in April 2010, former President Clinton said Rubin was wrong in the advice he gave him not to regulate derivatives, which was by then seen as one of the underlying causes of the 2007–08 financial crisis.[39] Clinton adviser Doug Band later said Clinton "inadvertently conflated an analysis he received on a specific derivatives proposal with then-Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan's arguments against any regulation of derivatives". He said Clinton still wished he had pursued legislation to regulate derivatives while confirming that he still believed he had received excellent advice on the economy and the financial system from Rubin and others during his presidency.[40]

Urban policy[edit]

Rubin was a leading advocate for investment in distressed rural and urban communities in the Clinton administration, from his time with the NEC, leading the effort to expand the Community Reinvestment Act, to his time at Treasury, where he advocated for more community development financial institutions (CDFI) to invest in inner cities and increase the CDFI Fund.[41][42][43] Addressing the needs of the urban poor was a top priority for Rubin during his tenure in the Clinton administration.[44] Rubin also assisted with the Clinton administration's plan to increase empowerment and enterprise zones across the U.S. The initiative offered tax breaks for businesses investing in those zones.[42]

The Decline of the Glass-Steagall Act[edit]

As Treasury Secretary, Robert Rubin was on the record for stating that the Glass-Steagall Act was obsolete and outdated, and indeed its provisions had become less effective over time. However, it was not until the late 1990s that the Congress and the Clinton administration finally came round to repealling the act. This resulted in part from lobbying pressure exercized by Sanford I. Weill on Congress and the White House to repeal the Act, and so allow the mega-merger he had organized between Travelers Group and Citicorp in 1998 to stand.[45] Rubin resigned from the Clinton administration in July 1999.[22] In October 1999, Rubin joined the leadership at Citigroup.[46] Glass–Steagall was eventually repealed by the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act under Rubin's successor, Lawrence Summers, and was signed by Clinton in November 1999.[37][47]

Post-government career[edit]

Local Initiatives Support Corporation[edit]

Upon leaving the Clinton administration, Rubin joined the board of the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), the nation's leading community development support organization, as chairman. Reflecting on his decision to join an institution devoted to bringing economic activity to neglected areas of the country, the Chicago Tribune said the following in an editorial: "Even before he became Bill Clinton's treasury secretary, during his days as a high-powered Wall Street executive, Rubin was passionate about fostering business investment as the way to fight poverty in depressed city and rural areas. That made him somewhat unusual among Democrats, who generally emphasized government anti-poverty programs."[48]

Citigroup[edit]

Rubin joined Citigroup in 1999 as chairman of the executive committee of the board.[49] In 2001, Enron, a major client of Citigroup, faced a credit ratings downgrade as a result of the Enron scandal. Rubin called a ranking Treasury Department official, unsuccessfully seeking the Bush Administration's help in forestalling the downgrade.[50] A subsequent staff investigation by the Senate Governmental Affairs committee cleared Rubin of having done anything illegal.[51][52] Rubin later maintained that he had acted both as a Citigroup executive protecting his company's position and as a former Treasury official concerned about the impact that Enron's failure might have on the larger economy. Rubin rejected criticisms of a possible conflict of interest and has said that if faced with the same choice, he would do it again.[50]

Rubin briefly became chairman of Citigroup's board of directors from November 2007 to December 2007.[4][53] According to The New York Times, Rubin's role at Citigroup focused on meeting with clients and government and business leaders, bringing in business, and serving as a sounding board to bank leadership.[53] As the Times reported in 2007, Rubin "has said publicly since he came to Citigroup in 1999 that he had no interest in running the bank".[53] The Wall Street Journal reported Rubin joined Citigroup as a board member and as a participant "in strategic managerial and operational matters of the Company, but [...] no line responsibilities".[54] The newspaper called this mix of oversight and management responsibilities "murky".[54] Following the 2008 financial crisis, critics argued Rubin increased risk-taking at Citigroup, thereby exposing the bank to greater losses, and that economic policies he promoted as Treasury secretary exacerbated the situation. According to The Wall Street Journal, Rubin has stated that "he wasn't alone in failing to foresee the severity of the crisis that would emerge".[25] Other industry observers criticized the lack of clarity about Rubin's role within the bank.[55] The federal government spent $45 billion to acquire a stake in Citigroup in 2008 through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. Citigroup repaid $20 billion of the bailout money in December 2009 and the Treasury sold its remaining stake one year later, for a total net profit of $12 billion.[56]

In December 2008, investors filed a lawsuit contending that Citigroup executives, including Rubin, sold shares at inflated prices while concealing the firm's risks.[57] Citigroup settled the lawsuit in 2012, paying $590 million to claimants and denying any wrongdoing as part of the settlement.[55] Rubin resigned from Citigroup in 2009.[25][58][59] Between 1999 and 2009, Rubin received total compensation, including employee stock options, of $126 million from Citigroup.[60]

Other work[edit]

In 2001, Rubin received an honorary doctoral degree from Harvard University, and on July 1, 2002, he became a member of Harvard Corporation, the executive governing board of Harvard University.[61] He served as a member of the Harvard Corporation board until June 2014 and continues to serve on its finance committee.[62][63][25]

Rubin has written a memoir, In an Uncertain World: Tough Choices from Wall Street to Washington (ISBN 978-0-375-50585-0), co-written by Jacob Weisberg. It was a New York Times bestseller as well as one of Business Week's ten best business books of 2003.[4]

Rubin had been suggested as a possible appointee to a cabinet post for President Barack Obama. Rubin, alongside Austan Goolsbee and Paul Volcker, was one of Obama's economic advisers.[64]

In January 2014, Secretary Rubin joined former Senator Olympia Snowe, former Education Secretary Donna Shalala, former Secretary of State George Shultz, former Housing and Urban Affairs Secretary Henry Cisneros, Gregory Page the Chair of Cargill, and Al Sommer, the Dean Emeritus of the Bloomberg School of Public Health as members of the U.S. Climate Risk Committee. They oversaw the development of an analysis of the economic risks of climate change in the United States that was published on June 24, 2014.[65]

In an address at the Climate Leadership Conference[66] on March 4, 2015, Mr. Rubin spoke about the economic effects of climate change and the costs of inaction. Calling climate change "the existential threat of our age," he called for the adoption of three proposals – revising estimates of the Gross Domestic Product to reflect climate change externalities, disclosure to investors by companies of the costs of carbon they emit that they might be required to absorb, and including in the U.S. government's fiscal projections the future costs of dealing with climate change – to help catalyze a more active response to climate change risks. He first outlined the proposals in a Washington Post op-ed column titled "How Ignoring Climate Change Could Sink the U.S. Economy."[67]

In April 2016, he was one of eight former Treasury secretaries who called on the United Kingdom to remain a member of the European Union ahead of the June 2016 Referendum.[68]

As of 2020, Rubin is actively engaged as a founder of The Hamilton Project, an economic policy think tank that produces research and proposals on how to create a growing economy that benefits more Americans.[4] He is co-chairman emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations. Rubin also serves as chairman of the board of the Local Initiatives Support Corporation, a community development support organization. He serves as a trustee of Mount Sinai Health System.[63][25] Additionally, Rubin serves as a senior counselor at Centerview Partners, an investment banking advisory firm based in New York City.[25] And he has been member of the advisory board of the Peter G. Peterson Foundation.

Personal life[edit]

Rubin and his wife, Judith O. Rubin, have two grown sons together, James and Philip.[69] The Rubins were long time members of Temple Beth Sholom on Miami Beach.[70]

Criticism[edit]

Rubin sparked controversy in 2001 when he contacted an acquaintance at the U.S. Treasury Department and asked if the department could convince bond-rating agencies not to downgrade the corporate debt of Enron, a debtor of Citigroup. The Treasury official refused. A subsequent congressional staff investigation cleared Rubin of having done anything illegal.[71]

Writer Nassim Nicholas Taleb noted that Rubin "collected more than $120 million in compensation from Citibank in the decade preceding the banking crash of 2008. When the bank, literally insolvent, was rescued by the taxpayer, he didn't write any check—he invoked uncertainty as an excuse."[72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "'Since the Depression, there were strict underwriting guidelines that Wall Street adhered to when taking a company public,' says one prominent hedge-fund manager. 'The company had to be in business a minimum of five years, and it had to show profitability for three consecutive years. But Wall Street took these guidelines and threw them in the trash.' Goldman completed the snow job by pumping up the sham stocks. 'Their analysts were out there saying Bullshit.com is worth $100 a share.' The problem was, nobody had told investors that the rules had changed. 'Everyone on the inside knew,' the manager said. 'Bob Rubin sure as hell knew what the underwriting standards were. They had been intact since the 1930s.'" Taibbi, Matt. The Great American Bubble Machine, Rolling Stone, July 9–23, 2009; posted online April 5, 2010; accessed December 25, 2013.
  2. ^ "Citigroup Proxy Statement". Citigroup SEC filing.
  3. ^ "Citigroup chief executive resigns". BBC. November 5, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Citigroup Corporate Governance - Robert E. Rubin". Citigroup. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
  5. ^ Dash, Eric; Story, Louise (January 9, 2009). "Rubin Leaving Citigroup; Smith Barney for Sale". The New York Times.
  6. ^ Reuters Staff (January 9, 2009). "TIMELINE: Rubin's career at Citigroup". Reuters. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  7. ^ Paid Notice - Deaths RUBIN, SYLVIA SEIDERMAN - Paid Death Notice - NYTimes.com. New York Times (2007-01-15). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  8. ^ Who's who in Finance and Industry - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  9. ^ "The Larger-Than-Life Life of Robert Rubin". Fortune. December 8, 2003. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  10. ^ Zerivitz, Marcia Jo (January 6, 2020). Jews of Florida: Centuries of Stories. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4671-4253-3.
  11. ^ a b c "Washington Post Live Robert Rubin". July 2, 2012.
  12. ^ a b c "Robert Rubin, the man Wall Street trusts". BBC News. May 12, 1999. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  13. ^ Jackie Calmes (September 13, 2013). "Ex-White House Aide to Be Economic Adviser". The New York Times.
  14. ^ "Rubin's Rules", Owen Ullmann, The Washingtonian, June 1994.
  15. ^ a b c d Weisman, Jonathan (May 13, 1999). "Rubin resigns post at Treasury". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  16. ^ a b Dodge, Robert (May 13, 1999). "Rubin resigns". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  17. ^ a b c Cooper Ramo, Joshua (February 15, 1999). "The Three Marketeers". TIME. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  18. ^ Thorndike, Joseph J. (December 1, 2014). "Robert Rubin: Stealth Liberal or Wall Street's Stalking Horse?". Tax Notes.
  19. ^ "Robert E. Rubin: Treasury Secretary". The Washington Post. 1998. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  20. ^ Chandler, Clay (January 11, 1995). "Rubin Wins Senate's Approval". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  21. ^ Weisman, Jonathan. "Rubin resigns post at Treasury; Wall Street wizard has helped guide the surging U.S. economy; Deputy picked as successor". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  22. ^ a b "Treasury Secretary Rubin resigns". CNN. May 12, 1999. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  23. ^ Slud, Martha; McMillan, Alex (May 12, 1999). "Treasury's Rubin resigns". CNN Money. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  24. ^ "Former Treasury Secretary Rubin to Receive Eisenhower Institute Public Service Award". Gettysburg College. April 26, 2000.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Demos, Telis (June 8, 2018). "Robert Rubin's Legacy Up for Debate 10 Years After Citigroup Bailout". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  26. ^ a b Lustig, Nora (January 1, 1997). "Mexico in Crisis, the U.S. to the Rescue. The Financial Assistance Packages of 1982 and 1995". Brookings. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  27. ^ a b Sanger, David. "Mexico Repays Bailout by U.S. Ahead of Time". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  28. ^ Broder, John M.; Sanger, David E. (May 13, 1999). "Rubin Resigning as Treasury Secretary". The New York Times. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  29. ^ Goozner, Merrill (May 13, 1999). "Rubin Turns Over The Reins". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  30. ^ Pearlstein, Steven; Chandler, Clay (May 4, 1997). "Winners and Losers In a Balanced Budget". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  31. ^ Crutsinger, Martin (May 13, 1999). "Treasury Secretary Rubin Plans To Step Down In July". The Associated Press. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  32. ^ "Robert Rubin". CNN. 1997. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  33. ^ a b Goodman, Peter S. (October 8, 2008). "Taking Hard New Look at a Greenspan Legacy". The New York Times.
  34. ^ Kuttner, Robert (July 13, 2020). "Falling Upward: The Surprising Survival of Larry Summers". The American Prospect. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  35. ^ "The Warning". Frontline. WGBH Educational Foundation. October 20, 2009. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
  36. ^ Rubin, Robert (2003). In An Uncertain World. pp. 287–288. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50585-0.
  37. ^ a b Schwartz, Nelson D.; Dash, Eric (April 27, 2008). "Where Was the Wise Man?". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  38. ^ Froomkin, Dan (June 20, 2010). "Rubin: I Actually Supported Regulating Derivatives". HuffPost. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  39. ^ Zumbrun, Joshua (April 19, 2010). "Clinton Calls Advice He Got on Derivatives 'Wrong' (Update1)". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on April 16, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
  40. ^ Harris, Evan (April 17, 2010). "Clinton: I Was Wrong to Listen to Wrong Advice Against Regulating Derivatives*". ABC News. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
  41. ^ "Robert Rubin, the man Wall Street trusts". BBC News. May 12, 1999. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  42. ^ a b Walsh, Kenneth T. (February 24, 1997). "Treasury's New Age liberal". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  43. ^ Wessel, David (March 28, 1997). "Treasury Chief Robert Rubin Cultivates an Atypical Image". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  44. ^ Chandler, Clay (January 11, 1995). "Rubin Wins Senate's Approval". Washington Post. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  45. ^ PBS, "The Wall Street: The Long Demise of Glass-Steagall", May 8, 2003.
  46. ^ Kahn, Joseph (October 27, 1999). "Former Treasury Secretary Joins Leadership Triangle at Citigroup". The New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  47. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "William J. Clinton: "Statement on Signing the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act," November 12, 1999". The American Presidency Project. University of California – Santa Barbara. Archived from the original on February 7, 2016.
  48. ^ "Rubin's Next Big Challenge". Chicago Tribune, September 20, 1999.
  49. ^ "Timeline: Rubin's career at Citigroup". Reuters. January 9, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  50. ^ a b Cohan, William D. (September 30, 2012). "Rethinking Robert Rubin". Bloomberg News. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  51. ^ C-SPAN Q&A with Janet Tavakoli. Air date: April 19, 2009, http://qanda.org/Transcript/?ProgramID=1228
  52. ^ Oppel Jr., Richard A. (January 3, 2003). "Senate Report Says Rubin Acted Legally in Enron Matter". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  53. ^ a b c Dash, Eric (November 7, 2007). "Robert Rubin, the new chairman at Citigroup, hits the ground running". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  54. ^ a b "No line responsibilities". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. December 3, 2008.
  55. ^ a b Stempel, Jonathan (August 30, 2012). "Citigroup settles shareholder CDO lawsuit for $590 million". Reuters. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  56. ^ Petruno, Tom (December 8, 2010). "U.S. turns a $12-billion profit on Citigroup bailout". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
  57. ^ Graybow, Martha (December 3, 2008). "Investors accuse Citi execs of 'suspicious' trades". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. The Financial Crises Inquiry Commission investigated Rubin's role at Citigroup and referred the case to the DOJ for possible indictment.[see Forbes magazine article supporting this fact.]
  58. ^ Guerrera, Francesco; Farrell, Greg; Brewster, Deborah (January 9, 2009). "Rubin quits as Citi looks to sell brokerage". Financial Times. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  59. ^ Stempel, Jonathan; Wilchins, Dan (January 9, 2009). "Robert Rubin quits Citigroup amid criticism". Reuters. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  60. ^ "Rethinking Bob Rubin From Goldman Sachs Star to Crisis Scapegoat" Bloomberg News
  61. ^ "Rubin '60 is newest Corporation member". Harvard Gazette. April 11, 2002. Retrieved February 2, 2008.
  62. ^ "Reischauer, Rubin leave Harvard Corporation, Rhodes Scholars, Nobelists". Harvard Magazine. January 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  63. ^ a b "Robert Rubin". The Washington Post. July 2, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  64. ^ Dodge, Catherine; Chen, Edwin (September 16, 2008). "Obama Turns to Rubin, McCain Taps Feldstein for Crisis Response". Bloomberg L.P.
  65. ^ [1]. Climate Prospectus. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
  66. ^ [2]. Risky Business Blog. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
  67. ^ "How Ignoring Climate Change Could Sink the U.S. Economy". The Washington Post. July 24, 2014. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  68. ^ "Staying in EU 'best hope' for UK's future say ex-US Treasury secretaries". BBC News. April 20, 2016.
  69. ^ "Board of Directors - Mrs. Judith O. Rubin". Center for Arts and Culture. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
  70. ^ Lee, John. "Schedule | Jewish Museum of Florida - FIU". jmof.fiu.edu. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
  71. ^ C-SPAN Q&A with Janet Tavakoli. Air date: April 19, 2009, http://qanda.org/Transcript/?ProgramID=1228
  72. ^ Williams, Zoe (February 22, 2018). "Skin in the Game by Nassim Nicholas Taleb review – how risk should be shared". The Guardian. Retrieved July 14, 2019.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Business positions
Preceded by Chair and Chief Executive Officer of Goldman Sachs
1990–1992
Succeeded by
Preceded by Chair of Citigroup
Acting

2007
Succeeded by
Political offices
New office Director of the National Economic Council
1993–1995
Succeeded by
Preceded by United States Secretary of the Treasury
1995–1999
Succeeded by
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded byas Former US Cabinet Member Order of precedence of the United States
as Former US Cabinet Member
Succeeded byas Former US Cabinet Member