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Robert Schmieder

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Robert William Schmieder
Born (1941-07-10) July 10, 1941 (age 82)
Phoenix, Arizona, United States
Alma materOccidental College, Caltech, Columbia
Known forNanoLogic, Underwater Islands
SpouseKathleen (Deal) Schmieder
AwardsSchmieder Bank, 4 named species, NAUI Environmental Award, Amateur Radio Hall of Fame
Scientific career
FieldsPhysical and Natural Science
InstitutionsSandia National Labs, Cordell Expeditions
Thesis (1968)

Robert William Schmieder (born July 10, 1941) is an American scientist and explorer. Schmieder has had a multidisciplinary career, broadly divided between physics and related physical sciences, and natural science and exploration. In most of his projects, he created and led teams of both professional scientists and volunteers. His work is documented in about 100 technical publications and 10 books. Among his most significant work was the invention of laser spark spectroscopy (now commercialized), the formulation of nanologic (the use of nanoscale devices in computers), and the concept of underwater islands (which led to designation of the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary).

Early life and education[edit]

Schmieder was born and grew up in Phoenix, Arizona, a member of a large family who were descendants of pioneers. His maternal grandmother migrated on horseback from Texas to the mining town of Superior, in the Arizona Territory. His father emigrated from Germany as a watchmaker and was later a businessman. As a child, Robert demonstrated an exceptional curiosity and interest in science, and decided on his career before the age of 12. In high school, he won several science awards, including the Westinghouse Science Talent Search and the Arizona State Science Fair. He was among the first in the United States to develop amateur rocketry, stimulated by events that led to the first Earth satellites in 1957.

Formal education[edit]

B.A. Physics, Occidental College, 1963
B.S. Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1963
M.A. Physics, Columbia University, 1965
Ph.D. Physics, Columbia University, 1968

Physical science[edit]

Atomic and nuclear physics[edit]

Schmieder's research career in physical science began while an undergraduate at Caltech, when he wrote his first technical papers.[1][2][3][4][5] While still an undergraduate, he worked at the CIT synchrotron laboratory, and he participated in the discovery of a new isotope (In106) using the Berkeley 60-inch cyclotron.[6] For his PhD thesis at Columbia University, under the direction of Allen Lurio and William Happer, he made a definitive series of measurements of the hyperfine structure constants and lifetimes of the free alkali atoms.[7][8][9] As a post-doc at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, under the guidance of Richard Marrus, he was the first to produce highly stripped atoms in a high-energy accelerator (the Berkeley HILAC) and to observe relativistic and multipole atomic transitions in those ions.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] This work led to the new field of "high-energy atomic physics." He also made significant contributions to instrumentation for X-ray spectroscopy, including the Doppler-tuned XRay spectrometer,[17][18][19] the electron ring accelerator as a spectroscopic source,[20][21][22] laser modulation of electron beams,[23] superconducting switches,[24] [25] and laser/microwave gas breakdown.[26][27]

Spectroscopy and chemical physics[edit]

In the early 1970s, he accepted a position at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. His first work at Sandia was the 1976 invention of laser spark spectroscopy,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] a technique that is now commercialized [see Supplemental references]. During the early 1980s, he was the first to record the UV fluorescence spectrum of acetylene,[37] the emission spectrum of pure tritium gas,[38] the use of tritium for radiolytic polymerization of hydrocarbons,[39][40] and the use of carbon-14 to track reaction pathways in carbon formation in flames.[41]

Plasma physics and collective dynamics[edit]

During the Strategic Defense Initiative period (mid-1980s), he led the effort to calculate the effects of clustering of X-ray lasers.[42] Following the SDI, he led a team that built two state-of-the-art electron beam ion sources (EBIS), obtaining highly charged ions up to Xe+46 in laboratory experiments and a design capability of U+90.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53] During the early 1990s, he was Principal Investigator of a team that developed an advanced model and simulation code for the plasma color video display, part of a national initiative that produced the current flat-panel display.[54][55] He also developed a new model of collective dynamics of minimally cognitive populations, and applied it to various dynamical systems, including biological populations and artificial life.[56][57][58][59]


During the mid-1990s, Schmieder's interest turned to nanotechnology. In a collaboration with Robert Bastasz, he was the first to observe Coulomb explosion on a solid surface,[60] from which they developed a new process using high charge state ions for fabricating nanoelectronic devices,[61][62] and recognized the potential of such systems to high-density computing and information technology.[63][64] Schmieder's key insight following that work was that nanoscale devices are intrinsically hybrid analog/digital, and therefore the optimum architecture and data structures for data processing arrays also should be hybrid A/D. He named this new technology "nanologic." In 1997, he left Sandia to found a startup company NanoLogic, Inc., but after an initial round of funding, the market collapse of 2000 made it impossible to obtain further funding and the company became inactive.[65]

Current research[edit]

Schmieder continues research into nanologic as a new paradigm for machine-assisted problem solving. In particular, he develops the rigorous mathematical basis of applications of nanologic, and performs experiments with systems to demonstrate the principles of the technology. He emphasizes that a nanologic machine is not a computer in the sense of performing computations, but a machine for abstracting the meaning from incomplete or imperfect information and making "intelligent" conclusions or predictions. In this sense, nanologic is closer to human cognition and analysis than to computation.

During his years at Berkeley, he worked with Albert Ghiorso, the discoverer of 12 transuranic chemical elements. He is currently (2013) writing a scientific biography: Element: The Amazing Life and Work of Albert Ghiorso.

Natural science[edit]


Dr. Schmieder's work in natural science and exploration began in the mid-1970s, when he began to organize and lead a series of scientific expeditions to extremely remote oceanic locations. To formalize the work, he established a nonprofit organization, Cordell Expeditions. Throughout these projects, he coordinated the work of a large number of specialists and volunteers, ensuring the scientific viability of extensive collections of specimens and observational data. The work led to many discoveries in geography, geology and marine biology, including numerous new species named to honor the expeditions and personnel (Armina cordellensis, Codium schmiederi, Erylus schmiederi, Halcelia bozanici, Homalopoma cordellensis, Megalomphalus schmiederi, Ophioderma vansyoci, Paratimea alijosensis, Pharia pyramidata schmiederi, Thor cordelli). Cumulatively, Cordell Expeditions is responsible for the field work leading more than 1000 new species, new genera, first recorded observations, and range/depth extensions.[66]

Cordell Bank[edit]

Schmieder's first, and most extensive, field project was the exploration of Cordell Bank, a rocky bank west of Pt. Reyes, California. Over nearly 10 years (1977–86), he and his group explored and described the bank.[67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85] As a result of this work, the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary was designated in 1989 by an Act of Congress, signed by Pres. George H. W. Bush.[86][87] draft environmental impact statement and management plan for the proposed Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Marine and Estuarine Management Division, Office of Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean Service, NOAA, May, 1987.[88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97] In the course of this project, Schmieder published papers on the geological structure of the bank,[98] morphology and speciation of a resident gastropod,[99][100] local history,[101] and the impact of human activities on the biological community.[102][103][104][105][106][107] culminating with the definitive case study Ecology of an Underwater Island.[108] A second monograph, Edward Cordell and the Discovery of Cordell Bank, is completed but not yet published.[109] The Oakland (CA) Museum has a permanent exhibit on Cordell Bank, displaying and honoring the work of Cordell Expeditions.

Schmieder Bank[edit]

During 1986–87, Schmieder's team carried out a series of explorations of an unnamed bank off Pt. Sur, south of Monterey, California, resulting in the discovery of previously unknown topographic features and the largest known colonies of the California hydrocoral.[110] This work resulted in the inclusion of sensitive areas within the proposed Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Following a recommendation by Dr. Sylvia Earle (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Dr. Paul Silva (UC Berkeley), and Dr. Melanie Stright (U.S. Minerals Management Service), it was named Schmieder Bank by the U. S. Board of Geographic Names.[111][112][113]

Other expeditions[edit]

North Farallon Island: In the late 1980s, his team explored the North Farallon Islands, resulting in the discovery of many new biological records and a previously unknown (natural) submarine tunnel. [114]

Rocas Alijos: In 1990 and again in 1993, Schmieder and a team of thirty carried out the first comprehensive scientific expeditions to Rocas Alijos, Baja California. The monograph Rocas Alijos, published in 1994 by Kluwer Academic Publishers, resulted from these expeditions. [115]

Guadalupe Island: This was a radio expedition done in 1993 in conjunction with the Rocas Alijos project.

Roqueta Island: A radio expedition done in 1994. [116]

Peter I Island: In 1994 he participated in an expedition to Peter I Island, Antarctica, documented in his book 3YØPI. [117]

Easter Island: In 1995 he carried out a complex and ambitious expedition to Easter Island, during which the team examined the unexplored marine areas. This expedition was the first on record to have a real-time interactive website and e-mail direct to the remote site. It is documented in his book DX-Aku: Messages from the Easter Island Expedition. [118]

Heard Island: In 1997 he organized and led the extraordinary expedition to Heard Island, Antarctica, during which his team logged a world-record number of radio contacts (more than 80,000). His book, VKØIR: The Heard Island Expedition, describes the expedition. [119]

San Felix Island: In 2002 he was an organizing member of the expedition to San Felix Island, Chile, the first non-military group to visit the island. This expedition is documented in his book XRØX The 2002 Expedition to San Felix. [120]

Kure Atoll: In 2005 he was the Principal Organizer and Expedition Leader of the expedition to Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands. For this project, he developed an internet application (DXA), the first website for displaying data from the remote site in real time on a web browser. The website received more than 40 million hits during the expedition. [121]

Clipperton Island: Schmieder organized and led the March, 2013, expedition to Clipperton Island. The team of 29 made the first discovery of foraminifera on Clipperton and set a record for the number of radio contacts from there (113,601). This expedition and the 2005 expedition to Kure (above) are described in his book DXA. The Real-time Online Radio Log Server. [122]

Heard Island: In 2016, Schmieder carried out a second major research expedition to Heard Island.[123] The team made extensive observations of the volcano Big Ben, environmental changes due to climate change, and real-time communications using amateur radio. In 2023 he completed his book Heard Island: Two Centuries of Change, and More Coming. It is published by Springer, 900+ pages, 2023.

Pitcairn Island: In 2018 Schmieder and a colleague carried out an expedition to Pitcairn Island, for the purpose of studying foraminifera, microscopic single-celled organisms of importance in dating fossil sediments.

St. Paul Island: In 2019 Schmieder and a colleague carried out an expedition to St. Paul Island (Pribilofs), for the purpose of studying foraminifera.

Azores Islands: In 2022 Schmieder, his younger son, and two colleagues carried out two expeditions to the Azores, for the purpose of studying the recolonization of ocean floor that had been destroyed by lava flow from the 1956 eruption of the volcano at Caplinhos on Faial Island.

The Cordell Explorer[edit]

In 1986, Schmieder acquired and outfitted a research vessel, the Cordell Explorer, and used it in some of the research expeditions. In recent years, he has used the vessel principally for educational programs, taking more than 300 students each year on 1-day cruises to learn about the marine environment and techniques for monitoring and research.[124]

Books by Robert William Schmieder[edit]

  • Ecology of an Underwater Island (Cordell Expeditions, 1991)
  • 3YØPI Peter I Island 1994 DXpedition (Cordell Expeditions, 1994)
  • DX-Aku: Messages from the 1995 Easter Island Expedition (Cordell Expeditions, 1995)
  • Rocas Alijos: Scientific Results from the Cordell Expeditions (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996)
  • VKØIR Heard Island (Cordell Expeditions, 1997, printed by FunkAmateur)
  • XRØX: The 2002 Expedition to San Felix (Cordell Expeditions, 2003)
  • Great Adventures (Children's stories, private, 2010)
  • DXA: The Real-time Online Radio Log Server (Cordell Expeditions, 2013)
  • Harry: The Life of Harry Taylor Sherman Cordell Expeditions (2018)
  • Edward Cordell and the Discovery of Cordell Bank (Springer, 2019)
  • Heard Island: Two Centuries of Change, and More coming" (Springer, 2023)


Dr. Schmieder was born July 10, 1941, in Phoenix, Arizona. His father (Otto Schmieder) emigrated from Germany in the 1920s, and became a very successful businessman.[125] His mother (Ruby Harkey) was part of a pioneer family in the territory of Arizona.[126]

His brother (Carl Schmieder) was a distinguished businessman and aviator[127] before losing his life at age 60 in a private aircraft accident. He has three grown children (Robyn (Schmieder) Thelin, Russell Schmieder, and Randy Schmieder), and six grandchildren. He is married to Kathleen (Deal) Schmieder, a school teacher for 28 years and currently a businesswoman.

Schmieder has served in numerous professional service roles, including program committee, International Combustion Symposium, 1982, 1984, 1988; editor, Proc. Workshop Electron Beam Ion Sources, Cornell U., 1985; National Academy of Sciences Committee on Ion Storage Rings, 1986; editor, Defense Research Review, 1986–1992; NATO Summer Institute, Highly Ionized Atoms, Cargese, France, 1988; International Ion Source Conf. program committee, Berkeley, 1989. He was a beta tester for Maxis Software 1995. He was active in the Sierra Club, working on the Prop. 20 (Coastline Initiative). In 1986, he was elected a Fellow of the Explorers Club and served for several years as chairman of its Northern California Chapter.

He has traveled to all 7 continents and about 30 countries worldwide, including three Atlantic Ocean crossings by boat. His principal hobby is amateur radio; he holds Amateur Extra Class license KK6EK, and has been honored by Expedition of the Year (four times), Life Membership in the Central Arizona DX Association, and the American Radio Relay League Colvin Award (three times). In 2011, he was inducted into the Amateur Radio Hall of Fame.


  1. ^ An electromagnetic acceleration correction to the Debye relaxation time, R. W. Schmieder, Am. J. Phys. 31, 885 (1963).
  2. ^ Operator formulation of plane mirror systems, R. W. Schmieder, Appl. Opt. 6, 537 (1967).
  3. ^ Regions of viewability for a pair of intersecting semi-infinite plane mirrors, R. W. Schmieder, Appl. Opt. 6, 773 (1967).
  4. ^ Stokes algebra formalism, R. W. Schmieder, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 59, 297 (1969).
  5. ^ Matrix elements of the quadratic stark effect on atoms with hyperfine structure, R. W. Schmieder, Am. J. Phys. 40, 297 (1972).
  6. ^ H. Shugart and R. W. Schmieder, unpublished (1961).
  7. ^ Hyperfine structure and lifetimes of the 4 2P3/2and 5 2P3/2 States of K39, R. W. Schmieder, A. Lurio, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. 173, 76 (1968).
  8. ^ Level-crossing measurements of the lifetimes and hyperfine constants of the 2P3/2 states of the stable alkali atoms, R. W. Schmieder, A. Lurio, W. Happer, and A. Khadjavi, Phys. Rev. A2, 1216 (1970).
  9. ^ Quadratic stark effect in the 2P3/2 states of the alkali atoms, R. W. Schmieder, A. Lurio, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A3, 1209 (1970).
  10. ^ Observation of the magnetic dipole decay of the 2 3S1 state of heliumlike Si XIII, S XV, and Ar XVII, R. Marrus and R. W. Schmieder, Phys. Lett. 32A, 431 (1970).
  11. ^ Relativistic magnetic dipole emission: Lifetime of the 1s 2s 3S1 state of heliumlike argon, R. W. Schmieder and R. Marrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1245 (1970).
  12. ^ Observation of the magnetic quadrupole decay 2 3P2—-> 1 1S0 of heliumlike argon XVII and lifetime of the 2 3P2 state, R. Marrus and R. W. Schmieder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1692 (1970).
  13. ^ Two-photon decay and lifetime of the 2 2S1/2 State of hydrogenlike argon, R. W. Schmieder and R. Marrus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1692 (1970).
  14. ^ Lifetime of the 2 3S1 state of heliumlike argon (Z=18) and heliumlike titanium (Z=22), H. Gould, R. Marrus, and R. W. Schmieder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 504 (1973).
  15. ^ Forbidden decays of hydrogenlike and heliumlike argon, R. Marrus and R. W. Schmieder, Phys. Rev. A5, 1160 (1972).
  16. ^ Double and triple photon decays of metastable 3P0 atomic states, R. W. Schmieder, Phys. Rev. A7, 1458 (1973).
  17. ^ Large Diameter Rotating Lid Vacuum Chamber. R. W. Schmieder, Nucl. Inst. Meth. 102, 313 (1972).
  18. ^ Doppler-tuned Beam-foil Spectrometer. R. W. Schmieder and R. Marrus, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 110, 459 (1973).
  19. ^ Doppler-tuned Xray Spectrometer. R. W. Schmieder, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 687 (1974)
  20. ^ Characteristic Xrays from xenon ions trapped in an electron ring, R. W. Schmieder, Phys. Lett. 47A, 415 (1974).
  21. ^ The electron ring ion trap and spectroscopic instrumentation for basic studies related to the production of high charge state ions and the physics of highly ionized atoms, D. Keefe, L. J. Laslett, M. Michel, J. M. Peterson, and R. W. Schmieder, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Rept. ERAN-250 (1974).
  22. ^ The application of a relativistic electron ring as a containment device for highly stripped ions, J. M. Hauptman, L. J. Laslett, W. W. Chupp, D. Keefe, G. R. Lambertson, R. W. Schmieder, and A. Salop, First Int'l Conf. Plasma Science, Knoxville, TN (1974).
  23. ^ Interference effects in laser-modulated electron beams, R. W. Schmieder, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 516 (1972).
  24. ^ Superconducting particle detectors, R. W. Schmieder, Sandia National Laboratories Rept. SLL-73-0223 (1973).
  25. ^ Superconducting switches using radiation-induced quenching, R. W. Schmieder, IEEE Trans.MAG-11, 590 (1975).
  26. ^ Pressure dependence of gas breakdown by combined laser and microwave radiation, R. W. Schmieder, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 712 (1979).
  27. ^ Overlapping pulse technique for imaging space-time density contours in a gas, R. W. Schmieder, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1871 (1980)
  28. ^ Laser sparks: Focus on combustion, R. W. Schmieder, Sandia Technology 5, 1 (1979).
  29. ^ Striated filamentary sparks produced by a CO2 TEA laser, R. W. Schmieder, Opt. Lett. 4, 369 (1980).
  30. ^ Imaging a conserved scalar in gas mixing by means of a linear spark, R. W. Schmieder and A. R. Kerstein, Appl. Opt. 19, 4210 (1980).
  31. ^ Laser spark ignition and extinction of a methane/air diffusion flame, R. W. Schmieder, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3000 (1981).
  32. ^ Combustion applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, R. W. Schmieder, Proc. Conf. Electro-optics and Lasers, Anaheim, CA (1981).
  33. ^ Techniques and applications of laser spark spectroscopy, R. W. Schmieder, Proc. Conf. LASER82, New Orleans (1982).
  34. ^ Techniques for producing linear filamentary sparks, R. W. Schmieder, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 878 (1982).
  35. ^ Dependence of striation spacing in linear laser sparks on gas pressure and luminosity, R. W. Schmieder, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6096 (1982).
  36. ^ Diode array images of linear laser sparks, R. W. Schmieder, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6101 (1982).
  37. ^ Spectrum of acetylene fluorescence excited by single XUV photons, R. W. Schmieder, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2900 (1982).
  38. ^ Optical emission of tritium gas, R. W. Schmieder, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 72, 5943 (1982).
  39. ^ Agglomeration of polyacetylenic particulates and its relation to soot formation, R. W. Schmieder, 19th Int'l Symp. Comb., Haifa, Israel (1982), p. 1403.
  40. ^ Growth of cuprene particles, R. W. Schmieder, Rad. Res. 99, 20 (1984).
  41. ^ Radiotracer studies of soot formation in diffusion flames, R. W. Schmieder, 20th Int'l Symp. Comb. (Ann Arbor, MI), p. 1025.
  42. ^ Sandia National Laboratories Report [classified].
  43. ^ Measurement of instabilities and ion heating in an electron beam ion source, M. A. Levine, R. E. Marrs, and R. W. Schmieder, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A237, 429 (1985).
  44. ^ Proc. Third International EBIS Workshop, V. O. Kostroun and R. W. Schmieder, Eds., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, (1985).
  45. ^ Distributions of ions in axisymmetric traps, R. W. Schmieder, Proc. Workshop Appl. Sources of High Charge State Ions, Argonne (1986).
  46. ^ Exact classical model of distributions of ions in collisionally evolving axisymmetric traps, R. W. Schmieder, Physica Scripta T22, 312 (1988).
  47. ^ Heating and cooling of ions in the EBIS: Monte Carlo Calculations, R. W. Schmieder and C. L. Bisson, Int'l Symp. EBIS and Applic., Brookhaven (1988).
  48. ^ Enhanced secondary ion yield from high charge state ions incident on a metal surface, R. W. Schmieder and R. J. Bastasz, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B43, 318 (1989).
  49. ^ Physics of the EBIS and its ions, R. W. Schmieder, chapter in: Physics of Highly Ionized Atoms, R. Marrus, Ed., (Plenum, 1989).
  50. ^ Enhanced performance of the LBL/SNLL Leaky EBIS: Evidence for cooling of trapped heavy ions, R. W. Schmieder and C. L. Bisson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 256 (1990).
  51. ^ Sandia Super-EBIS, R. W. Schmieder, C. L. Bisson, S. Haney, N. Toly, A. R. Van Hook, and J. Weeks, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 259 (1990).
  52. ^ Quightness: A proposed figure-of-merit for sources of low-energy, high-charge-state ions, R. W. Schmieder, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1101 (1990).
  53. ^ Ion optical and beam energy properties of the electron beam ion source, R. W. Schmieder, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1104 (1990).
  54. ^ Particle simulation of a narrow-gap symmetric Malter diode, R. W. Schmieder, R. T. McGrath, and R. T. Campbell, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 37(9), 16–20 March 1992.
  55. ^ Color plasma display panel. During 1991–93, R. W. Schmieder was PI for a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with DOE, to develop models and software for simulating the behavior of flat color video display panels. Sandia National Laboratory Reports [list omitted].
  56. ^ Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices, R. W. Schmieder, Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND8527 (1995).
  57. ^ Metastable states and intermittent switching of small populations of confined point vortices, R. W. Schmieder, Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND95-8488 (1995).
  58. ^ Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part I: Introducing Knowledge Into the Dynamics, R. W. Schmieder, Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND8505 (1995).
  59. ^ Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part II: Dynamics of time-dependent knowledge, R. W. Schmieder, Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND8489 (1995).
  60. ^ Surface damage by low energy, highly charged ions, R. W. Schmieder and R. J. Bastasz, Proc. Conf. High Charge State Ions, June 1992, Kansas State Univ., AIP Conf. Proc. (1993).
  61. ^ Nanometer-size surface features produced by single, low energy, highly charged ions, D. C. Parks, R. Bastasz, R. W. Schmieder, and M. Stockli, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B13(3), 941 (1995).
  62. ^ Non-kinetic damage on insulating materials by highly charged ion bombardment, D. C. Parks, M. P. Stockli, E. W. Bell, L. P. Ratcliff, R. W. Schmieder, F. G. Serpa, and J. D. Gillaspy, J. Vac Sci. Tech. (1997).
  63. ^ Passive micromechanical tags, R. W. Schmieder and R. J. Bastasz, Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND95-8206 (1995).
  64. ^ Potential technological applications of high charge state ions, R. W. Schmieder and R. J. Bastasz, Proc. Conf. High Charge State Ions, June 1992, Kansas State Univ., AIP Conf. Proc. (1993).
  65. ^ "NanoLogic". NanoLogic. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  66. ^ "Home". cordell.org.
  67. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1978. Preliminary Report: 1978 Cordell Bank Expedition. CE Publ., 61 pp.
  68. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1979. Final Report: 1978 Cordell Bank Expedition. CE Publ., 92 pp.
  69. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1980. Preliminary Report: 1979 Cordell Bank Expedition. CE Publ., 54 pp.
  70. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1980. Final Report: 1979 Cordell Bank Expedition. CE Publ., 53 pp.
  71. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1981. Preliminary Report: 1980 Cordell Bank Expedition. CE Publ., 163 pp.
  72. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1983. Final Report: 1980 Cordell Bank Expeditions. CE Publ., 86 pp.
  73. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1984. Preliminary Report: 1983 Cordell Bank Expedition. Report prepared for NOAA/SPD, 62 pp.
  74. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1982. A preliminary summary of knowledge of Cordell Bank, California. Report prepared for NOAA/SPD, 53 pp.
  75. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1985. Preliminary Report: 1984 Cordell Bank Expedition. Report prepared for NOAA/SPD, 70 pp.
  76. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1986. Preliminary Report: 1985 Cordell Bank Expeditions. Report prepared for NOAA/SPD. 126 pp.
  77. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1985. List of species observed at Cordell Bank, California. Report prepared for NOAA/SPD, 43 pp.
  78. ^ Chadwick, N. E. 1987. Interspecific aggressive behavior of the Corallimorpharian Corynactis californica (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Effects on sympatric corals and sea anemones. Biol. Bull. 173:110–125.
  79. ^ Lee, W. L. 1987. Guitarra abbotti and G. isabella, New Sponges from the Eastern Pacific. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 100(3) :465–479.
  80. ^ Lee, W. L. 2001. Four new species of Forcepia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Coelosphaeridae) from California, and synonymy of Wilsa de Laubenfels, 1930, with Forcepia, Carter, 1874, Scientific Publications of the California Academy of Sciences 52:18.
  81. ^ McLean, J. H. 1985. Two New Northeastern Pacific Gastropods of the Families Lepetidae and Seguenziidae. Veliger 27(3):344–346.
  82. ^ Menduno, M. 1989. Cordell Expedition: Pt. Sur's U/W Island. Discover Diving 7(1):21–29.
  83. ^ Newman, W. R. and McConnaughey, R. R. 1987. A tropical eastern pacific barnacle, Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin) in Southern California, following El Nino 1982–83. Pac. Sci. 41(1–4):31–36.
  84. ^ Robinson, R. 1985. Cordell Bank: An underwater island. Sea Frontiers 31(3):132–139.
  85. ^ Webber, M. A. and Cooper, S. M. 1983. Autumn sightings of marine mammals and birds near Cordell Bank, California. 1981–82. CE publ., 44 pp.
  86. ^ Placement of Cordell Bank, Calif., on the marine sanctuary list of recommended areas, Federal Register. 1981. 46(168):43731, Aug. 31.
  87. ^ Announcement of Cordell Bank as an active candidate for national marine sanctuary designation, Federal Register. 1983. 48(127):30178-30180, Jun. 30.
  88. ^ Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Regulations. Federal Register. 1987. 52(167):32563-32568, Aug. 28.
  89. ^ Environmental Impact Statements. Availability. EIS No. 870294, Draft NOAA, PAC, CA, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Designation and Management Plan, Pacific Continental Shelf, Federal Register. 1987. 52(167):32601, Aug. 28.
  90. ^ Public hearings on the draft environmental impact statement/plan for the proposed Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Federal Register. 1987. 52(177):34698, Sept. 14.
  91. ^ Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oceanography and the Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment, House of Representatives, 100th Congress, Second Session, on H.R. 4208, Congressional Record. 1988. Serial No. 100-58, Apr. 19.
  92. ^ National Marine Sanctuaries Program Authorization Act of 1988. [Includes legislative mandate to designate the CBNMS by Dec. 31, 1988.1], Congressional Record. 1988. pp. H-5815-5825, July 26.
  93. ^ Findings Regarding the issuance of a Notice of Designation for the proposed Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, CA, Federal Register. 1988. 53(251):53049-53050, Dec. 30.
  94. ^ Solicitation of comments on National Marine Sanctuary Permit Application, Federal Register. 1989. 54(38):8373, Feb. 28.
  95. ^ Final Environmental Impact Statement and Management Plan for the Proposed Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, National Ocean Service, NOAA, April, 1989.
  96. ^ Joint Resolution to approve the designation of the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Congressional Record. 1989. Senate Joint Resolution 139, p. S5718, May 18.
  97. ^ Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Notice of National Marine Sanctuary designation; final rule; and summary of final management plan. Federal Register. 1989. 54(99):22417-22425, May 24.
  98. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1987. Terraces, tilting, and topography of Cordell Bank, California. California Geology 40(11):258–264.
  99. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1980. Intermediate forms and range extension of Pedicularia californica and Pedicularia ovuliformis, Veliger, 22(4):382–384.
  100. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1982. Shape irregularity in Pedicularia californica, Veliger 24(3):272.
  101. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1980. A Lighthouse (Pt. Reyes) 'Way Down There? Pt. Reyes Historian, Summer, pp. 508–509.
  102. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1984. Cordell Bank: marine sanctuary candidate rises from obscurity. Oceans Magazine 17(4):22–25.
  103. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1985. Cordell Bank Expeditions 1978–79. Nat. Geog. Soc. Res. Repts. 20:603–611.
  104. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1985. The expeditions to Cordell Bank. Proc. Joint International Scientific Diving Symposium, Amer. Acad. Underwater Sciences, Scripps Inst. Oceanography, La Jolla, CA. 31 Oct.-2 Nov. 1985. pp. 248–255.
  105. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1987. A Fishing Disaster at Cordell Bank? Cormorant (Oceanic Society) Feb/Mar.
  106. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1988. Cordell Bank: An oceanic marvel. Defenders 63(3):24–29.
  107. ^ Schmieder, R. W. 1989. Cordell Bank Marine Sanctuary: Exploitation or full protection? Bodega Bay Signal, Mar. 1, 8, 1989.
  108. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see bibliography: Ecology of an Underwater Island.
  109. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see bibliography: Edward Cordell and the Discovery of Cordell Bank.
  110. ^ R. W. Schmieder, The 1988 Expeditions to Pt. Sur. Summary of Results, CE Publication CE-89-04 (1989).
  111. ^ Schmieder Bank.
  112. ^ "Schmieder Bank, Undersea Features – Geographical Names, map, geographic coordinates". Geographic.org. 1993-11-16. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  113. ^ "Schmieder Bank, , Earth". Geody. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  114. ^ R. W. Schmieder, private communication.
  115. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see Books: Rocas Alijos.
  116. ^ R. W. Schmieder, private communication.
  117. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see Books: 3YØPI.
  118. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see Books: DX-Aku.
  119. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see Books: VKØIR.
  120. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see Books: XRØX.
  121. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see Books: DXA.
  122. ^ R. W. Schmieder, see Books: DXA.
  123. ^ "The 2015 Cordell Expedition". Heard Island. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  124. ^ "Welcome To Cordell Expeditions". Cordell.org. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  125. ^ Ruby Harkey Schmieder, The Clock Doctor, Private publication, 1989.
  126. ^ Ruby Harkey Schmieder, Sulphur Smoke, Private publication, 1983.
  127. ^ Carl Schmieder, The scientific art of formation flying by military type aircraft, Private publication, 1996.

Supplemental references[edit]

  • Radziemski, Leon J.; Cremers, David A. (2006). Handbook of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. New York: John Wiley. ISBN 0-470-09299-8.
  • Schechter, Israel; Miziolek, Andrzej W.; Vincenzo Palleschi (2006). Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. (LIBS): Fundamentals and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85274-9.
  • Andrzej W. Miziolek, Vincenzo Palleschi, Israel Schechter (2006). Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85274-9.
  • Noll, Reinhard (2012). Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-642-20667-0.