Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry
Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry PC (Ire) (27 September 1739 – 6 April 1821), was an Irish politician and landowner, the father of politician Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh. He was also an ancestor of Winston Churchill.
Early life in Dublin
As the second son he expected to take up the linen trading business in Dublin. He did so, and it is for this reason that his first son was born in Dublin. His offices traded with many Baltic cities, including Saint Petersburg, Reval, and Memel. At the death of his older brother he moved to Ulster to be closer to his father and look after the family properties in Donegal, Londonderry and Down.
Irish House of Commons 1771–1783 as representative for Co. Down
In 1779, worried at the presence of American and French vessels in the Irish sea, he organised the Newtownards Company of 115 men. When he lost his seat in 1783 he was appointed to the Irish Privy Council. In the same year he also inherited his father's properties in Co. Londonderry and Co. Down and settled at Mount Stewart, in the grounds of which he built the Temple of the Winds. He married twice. His first wife was Lady Sarah Frances Seymour-Conway (27 September 1747 – 20 July 1770). On 7 June 1775, he married Frances, daughter of Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden.
Irish House of Lords
In 1789 he was created Baron Londonderry in the Peerage of Ireland. The following year he took his son (the future Viscount Castlereagh) out of Cambridge University and had him run for the seat of County Down in the Parliament in Dublin, which he won. In 1795 he became Viscount Castlereagh. The following year he was elevated to Earl of Londonderry. His second son at this point also gained a seat in the Dublin Parliament.
Act of Union 1800
Robert Stewart and his two sons favoured the Act of Union and fought to have it presented once more after it had been turned down in 1799.
Irish representative peer and British House of Lords
As a result of the vote Londonderry obtained a seat in the House of Lords in London, which he never took up. In 1816 he was created Marquess of Londonderry, again in the Peerage of Ireland. From 1801 until his death he was also an Irish representative peer.
|Parliament of Ireland|
|Member of Parliament for Down
With: Roger Hall 1771–1776
Arthur Hill, Viscount Kilwarlin 1776–1783
Arthur Hill, Viscount Kilwarlin
Hon. Edward Ward
|Peerage of Ireland|
|New creation||Marquess of Londonderry
|Earl of Londonderry