Robert Summers (June 22, 1922 – April 17, 2012) was an economist and professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught from 1960. A widely cited early work by Summers is on the small-sample statistical properties of alternate regression estimators where analytical measures are unavailable.
Summers received his Ph.D. from Stanford University.
Summers was part of a team at Penn that developed estimates of national income and output across countries which adjust GDP and components for purchasing power parity in the cost of goods and services among different countries, later termed the Penn World Table. This yielded large, systematic differences from the common method of using only international exchange rates to convert national products to a common currency. For that work, Summers and Alan Heston were recognized as American Economic Association Distinguished Fellows for 1998.
Summers was married to Anita Summers. They are the parents of Lawrence Summers. His brother is Paul Samuelson. (Their deceased older brother Harold, a lawyer, changed his name to Summers in his youth, and Robert did the same.) All three of these people[clarification needed] were also noted economists, as is his wife's brother Kenneth Arrow.
- Lin, Jennifer (18 April 2012). "Robert Summers, 89, Penn economics professor". Philly.com. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Summers, Robert. "Death Index". Genealogy bank. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Summers, Robert (1965). "A Capital Intensive Approach to the Small Sample Properties of Various Simultaneous Equation Estimators". Econometrica. 33 (1): 1–41. JSTOR 1911887.
- Irving B. Kravis, Alan W. Heston, and Robert Summers (1978). "Real GDP Per Capita for More Than One Hundred Countries," Economic Journal, 88(350), p p. 215-242.
- Robert Summers and Alan Heston (1991). "The Penn World Table (Mark 5): An Expanded Set of International Comparisons, 1950-1988," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(2), p p. 327-368.
- Richard Bradley. Harvard Rules: The Struggle for the Soul of the World's Most Powerful University. p. 4
- "Robert Summers: American Economics Association Distinguished Fellow Citation, 1998"
- Mark Blaug and Howard R. Vane (2003). Who's Who in Economics, pp. 811–812.
- "Robert Summers". EconPapers.