Sir Robert Torrens
|3rd Premier of South Australia|
1 September 1857 – 30 September 1857
|Governor||Sir Richard MacDonnell|
|Preceded by||John Baker|
|Succeeded by||Richard Hanson|
|Born||1 July 1814|
Cork, Co. Cork, Ireland, UK
|Died||31 August 1884 (aged 70)|
Falmouth, Cornwall, England, UK
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Dublin|
Sir Robert Richard Torrens, GCMG (1 July 1814 – 31 August 1884) was an Irish-born parliamentarian, writer, and reformist. He was prominent in the early years of the Colony of South Australia, initially as a civil servant and then as a political officeholder. He was Colonial Treasurer from 1852 to 1857 and then Premier of South Australia for a single month in September 1857. Torrens is chiefly remembered as the originator of the Torrens title, a system of land registration. He secured its implementation in South Australia in 1858, and subsequently advocated for its adoption in other jurisdictions. He eventually moved to England and served in the British House of Commons from 1868 to 1874.
Torrens was born at Cork, Ireland, in 1814. His father, Colonel Robert Torrens, F.R.S., the distinguished economist, was one of the founders of South Australia. Sir Robert Torrens was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated M.A. In 1839 he married Barbara, widow of Augustus George Anson, née Park, and the following year left for South Australia, arriving on the Brightman in December 1840. In February 1841 he was collector of customs at Adelaide, and it is probable that he had received this position directly as he arrived. In the enlarged Legislative Council elected in July 1851, Torrens was one of the four official nominees nominated by the governor. When "responsible government" commenced in October 1856, Torrens became Treasurer of South Australia in the ministry of Finniss. He was elected as one of the members of the House of Assembly for the City of Adelaide in the new parliament, and on 1 September 1857 became premier, but his government lasted only a month.
Real Property Act 1858
In December 1857 he championed the Real Property Act of 1858 (for the transfer of real property) through the assembly, and the system became known as the Torrens title. The system transferred property by registration of title, instead of by deeds, and it has since been widely adopted throughout the world. Attempts have been made to minimise the credit due to Torrens for his great achievement, and it has been asserted that Anthony Forster, then editor of the Adelaide Register, made the original suggestion. In the preface to his book, The South Australian System of Conveyancing by Registration of Title, published at Adelaide in 1859, Torrens stated that his interest in the question had been aroused 22 years before through the misfortunes of a relation and friend, and that he had been working on the problem for many years. Whoever first suggested the present method, which may have owed something to a report presented to the British House of Commons on 15 May 1857, it was Torrens and a German lawyer Dr. Ulrich Hübbe (with a knowledge of the real property laws of the Hanse Towns), who put it into practical shape, and with support of Carl Muecke and the influential German community fought it through parliament in spite of violent opposition from the legal profession. He later visited Victoria and assisted in bringing in the new system in that colony.
In 1863 he left Australia and settled in England. He became the member of the House of Commons as a liberal for Cambridge from 1868 to 1874. He was created KCMG in 1872 and GCMG in 1884. He died on 31 August 1884 aged 70. In addition to the volume already mentioned, he published Speeches by R. R. Torrens (1858), A Handy Book on the Real Property Act of South Australia (1862), Transportation Considered as a Punishment and as a Mode of Founding Colonies (1863), and An Essay on the Transfer of Land by Registration (1882).
The River Torrens which runs through Adelaide, Torrens Bridge railway station, Torrens Linear Park, Torrens Parade Ground, Mount Torrens, Lake Torrens (and Lake Torrens National Park), and Torrens Island, were named after his father, Colonel Robert Torrens, chairman of the South Australian colonial commissioners.
Places named after Sir Robert include the Canberra suburb of Torrens, Australian Capital Territory gazetted in 1966, the Electoral district of Torrens, the Adelaide suburbs of Torrensville, Torrens Park (and Torrens Park railway station) and Torrens Building on Victoria Square, Adelaide (and Torrens University Australia). He is honoured outside Australia in the street of Torrens Terrace, in Wellington, New Zealand.
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (September 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- "Sir Robert Torrens". Parliament of South Australia.
- "The Week". South Australian Weekly Chronicle. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 20 March 1886. p. 11. Retrieved 15 April 2015. This ref agrees with date of 13 December 1840 given in Barry Leadbeater's South Australian Passenger Lists.
- Letter to the Editor The Advertiser 8 February 1932 p.10 accessed 3 March 2011
- Torrens System – Who Was Its Author The Advertiser 17 February 1932 p.16 accessed 3 March 2011
- "Death of Dr. Carl Muecke". South Australian Register. LXIII, (15, 958). South Australia. 5 January 1898. p. 7. Retrieved 12 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- PlaceNames Online – South Australian State Gazetteer Archived 17 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine Site is a searchable database. Accessed 3 April 2012.
- Irvine-Smith, F. L. (1948):The Streets of my city, Wellington New Zealand Archived 16 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Wellington City Library. Accessed 1 March 2013.
- Serle, Percival (1949). "Torrens, Robert". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
- Douglas J. Whalan, "Torrens, Sir Robert Richard (1814–1884)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 6, Melbourne University Press, 1976, pp 292–293.
- Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. .
- Howell, P. A. "Torrens, Sir Robert Richard Chute (1812-1884)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27566. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Mennell, Philip (1892). " Torrens, Hon. Sir Robert Richard". The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co. Wikisource
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
|Parliament of South Australia|
| Member of the South Australian Legislative Council
Served alongside: Multiple Members
|New district|| Member of Parliament for City of Adelaide
Served alongside: Richard Hanson, Francis Dutton, Boyle Finniss, John Neales, William Burford
| Treasurer of South Australia
| Premier of South Australia
| Chief Secretary of South Australia
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
John Eldon Gorst
| Member of Parliament for Cambridge