Robert Were Fox the Younger
|Robert Were Fox the Younger|
|Born||26 April 1789|
|Died||25 July 1877|
|Fields||Mining, geology, geophysics|
|Known for||Geophysical measurements
Magnetic dip compass
Robert Were Fox FRS (26 April 1789 – 25 July 1877) was a British geologist, natural philosopher and inventor. He is known mainly for his work on the temperature of the earth and his construction of a compass to measure magnetic dip at sea.
Life and family
Robert Were Fox the Younger was born on 26 April 1789 at Falmouth, United Kingdom, the eldest son of Robert Were Fox (1754 – 1818) and his wife, Elizabeth Tregelles. He had nine siblings. The Fox family were members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and were descended from members who had long settled in Cornwall, although they were not related to George Fox who had introduced the community into the county.
In 1814, Fox the Younger married Maria Barclay (1785 – 1858), daughter of Robert and Rachel Barclay of Bury Hill, near Dorking, Surrey. Maria's sister, Lucy, married Fox's cousin, George Croker Fox (1784–1850).
Fox and Joel Lean were granted a patent in 1812 for their modifications of steam engines.
Fox's work was in what today would be referred to as geophysics. He was distinguished for his researches on the internal temperature of the earth, contributing papers to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, and being the first to prove that temperature definitely increases with depth (the geothermal gradient), his observations being conducted in Cornish mines from 1815 for a period of forty years. In 1829 he began a set of experiments on the artificial production of miniature metalliferous veins by means of the long-continued influence of electric currents, and his main results were published in 1836.
In 1834 Fox constructed an improved form of deflector dipping needle compass, or dip circle, for polar navigation. One was used by Sir James Clark Ross on his Antarctic expedition and used to discover the position of the South magnetic pole.
He was a key person in the development of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society and its promotion of scientific research and training. He was an active member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Robert Were Fox, his cousin, George Croker Fox (1784–1850) and brother, Alfred Fox, assembled excellent collections of minerals, which are now in the British Museum (Natural History), given by Arthur Russell.
Honours and activities
- The Society owns a collection of letters addressed to Fox and his family.
- Fox, Robert W. (1822). "On the Temperature of Mines". Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 2: 14–28. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- Fox, Robert W. (1827). "Some Further Observations on the Temperature of Mines". Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 3: 313–328. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- Fox, Robert Wear [sic] (1828). "Experiments Illustrative of the Influence of Voltaic Electricity on Copper Pyrites". The Annals of Electricity, Magnetism, and Chemistry (Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper) 3: 133–134. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- Fox, Robert Were (1828). "Some Observations of Metalliferous Veins, and their Electro-magnetic Properties". Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 3: 21–28. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- Fox, Robert Were (1830). "On the Electro-Magnetic Properties of Metalliferous Veins in the Mines of Cornwall". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 120: 399–414. doi:10.1098/rstl.1830.0027.
- Fox, Robert Were (1831). "On the Variable Intensity of Terrestrial Magnetism, and the Influence of the Aurora Borealis upon It". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 121: 199–207. doi:10.1098/rstl.1831.0012.
- Fox, Robert Were (1830–1837). "On Certain Irregularities in the Magnetic Needle, Produced by Partial Warmth, and the Relations Which Appear to Subsist between Terrestrial Magnetism and the Geological Structure and Thermo-Electrical Currents of the Earth". Abstracts of the Papers Printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 3: 123–125. doi:10.1098/rspl.1830.0066.
- Fox, Robert Were (1840). "Some Remarks on Electric Currents in Metalliferous Veins". The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (A. and C. Black) 28: 267–270. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- Fox, Robert Were (1846). "On Certain Pseudo-Morphous Crystals of Quartz". The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (A. and C. Black) 40: 115–120. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- Fox, Robert Were (1847). "Some Remarks on the High Temperatures in the United Mines". The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (A. and C. Black) 43: 99–102. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- Fox, Robert W. (1855). "On Sand-worn Granite near the Land's-End". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 11: 549–550. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1855.011.01-02.62. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- Fox, Robert W. (1858). "Report on the Temperature of Some Deep Mines in Cornwall". Report of the Twenty-Seventh Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (London: John Murray) 11: 96–101. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- A Catalogue of the Works of Robert Were Fox, F.R.S., with a Sketch of his Life (1878), by J. H. Collins, Truro, Lake & Lake.
Notes and references
- The main source for this article is ODNB entry: Denise Crook, ‘Fox, Robert Were (1789–1877)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 13 June 2006. The first edition of this text is available as an article on Wikisource: "Fox, Robert Were". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
- Fox and his father (1754-1818) had the same name. The father also merited an entry in ODNB: Philip Payton, ‘Fox, Robert Were (1754 – 1818)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 13 June 2006.
- “Barclay, Perkins & Co”, unsigned article in Westcott Local History Group Annual Report for 2004, pp.17 – 22. This article tells the history of the family of Robert Barclay (1751 – 1830), the Anchor Brewery, Southwark, which brought them wealth and their home, Bury Hill, Westcott, a village to the West of Dorking.
- Information on Bury Hill, Maria Fox's parental home.
- R. W. Fox was buried at the Quaker Burial Ground, Budock, along with his daughters, Anna Maria and Caroline, according to a Burial Plan at the Cornwall Record Office. However, no gravestones for them remain: the Burial Ground was vandalised in the 1970s and many gravestones broken.
- "Specifications of the patent granted to Robert Were Fox and Joel Lean". The Repertory of Arts and Manufactures, Arts, Manufactures and Agriculture 23: 200–204. 1813. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
- Sandra & George Pritchard's Fox Rosehill Garden website (accessed 9 December 2007). The Fox Rosehill Gardens and Penjerrick are now both open to the public.
- Fox, Robert Wear [sic] (1837). "Experiments Illustrative of the Influence of Voltaic Electricity on Copper Pyrites". The Annals of Electricity, Magnetism, and Chemistry (Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper) 1: 133–134. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- Denise Crook, ‘Fox, Robert Were (1789–1877)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 15 Nov 2007
- "Mining schools and Institutes". Cornish Mining World Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Mining History Site places Fox in his context.]
- Fox, Robert Were (1836). "Observations on Mineral Veins". Reports of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society (Printed by J. Trathan). Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- "Dipping Needle" in A New and Universal Dictionary of the Marine by William Falconer, improved and modernised by William Burney; T. Cadell & William Davey and John Murray, 1830: Pages 122, 123 and Plate IX, Figure 11, the dip of a needle is defined as
"a certain property which all needles possess when rubbed with a lodestone of inclining the north end below the level of the horizon: this property found to increase in going northward."
- Archives of Natural History
- Mineralogy references: Embery, P.G. and Symes, R.F. (1987) Minerals of Cornwall and Devon, British Museum (Natural History), ISBN Hardback 0-565-01046-8 Paperback 0-565-00989-3.
- Lists of Royal Society Fellows 1660-2007
- See this listing of archives
- Harrison, William Jerome (1889). "Fox, Robert Were". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography 20. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Bauer, Louis Agricola (1910). "Life and Work of Robert Were Fox, 1789–1877". Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity (University of Cincinnati) 15 (3): 207–208. Bibcode:1910TeMAE..15..207.. doi:10.1029/TE015i004p00207.
- Collins, John Henry (1878). A Catalogue of the Works of Robert Were Fox, F.R.S., with a Sketch of his Life. Truro: Lake & Lake.
- James, Frank A. J. L. (1993). The Correspondence of Michael Faraday II. Exeter: Institution of Electrical Engineers (Short Run Press Ltd.).
- Letter 1108 (page 518) is from Fox to Faraday in 1838, describing some of Fox's experiments.
- Image of R W Fox Dip circle at the Science Museum
- Description of the Fox dip circle - The Encyclopædia Britannica (1888). 9th edition, New York, volume 16, page 161.
- Biographical information - The Encyclopædia Britannica (1910). 11th edition, New York, volume 10, pages 767 – 768.
- Collins, J. H. (1871). A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon. Truro: Heard and Sons. Retrieved 2007-12-08. - Dedicated to Robert Were Fox the Younger
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fox, Robert Were". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.