|11th President of the World Bank Group|
July 1, 2007 – July 1, 2012
|Preceded by||Paul Wolfowitz|
|Succeeded by||Jim Yong Kim|
|United States Deputy Secretary of State|
February 23, 2005 – June 19, 2006
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Richard Armitage|
|Succeeded by||John Negroponte|
|13th United States Trade Representative|
February 7, 2001 – February 22, 2005
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Charlene Barshefsky|
|Succeeded by||Rob Portman|
|White House Deputy Chief of Staff|
August 23, 1992 – January 20, 1993
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Henson Moore|
|Succeeded by||Mark Gearan|
|Undersecretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs|
May 20, 1991 – August 23, 1992
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Dick McCormack|
|Succeeded by||Joan Spero|
|Counselor of the United States Department of State|
March 2, 1989 – August 23, 1992
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Max Kampelman|
|Succeeded by||Tim Wirth|
Robert Bruce Zoellick
July 25, 1953
Naperville, Illinois, U.S.
|Education||Swarthmore College (BA)|
Harvard University (JD, MPP)
Robert Bruce Zoellick (//; German: [ˈtsœlɪk]; born July 25, 1953) is an American public official and lawyer who was the eleventh president of the World Bank, a position he held from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2012. He was previously a managing director of Goldman Sachs, United States Deputy Secretary of State (resigning on July 7, 2006) and U.S. Trade Representative, from February 7, 2001 until February 22, 2005. Zoellick has been a senior fellow at Harvard's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs since ending his term with the World Bank. He is currently a Senior Counselor at Brunswick Group
Robert Bruce Zoellick was born in Naperville, Illinois, the son of Gladys (Lenz) and William T. Zoellick. His ancestors were German and he was raised Lutheran. He graduated in 1971 from Naperville Central High School, graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1975 from Swarthmore College as an Honors history major and received his J.D. from Harvard Law School magna cum laude and a Master of Public Policy degree from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government in 1981.
Judicial clerkship (1982–1983)
Upon graduation from Harvard Law School, Zoellick served as a law clerk for Judge Patricia Wald on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
Government service (1985–1992)
Zoellick served in various positions at the Department of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988. He held positions including Counselor to Secretary James Baker, Executive Secretary of the Department, and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Financial Institutions Policy.
During George H. W. Bush's presidency, Zoellick served with Baker, by then Secretary of State, as Under Secretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs, as well as Counselor to the Department (Under Secretary rank). Zoellick served as Bush's personal representative or "sherpa" for the G7 Economic Summits in 1991 and 1992. He led the US Delegation to the Two Plus Four talks on German reunification. For his achievements in this role, the Federal Republic of Germany awarded him in 1992 the Knight Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit.
Business, academia, and politics (1993–2001)
After leaving government service, Zoellick served from 1993 to 1997 as an Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Fannie Mae. Afterwards, Zoellick was John M. Olin Professor of National Security at the U.S. Naval Academy (1997–98); Research Scholar at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the John F. Kennedy School of Government; and Senior International Advisor to Goldman Sachs.
In the 2000 presidential election campaign, Zoellick served as a foreign policy advisor to George W. Bush as part of a group, led by Condoleezza Rice, which she termed The Vulcans, after her home town of Birmingham, Alabama. James Baker designated him as his second-in-command—"a sort of chief operating officer or chief of staff"—in the 36-day battle over recounting the vote in Florida.
U.S. Trade Representative (2001–2005)
Zoellick was named U.S. Trade Representative in Bush's first term; he was a member of the Executive Office, with cabinet rank. According to the U.S. Trade Representative website, Zoellick completed negotiations to bring China and Taiwan into the World Trade Organization (WTO); developed a strategy to launch new global trade negotiations at the WTO meeting in Doha, Qatar; shepherded Congressional action on the Jordan Free Trade Agreement and the Vietnam Trade Agreement; and worked with Congress to pass the Trade Act of 2002, which included new Trade Promotion Authority. He also heavily promoted the Central American Free Trade Agreement over the objections of labor, environmental, and human rights groups.
Zoellick played a key role in the U.S.-WTO dispute against the European Union over genetically modified foods. The move sought to require that the European Union comply with international obligations to use science-based methods in continuing its moratorium on the approval of new genetically modified crops within the E.U.
Deputy Secretary of State (2005–2006)
On January 7, 2005, Bush nominated Zoellick to be Deputy Secretary of State. Zoellick assumed the office on February 22, 2005. Zoellick agreed to serve as Deputy Secretary of State for not less than one year.
He was seen as a major architect of the Bush administration's policies regarding China. In an important speech September 21, 2005, Zoellick challenged China "to become a 'responsible stakeholder' in the international system, contributing more actively than in the past to help shore up the stability of the international system from which it ha[d] benefited so greatly." In his "thoughtful and influential speech...Zoellick correctly argued that China had benefited greatly from the security and prosperity created by a stable, rule-based international economic and political order. But China had contributed a disproportionally small amount to maintain that order. Zoellick recognized that one of the great challenges facing diplomats in the United States, Europe, and Japan was to persuade China to do more to contribute to the global commons."
In addition, Zoellick chartered a new direction in the Darfur peace process. He made four trips to Sudan during his time as Deputy Secretary. He supported expanding a United Nations force in the Darfur region to replace African Union soldiers. He was involved in negotiating a peace accord between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Army, signed in Abuja, Nigeria, in May 2006. Zoellick was seen by many as the administration's strongest voice on Darfur. His resignation catalyzed groups, such as the Genocide Intervention Network, to praise his record on human rights issues.
President of the World Bank (2007–2012)
On 1 July 2007, Zoellick officially took office as President of the World Bank.
In a major speech at the National Press Club in Washington on October 10, 2007, Zoellick formulated what he described as "six strategic themes in support of the goal of an inclusive and sustainable globalization" which he proposed should guide the future work of the World Bank:
First, the World Bank Group faces the challenge of helping to overcome poverty and spur sustainable growth in the poorest countries, especially in Africa...
Second, we need to address the special problems of states coming out of conflict or seeking to avoid the breakdown of the state...
Third, the World Bank Group needs a more differentiated business model for the middle income countries...
Fourth, the World Bank Group will need to play a more active role in fostering regional and global public goods that transcend national boundaries and benefit multiple countries and citizens...
Fifth, one of the most notable challenges of our time is how to support those seeking to advance development and opportunities in the Arab World...
Finally, while the World Bank Group has some of the attributes of a financial and development business, its calling is much broader. It is a unique and special institution of knowledge and learning. It collects and supplies valuable data. Yet this is not a university – rather it is a "brain trust" of applied experience that will help us to address the five other strategic themes.
During Zoellick's time at the World Bank, the institution's capital stock was expanded and lending volumes increased to help member countries deal with the global financial and economic crisis; assistance was stepped up to deal with the famine in the Horn of Africa; a major increase in resources was achieved for the institution's soft loan facility, the International Development Association (IDA), which lends to the poorest countries; and a reform was carried out to the World Bank's shareholding, Executive Board and voting structure, to increase the influence of developing and emerging economies in the World Bank's governance.
World Bank succession
On March 23, 2012, President Barack Obama announced that the United States would nominate Jim Yong Kim as the next president of the World Bank. On April 16, Kim was elected to head the World Bank; he took office on July 1.
Kim was selected over Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Minister of Finance of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The African Union Commission supported her candidacy. Another candidate, former Colombia Finance Minister Jose Antonio Ocampo dropped out of the race and fully backed the election of Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala. United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton was frequently mentioned as a possible successor to President Zoellick at the end of his term in mid-2012. Clinton expressly stated that she had no desire to hold further political office.
Senior Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School (2012–present)
After leaving the World Bank, Zoellick took up the position as a senior fellow at Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs on July 1, 2012. From September 2013 through 2016, he served as Chairman of International Advisors to Goldman Sachs.
Mitt Romney 2012 presidential campaign
During the 2012 United States presidential election, Zoellick was appointed to lead the national security portion of Republican candidate Mitt Romney's transition team should he be elected President of the United States. Zoellick was considered a "heavyweight with impressive government experience" who was likely to be part of any Romney administration "economic brain trust."
Anonymous sources supposedly affiliated with Romney's transition project claimed he hoped to be appointed as Romney's United States Secretary of State. This speculation was also fueled by Politico in August 2012, when it was reported that 'in diplomatic circles it is seen as very likely' that Zoellick "could get the top job" as Secretary of State in a potential Romney cabinet. However, other anonymous "former Romney advisers" stated to Foreign Policy that foreign policy transition team members would not necessarily receive certain jobs in Romney's potential administration. This speculation about Zoellick's possible role in a Romney administration was moot when Romney lost the election to incumbent Barack Obama.
Board memberships and honors
Zoellick has served as a board member for a number of private and public organizations, including Alliance Capital, Said Holdings, Rolls Royce, the Precursor Group, and Laureate International Universities. Since 2013, he has been a member of the board of directors of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, and since 2018 of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace <http://www.carnegieendowment.org/2018/03/02robert-b.-zoellick-to-join-carnegie-endowment-for-international-peace-board-of-trustees-pub-75679>> Previously, he was a member of the advisory board of AXA, of Viventures, a venture fund, and a director of the Aspen Institute's Strategy Group. He is also a member of Washington D.C. based think tank, The Inter-American Dialogue. He chairs the Global Tiger Initiative<https://www.uschina.org> and is a member of the Global Leadership Council of Mercy Corps, a global humanitarian agency.
As of 2 August 2013, Zoellick has been a board member of Temasek Holdings - Singapore's Sovereign Wealth Fund.
He has also served on the boards of the German Marshall Fund and the European Institute and on the World Wildlife Fund Advisory Council. He was a member of Secretary William Cohen's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
He is a recipient of the Distinguished Service Award, the Department of State's highest honor, the Alexander Hamilton Award of the Department of the Treasury, and the Medal for Distinguished Public Service of the Department of Defense.
In 1992, he received the Knight Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany for his eminent achievements in the course of German reunification. In 2002, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Saint Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Indiana. The Mexican and Chilean governments awarded him their highest honors for non-citizens, the Aztec Eagle and the Order of Merit, for recognition of his work on free trade, development, and the environment.
In 2016, he received the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Excellence in Diplomacy Award.
In 2017, he was a recipient of the Economic Club of Minnesota's Bill Frenzel Champion of Free Trade Award.<https://www.ecomn.org>
Served as non-executive Chairman of the Board of AllianceBernstein, May 2017-May 2019.
In March 2016, Zoellick signed an "open letter" in which GOP national security leaders outlined their reasons not to support a ticket headed by Donald Trump. In August, Zoellick signed a letter from fifty GOP national security officials calling Trump a national security risk. Zoellick was one of three Cabinet-level Republican officials to oppose Trump's candidacy.
Zoellick has written extensively on foreign policy and international economics. He is a proponent of free trade. In a September 2017 article, he urged Congress to assert its constitutional powers over trade before Trump's policies "unravel vital ties across the Asia-Pacific region, hurt an ally facing a security crisis, destroy a North American partnership ... and subvert confidence in the U.S. around the world." He is a frequent contributor to the Wall Street Journal<https://www.wsj.comJanuary 22,2020; March 19,2020; April 8,2020;May 19,2020> and the Financial Times. Zoellick is the author of America in the World<https://www.twelvebooks.com>
Gavan McCormack has written that Zoellick used his perch as U.S. trade representative to advocate for Wall Street's policy goals abroad, as during a 2004 intervention in a privatization issue in Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's re-election campaign. McCormack has written, "The office of the U.S. Trade Representative has played an active part in drafting the Japan Post privatization law. An October 2004 letter from Robert Zoellick to Japan's Finance Minister Takenaka Heizo, tabled in the Diet on August 2, 2005, included a handwritten note from Zoellick commending Takenaka. Challenged to explain this apparent U.S. government intervention in a domestic matter, Koizumi merely expressed his satisfaction that Takenaka had been befriended by such an important figure… It is hard to overestimate the scale of the opportunity offered to U.S. and global finance capital by the privatization of the Postal Savings System."
In a January 2000 Foreign Affairs <Vol. 79 No.1>essay entitled "Campaign 2000: A Republican Foreign Policy," he noted five Republican principles (respect for power, building and sustaining coalitions and alliances, recognizing common interests with international agreements and institutions, embracing new technologies for global politics and security, and the continuing presence of bad actors. "[T]here is still evil in the world—people who hate America and the ideas for which it stands. Today, we face enemies who are hard at work to develop nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, along with the missiles to deliver them. The United States must remain vigilant and have the strength to defeat its enemies. People driven by enmity or by a need to dominate will not respond to reason or goodwill. They will manipulate civilized rules for uncivilized ends." Much of the essay stresses the links between power and economics "The United States needs a strategic economic-negotiating agenda that combines regional agreements with the development of global rules for an open economy."<Foreign Affairs, Vol. 79 No.1 p.71>The same essay praises the idealism" of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.
In the lead-up to the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit and in the immediate wake of the U.S. elections and subsequent Fed QE2 monetary-policy move, Zoellick published a suggestion for increased awareness of the function of gold in international currency markets. This was misinterpreted by many economists as a call for the return of some form of gold standard in a post-Bretton Woods II world. Zoellick's response was to point out the misinterpretation: he did not advocate a return to the gold standard, but a new role for gold in currency markets as an alternative monetary asset, which he termed "reference point gold".
Zoellick signed the January 26, 1998 letter to President Bill Clinton from Project for a New American Century (PNAC) that noted the "inadequacy of relying on Saddam Hussein's cooperation" in refraining from the use of weapons of mass destruction and urged a strategy aimed at the removal of Saddam Hussein's regime from power in Iraq. The letter pressed President Clinton to employ a "full complement of diplomatic, political and military efforts."
- "Press Release Regarding the Selection of Mr. Robert B. Zoellick as President of the World Bank", World Bank Group, June 25, 2007, accessed June 26, 2007.
- Reuters (2006). Goldman says Zoellick to be vice chairman, intl. Retrieved June 20, 2006.
- Boston Globe. June 28, 2012. Missing or empty
- "Robert Zoellick". Brunswick.
- "Worldandnation: Mom dishes on Zoellick". Sptimes.com. 2007-05-31. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- "Gladys Lenz Zoellick (1923-2013) - Find A Grave..." www.findagrave.com.
- "Distinguished German-Americans". 2011.
- Becker, Elizabeth; Edmund L. Andrews (2003-02-08). "INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS; Performing a Free Trade Juggling Act, Offstage". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-23.
- St. Clair, Stacy (2001-01-12). "Bush's trade post pick got start in Naperville". Daily Herald. Retrieved 2010-01-23.: "Whenever he is in Chicago on business, he drives by his old school and Bethany Lutheran Church where his family worshipped...."
- Halcyon. Swarthmore College. 1975. pp. 24, 158.
- results.gov : Resources For The President's Team Archived 2004-08-26 at the Wayback Machine
- USTR.gov, "Biography of Ambassador Robert B. Zoellick". Archived from the original on January 13, 2005. Retrieved 2005-01-13.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), 30 September 2004
- Swarthmore College Halcyon Yearbook
- Zelikow, Philip (1995). Germany Unified and Europe Transformed. Harvard University Press.
- Zoellick, USTDRC.gov, archived from the original on 2004-08-13
- http://www.aspenstrategygroup.org. Missing or empty
- [cfr.org cfr.org] Check
|url=value (help). Missing or empty
- Harwood, John. "Zoellick Resigns From a Think Tank Amid Tension Over His Advice to Bush". The Wall Street Journal.
- Rice, Condoleezza (2011). No Higher Honor. Crown. pp. 4, 5.
- Jeffrey Toobin, Too Close to Call: The Thirty-Six-Day Battle to Decide the 2000 Election (New York: Random House, 2002), p. 95.
- Nikolas Kozloff, In Nicaragua, a Chavez Wave?, Canadian Dimension[permanent dead link]
- EC – Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products (DS291, 292, 293) (PDF), World Trade Organization
- President Nominates Ambassador Zoellick as Deputy Secretary of State, Archives.gov, 2005-01-07
- Christensen, Thomas (2015). The China Challenge. W.W.Norton & Company. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-393-08113-8.
- Times Online (2006). Zoellick quits State Department for Goldman. Retrieved June 20, 2006.
- Press release, Genocide Intervention Network, 2006-06-19
- "US nominates new World Bank chief". BBC News. May 30, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Zoellick, Robert B. - www.britannica.com". IPS. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- "An Inclusive & Sustainable Globalization" (Remarks by Robert B. Zoellick at the National Press Club). October 10, 2007. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
- "Development Committee: Communique" (PDF). April 25, 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- "Development Committee Communique" (PDF). September 24, 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- "IDA16 Replenishment". International Development Association.
- "IDA16 Replenishment" (PDF). International Development Association. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
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- Closing of Nominations for President of World Bank
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- "Open Letter on Donald Trump". 3 March 2016.
- Sanger, David (August 9, 2016). "50 from G.O.P. Declare Trump a Security Risk". The New York Times.
- Zakaria, Fareed (June 16, 2016). "To the Republicans who have been silent on Trump -- your honor is at stake". The Washington Post.
- Zoellick, Robert (September 19, 2016). "The Case for Trade, and Why American Leaders Need to Make It". Harvard Business Review.
- Zoellick, Robert (August 8, 2016). "Trump Gets It Wrong: Trade is a Winner for Americans". The Wall Street Journal.
- Zoellick, Robert (September 6, 2017). "Trump's Looming Trade Crack-Up". The Wall Street Journal.
- McCormack, Gavan (September–October 2005). "Koizumi's coup". New Left Review. New Left Review. II (35).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Leonard, Andrew (29 May 2007). "Bush and the World Bank: Bloody but unbowed". Salon. Salon Media Group.
- Oliver, Chris, "World Bank chief calls for new gold standard", Marketwatch, November 7, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Zoellick, Robert, "The G20 must look beyond Bretton Woods II", Financial Times, November 7, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Zoellick, Robert, "Zoellick urges G20 to heed gold price", Financial Times, November 10, 2010. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- Letter to President Clinton on Iraq, New American Century, archived from the original on 2008-09-09
- "Iraq Clinton letter". New American Century. January 26, 1998. Archived from the original on 2008-09-09.
|Library resources about |
|By Robert Zoellick|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robert Zoellick.|
- World Bank biography
- State Department biography
- Zoellick in Zmag
- "China and America: Power and Responsibility" – An address by Zoellick to the Asia Society Annual Dinner in New York, on February 25, 2004
- Robert Zoellick's list of federal campaign contributions
- Zoellick reports, clippings and sources
- Profile of Zoellick in the Harvard Law Record
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Robert Zoellick on Charlie Rose
- Robert Zoellick on IMDb
- "Robert Zoellick collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Works by or about Robert Zoellick in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
| Counselor of the United States Department of State
| Undersecretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs
| United States Trade Representative
| United States Deputy Secretary of State
| President of the World Bank Group
Jim Yong Kim