Roberts Ancāns in 1945
11 November 1919|
Tilža parish, Latvia
|Died||1 January 1982
Tannersville, New York, United States
|Years of service||1939–40
|Unit||19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Latvian)|
|Commands held||19th Reserve Battalion (Kampfschule)|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross I Class
Iron Cross II Class
Close Combat Clasp in Silver
Infantry Assault Badge in Silver
Wound Badge in Gold
Tank Destruction Badge
Eastern Front Medal
Roberts Ancāns (11 November 1919 – 1 January 1982) was an Obersturmführer in the Waffen SS during World War II. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, which was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership by Nazi Germany during World War II.
Roberts Ancāns was born on 11 November 1919, in Tilža parish, Latvia. In 1938 he started law studies in Latvian university. In the autumn 1939 he volunteered in Latvian army. Ancāns was member of Latvian student fraternity Lacuania.
Ancāns was in the Latvian Army in 1940, and during the German invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) he volunteered to join the first Latvian units in July 1941 and the Waffen SS in February 1942. He was among those Latvian soldiers who were trapped in Kholm Pocket in early 1942. There he was wounded and after treatment served in the Latvian Legion near Leningrad, in the Volchov marshes and at the Velikaya river.
After the 19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Latvian) was formed, he became part of the 19th Reserve Battalion. In the fighting of the Courland pocket on 24 December 1944, with his company of 180 men, they destroyed a Soviet attack aimed at the point where the 19th SS and the 21st Luftwaffe Field Division met, and they also destroyed 12 tanks in the process. After the 19th SS and the 21st Luftwaffe divisions had been withdrawn, Ancāns' company had been reduced to 38 men, most of them seriously wounded. For his bravery and leadership in the battle he was awarded the Knight's Cross. In May 1945, he was seriously wounded and evacuated from the pocket.
The Latvian Legion's attachment to the SS, unit designations and ranks were considered a formality. Latvian and Estonian soldiers, regardless of whether they volunteered or were drafted, were not members of the Nazi party.
In 1949-50, United States Displaced Persons Commission investigated the Estonian and Latvian "SS" and found these military units to be neither criminal nor Nazi collaborators. On 12 September 1950, Harry N. Rosenfield, the United Nations Refugee Relief Association commissioner, wrote to Jūlijs Feldmanis, Latvia's chargé d'affaires in Washington, saying that «the Waffen-SS units of the Baltic States (the Baltic Legions) are to be seen as units that stood apart and were different from the German SS in terms of goals, ideologies, operations and constitution, and the Commission does not, therefore, consider them to be a movement that is hostile to the government of the United States under Section 13 of the Displaced Persons Act, as amended.»
- Eastern Front Medal (5 October 1942)
- Infantry Assault Badge in Silver (12 October 1942)
- Iron Cross (1939)
- Wound Badge (1939) in Black (27 December 1944)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 25 January 1945 as Waffen-Untersturmführer and leader of Waffen Feld Ersatz-Bataillon der SS Nr. 19[Note 1]
- According to Scherzer as leader of the Divisionskampfschule (divisions combat school) of the 19. Waffen-Grenadier-Division of the SS (lettische Nr. 2).
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Krätschmer, Ernst-Günther (1999). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Waffen-SS [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Waffen-SS]. Coburg, Germany: Nation Europa Verlag. ISBN 978-3-920677-43-9.
- Mitcham, Samuel W (2007). Retreat to the Reich : the German defeat in France, 1944. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3384-7.
- Fey, Will; Henschler, Henri (2003). Armor Battles of the Waffen-SS. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-2905-5.
- Mitcham, Samuel W (2007). The German Defeat in the East, 1944–45. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3371-7.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Thomas, Franz; Wegmann, Günter (1987). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Deutschen Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Teil III: Infanterie Band 1: A–Be [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the German Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Part III: Infantry Volume 1: A–Be] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-1153-2.