Robin Hood (1973 film)

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Robin Hood
Robinhood 1973 poster.png
Theatrical release poster
Directed byWolfgang Reitherman
Produced byWolfgang Reitherman
Story byLarry Clemmons
Ken Anderson
Vance Gerry
Frank Thomas
Eric Cleworth
Julius Svendsen
David Michener
Based onThe legend of Robin Hood
Narrated byRoger Miller
Music byGeorge Bruns
Edited byTom Acosta
Jim Melton
Distributed byBuena Vista Distribution
Release date
  • November 8, 1973 (1973-11-08)
Running time
83 minutes
CountryUnited States
Budget$5 million[1]
Box office$32 million[2]

Robin Hood is a 1973 American animated romantic musical comedy film produced by Walt Disney Productions which was first released in the United States on November 8, 1973. As the 21st Disney animated feature film, the story follows the adventures of Robin Hood, Little John and the inhabitants of Nottingham as they fight against the excessive taxation of Prince John, and Robin Hood wins the hand of Maid Marian.

The idea to adapt Robin Hood into an animated feature dated back to Walt Disney's interest in the tale of Reynard the Fox during production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). The idea was repeatedly shelved until writer and production designer Ken Anderson incorporated ideas from it in a pitch of the legend of Robin Hood using anthropomorphic animals rather than people during production of The Aristocats (1970). Due to casting changes and using experimental locations, production on the film fell behind schedule in which the animators had to recycle several dance sequences from previous Disney animated features in order to meet its deadline.

Robin Hood was released on November 8, 1973 to box office success. It was initially received positively by film critics who praised the voice cast, animation, and humor, but its critical reception became gradually mixed since its release. The film has nonetheless become a cult classic.[3]


Alan-a-Dale introduces the story of Robin Hood and Little John, two outlaws living in the Sherwood Forest in the animal kingdom version of the middle ages, where they rob from the rich and give to the poor townsfolk of Nottingham, despite the efforts of the Sheriff of Nottingham to stop them. Meanwhile, Prince John and his assistant Sir Hiss arrive in Nottingham on a tour of the kingdom. Knowing the royal coach is laden with riches, Robin and Little John rob Prince John by disguising themselves as fortune tellers. The embarrassed Prince John then puts a bounty on their heads and makes the Sheriff his personal tax collector, who takes pleasure in collecting funds from the townsfolk, including hidden money from the crippled blacksmith Otto and a single farthing from a young rabbit, Skippy, who had just received it as a birthday present. However, Robin Hood, disguised as a beggar, sneaks in and gives back some money to the family, as well as his hat and a bow to Skippy in honor of his birthday.

Skippy, his two sisters, and Skippy's friend Toby test out the bow, but Skippy fires an arrow into the grounds of Maid Marian's castle. The children sneak inside, meeting Maid Marian and her attendant Lady Kluck. Skippy "rescues" Marian from Lady Kluck, who pretends to be a pompous Prince John. Later, when she is alone with Kluck, Maid Marian reveals she and Robin were childhood sweethearts, but they have not seen one another for years; Kluck consoles her not to give up on her love for Robin. Meanwhile, Friar Tuck visits Robin and Little John, explaining that Prince John is hosting an archery tournament, and the winner will receive a kiss from Maid Marian. Robin decides to participate in the tournament disguised as a stork whilst Little John disguises himself as the Duke of Chutney to get near Prince John. Robin wins the tournament, but Prince John exposes him and has him arrested for execution despite Maid Marian's pleas. Little John threatens Prince John in order to release Robin, which leads to a fight between Prince John's soldiers and the townsfolk, all of whom escape to Sherwood Forest.

As Robin and Maid Marian fall in love again, the townsfolk have a troubadour festival celebrating their engagement, while Little John performs a song spoofing Prince John, describing him as "The Phony King of England", and the song soon becomes popular with all of Nottingham, including Sir Hiss and the Sheriff. Enraged by the insult, Prince John triples the taxes, imprisoning most of the townsfolk who cannot pay. A paltry coin gets deposited into the poor box at Friar Tuck's church, which gets seized by the Sheriff. Enraged that government has meddled in his church, Friar Tuck lashes out at the Sheriff, for which he is quickly arrested. Prince John orders Friar Tuck hung, knowing Robin Hood will come out of hiding to rescue his friend and give the potential for Robin to be caught.

Robin and Little John learn of the plot and sneak in during the night, with Little John managing to free all of the prisoners whilst Robin steals Prince John's taxes with a makeshift ropeway conveyor, but Sir Hiss awakens to find Robin fleeing. Chaos follows as Robin and the others try to escape to Sherwood Forest. The Sheriff corners Robin after he is forced to return to rescue Tagalong, Skippy's little sister. During the chase, Prince John's castle catches fire and Robin jumps into the moat, where he is seemingly skewered by the soldiers' arrows. Little John and Skippy fear Robin is lost, but he surfaces safely after using a reed as a breathing tube. Later, King Richard returns to England, placing his brother, Sir Hiss and the Sheriff under arrest and allows his niece Maid Marian to marry Robin Hood, which gives him "An Outlaw for an In-Law".


Robin Hood Red fox Brian Bedford
Maid Marian Red fox Monica Evans
Little John Bear Phil Harris
Prince John Lion Peter Ustinov
Sheriff Of Nottingham Wolf Pat Buttram
Sir Hiss Snake Terry-Thomas
Alan-a-Dale Rooster Roger Miller
Friar Tuck European badger Andy Devine
Lady Kluck Chicken Carole Shelley
Trigger Vulture George Lindsey
Nutsy Vulture Ken Curtis
Skippy Rabbit Billy Whitaker
Toby Turtle Richie Sanders
Sis Rabbit Dana Laurita
Tagalong Rabbit Dori Whitaker
Mother Rabbit Rabbit Barbara Luddy
Otto Dog J. Pat O'Malley
Sexton Mus (genus) John Fiedler
Little Sister Mus (genus) Barbara Luddy
Captain Crocodile Crocodylidae Candy Candido
King Richard Lion Peter Ustinov


"As director of story and character concepts, I knew right off that sly Robin Hood must be a fox. From there it was logical that Maid Marian should be a pretty vixen. Little John, legendarily known for his size, was easily a big overgrown bear. Friar Tuck is great as a badger, but he was also great as a pig, as I had originally planned. Then I thought the symbol of a pig might be offensive to the Church, so we changed him. Richard the Lion-hearted, of course, had to be a regal, proud, strong lion; and his pathetic cousin [historically, and in the movie, his brother] Prince John, the weak villain, also had to be a lion, but we made him scrawny and childish. I originally thought of a snake as a member of the poor townspeople but one of the other men here suggested that a snake would be perfect as a slithering consort [Sir Hiss] to mean Prince John."

Ken Anderson[4]

Around the time of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937, Walt Disney became interested in adapting the twelfth-century legend of Reynard the Fox.[4] However, the project languished due to Walt's concern that Reynard was an unsuitable choice for a hero.[5] In a meeting held on February 12, 1938, Disney commented "I see swell possibilities in 'Reynard', but is it smart to make it? We have such a terrific kid audience ... parents and kids together. That's the trouble – too sophisticated. We'll take a nosedive doing it with animals."[6] For Treasure Island (1950), Walt seriously considered three animated sections, each one of the Reynard tales, to be told by Long John Silver to Jim Hawkins as moral fables. Ultimately, the idea was nixed as Treasure Island would become the studio's first fully live-action film. Over the years, the studio decided to make Reynard the villain of a musical feature film named Chanticleer and Reynard (based on Edmond Rostand's Chanticleer), but the production was scrapped in the early 1960s in favor of The Sword in the Stone (1963).[4]

While The Aristocats (1970) was in production, Ken Anderson began exploring possibilities for the next film. Studio executives favored a "classic" tale as the subject for the next film, in which Anderson suggested the tale of Robin Hood, which was received enthusiastically.[7] He blended his ideas of Robin Hood by incorporating that the fox character could be slick but still use his skills to protect the community.[8] Additionally, Anderson wanted to set the film in the Deep South desiring to recapture the spirit of Song of the South (1946). However, the executives were wary of the reputation of Song of the South, which was followed by Wolfgang Reitherman's decision to set the film in its traditional English location inspired by The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952).[9] Veteran writer Larry Clemmons came on board the project by writing a script with dialogue that was later storyboarded by other writers.[8]

As production went further along, Robin Allan wrote in his book Walt Disney and Europe, that "Ken Anderson wept when he saw how his character concepts had been processed into stereotypes for the animation on Robin Hood."[10] According to Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston, one such casualty was the concept of making the Sheriff of Nottingham a goat as an artistic experiment to try different animals for a villain, only to be overruled by Reitherman who wanted to keep to the villainous stereotype of a wolf instead.[11] Additionally, Anderson wanted to include the Merry Men into the film, which was again overridden by Reitherman because he wanted a "buddy picture" reminiscent of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969),[12] so Little John was the only Merry Man who remained in the film, while Friar Tuck was put as a friend of Robin's who lived in Nottingham, and Alan-a-Dale was turned into the narrator. Because of the time spent on developing several settings and auditioning actors to voice Robin Hood, production fell behind schedule.[9] In order to meet its deadline, the animators had no other choice but to recycle dance sequences from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), The Jungle Book (1967), and The Aristocats (1970).[13]


By October 1970, most of the voice actors were confirmed, with the exception of Tommy Steele cast in the title role.[14] Steele himself was chosen because of his performance in The Happiest Millionaire (1967) while Peter Ustinov was cast because Walt Disney had enjoyed his presence on the set of Blackbeard's Ghost (1968) during one of his last visits to the studio before his death. However, Steele was unable to make his character sound more heroic,[9] and his replacement came down to final two candidates which were Bernard Fox and Brian Bedford,[15] with the latter being chosen. Meanwhile, Louis Prima was so angered at not being considered for a role that he personally paid the recording expenses for the subsequent album, Let's "Hear" it For Robin Hood, which he sold to Disneyland Records.[16]

Alternative ending[edit]

An original, deleted version of the story's conclusion, primarily using still images from Ken Anderson's original storyboard drawings of the sequence, was included in the Most Wanted Edition DVD.[17] As Robin Hood leaps off of the castle and into the moat, he is wounded (presumably by one of the arrows shot into the water after him) and carried away to the church for safety. Prince John, enraged that he has once again been outwitted by Robin Hood, finds Little John leaving the church, and suspects the outlaw to be there as well. Sure enough, he finds Maid Marian tending to an unconscious Robin Hood, and draws a dagger to kill him. Before Prince John can strike, however, he is stopped by his brother, King Richard, having returned from the Crusades. King Richard is appalled to find that Prince John has left his kingdom bleak and oppressed. Abiding his mother's wishes, King Richard decides he cannot banish Prince John from the kingdom, but does grant him severe punishment (which explained how Prince John, Sir Hiss, and the Sheriff ended up in the Royal Rock Pile). King Richard returns Nottingham to its former glory (before leaving for the Third Crusade), knights Robin Hood as Sir Robin of Locksley, and orders Friar Tuck to marry Robin Hood and Maid Marian.

A short finished scene from the planned original ending, featuring King Richard and revealing himself to vulture henchmen Trigger and Nutsy, appeared in the Ken Anderson episode of the 1980s Disney Channel documentary series Disney Family Album. This scene, at least in animated form, does not appear on the Most Wanted Edition DVD.


The film premiered at the Radio City Music Hall on November 8, 1973.[18] The film was re-released on March 26, 1982.

Home media[edit]

It was released on VHS, CED, Betamax, and Laserdisc on December 4, 1984 becoming the first installment of the Walt Disney Classics home video label.[19] Disney had thought the idea of releasing any of its animated classics (known as the "untouchables") might threaten future theatrical reissue revenue. However, Robin Hood was viewed as the first choice since it was not held in such high esteem as some of the other titles, and was less likely to get another theatrical release as its 1982 reissue proved to be disappointing.[20] The release went into moratorium in January 1987.[21] It was later re-released on VHS as an installment of the Walt Disney Classics on July 12, 1991.[22] The film was re-released on October 28, 1994 and July 13, 1999 on VHS as an installment of the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection lineup.

In January 2000, Walt Disney Home Video launched the Gold Classic Collection, with Robin Hood re-issued on VHS and DVD on July 4, 2000.[23] The DVD contained the film in its 1.33:1 aspect ratio, and was accompanied with special features including a trivia game and the cartoon short "Ye Olden Days".[24] The remastered "Most Wanted Edition" DVD ("Special Edition" in the UK) was released in 2006 and featured a deleted scene/alternate ending, as well as a 16:9 matted transfer to represent its original theatrical screen ratio. On August 6, 2013, the film was released as the 40th Anniversary Edition on a Blu-ray combo pack.[25]


Critical reaction[edit]

Judith Crist, reviewing the film in the New York magazine, said it was "nicely tongue-in-cheek without insult to the intelligence of either child or adult." She also stated that it "has class – in the fine cast that gives both voice and personality to the characters, in the bright and brisk dialogue, in its overall concept."[26] Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote that it "should ... be a good deal of fun for toddlers whose minds have not yet shriveled into orthodoxy" and he called the visual style "charmingly conventional".[27] Dave Billington of The Montreal Gazette wrote "As a film, Robin Hood marks a come-back of sorts for the Disney people. Ever since the old maestro died, the cartoon features have shown distressing signs of a drop in quality, both in art work and in voice characterization. But the blending of appealing cartoon animals with perfect voices for the part makes Robin Hood an excellent evening out for the whole family."[28] Also writing in the New York magazine, Ruth Gilbert called it "a sweet, funny, slam-bang, good-hearted Walt Disney feature cartoon with a fine cast" and wrote it was "a feast for the eyes for kiddies and Disney nostalgics."[29]

Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times wrote that the Disney "hallmarks are there as they ever were: the incomparably rich, full animation, the humanized animal characters perky, individual and enchanting, and the wild, inventive slapstick action."[30] Awarding the film four stars out of five, Ian Nathan, in a retrospective review for Empire, praised the vocal performances of Peter Ustinov and Terry-Thomas acknowledging "while this is hardly the most dazzling of animated features, it has that cut-corner feel that seem to hold sway in the '70s (mainly because Disney were cutting corners), the characters spark to life, and the story remains as rock steady as ever."[31]

Among less favorable reviews, Jay Cocks of Time gave the film a mixed verdict writing "Even at its best, Robin Hood is only mildly diverting. There is not a single moment of the hilarity or deep, eerie fear that the Disney people used to be able to conjure up, or of the sort of visual invention that made the early features so memorable. Robin Hood's basic problem is that it is rather too pretty and good natured."[32] Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film one-and-a-half stars out of four, describing the film as "80 minutes of pratfalls and nincompoop dialog," and criticizing the animation quality as "Saturday morning TV cartoon stuff."[33] John Baxter of The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote that "for the most part the film is as bland and one-dimensional as the product of less sophisticated studios; and except for Peter Ustinov's plummy Prince John, the voice characterisations are as insipid as the animation is unoriginal."[34]

Decades since the film's release, the film has been heavily noted for the recycled scenes of animation and the sex appeal of the two main characters.[35][36] The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported that the film received a 52% approval rating with an average rating of 5.4/10 based on 27 reviews. The website's consensus states that "One of the weaker Disney adaptations, Robin Hood is cute and colorful but lacks the majesty and excitement of the studio's earlier efforts."[37]

Box office[edit]

On its initial release, Robin Hood grossed $9 million in the United States.[38] However, it has been reported that the film grossed $35 million during its initial release.[39][40]

Awards and honors[edit]

The song "Love" was nominated for Best Original Song at the 46th Academy Awards but lost to "The Way We Were" from the film of the same name.

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:


Robin Hood
Studio album by
Various artists
GenreClassical, Soundtrack, Classic pop
LabelDisneyland Records
  1. "Whistle-Stop" written and sung by Roger Miller
  2. "Oo-De-Lally" written and sung by Roger Miller
  3. "Love" written by Floyd Huddleston and George Bruns and sung by Nancy Adams
  4. "The Phony King of England" written by Johnny Mercer and sung by Phil Harris
  5. "The Phony King of England Reprise" sung by Terry-Thomas and Pat Buttram
  6. "Not in Nottingham" written and sung by Roger Miller
  7. "Love"/"Oo-De-Lally Reprise" sung by Chorus

The music played in the background while Lady Kluck fights off Prince John's soldiers in an American football manner, following the archery tournament, is an arrangement of "Fight On" and "On, Wisconsin", the respective fight songs of the University of Southern California and the University of Wisconsin.

A record of the film was made at the time of its release in 1973, which included its songs, score, narration, and dialogue. Both "Oo-De-Lally" and "Love" appear on the CD collection, Classic Disney: 60 Years of Musical Magic. The full soundtrack of the film was released to the general public on August 4, 2017 as part of the Walt Disney Records: The Legacy Collection series on compact disc and digital, and was a timed exclusive to the 2017 D23 Expo.[41]

The song "Love" is featured in the 2009 feature film Fantastic Mr. Fox.[42] The song "Whistle-Stop" was sped up and used in the Hampster Dance, one of the earliest internet memes,[43] and later used at normal speed in the Super Bowl XLVIII commercial for T-Mobile.[44] The song "Oo De Lally" is featured in a 2015 commercial for Android which shows animals of different species playing together.[45]

Live-action remake[edit]

In December 2014, it was announced that Disney had bought a spec script for a live-action film titled Nottingham & Hood with hopes that it would spawn a new film franchise. The tone is said to be similar to the Pirates of the Caribbean film series.[46]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Huddy, John (November 7, 1973). "Disney Coming Out with "Robin Hood"". Toledo Blade. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  2. ^ "Robin Hood, Box Office Information". The Numbers. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  3. ^ Donaldson, Kayleigh (May 8, 2018). "Foxy: Why everyone has a crush on Disney's Robin Hood". Syfy.
  4. ^ a b c Grant 1998, p. 290.
  5. ^ Harty, Kevin (2012). "Walt in Sherwood, or the Sheriff of Disneyland: Disney and the film legend of Robin Hood.". The Disney Middle Ages: A Fairy-Tale and Fantasy Past. The New Middle Ages (2012 ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230340077. eds. Tison Pugh, Susan Aronstein
  6. ^ Solomon, Charles (November 9, 1995). The Disney That Never Was. Hyperion Books. p. 81. ISBN 978-0786860371.
  7. ^ Finch, Christopher. "The Making of Robin Hood". The Art of Walt Disney: From Mickey Mouse to the Magic Kingdom (1st ed.). Harry N. Abrams. pp. 319–32. ISBN 978-0810990074.
  8. ^ a b Simpson, Wade (May 27, 2009). "Taking Another Look at Robin Hood". Mouse Planet. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  9. ^ a b c Hill, Jim (March 17, 2005). "Why For?". Jim Hill Media. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  10. ^ Robin, Allan (1999). Walt Disney and Europe. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-253-21353-3.
  11. ^ Thomas, Frank; Johnston, Ollie (1981). Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life. Abbeville Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0786860708.
  12. ^ Koenig 1997, pp. 149–50.
  13. ^ Maltin, Leonard (1987). Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New American Library. p. 76. ISBN 0-452-25993-2.
  14. ^ "Animals Portray Parts in Disney's "Robin Hood"". Toledo Blade. October 18, 1970. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  15. ^ Milt Kahl. Milt in Dallas. YouTube. Google. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  16. ^ Koenig 1997, p. 152.
  17. ^ "Disney's Robin Hood Movie Alternate Ending".
  18. ^ "Bear Facts". The Village Voice. November 1, 1973. p. 52. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  19. ^ Collins, Glenn (February 17, 1985). "New Cassettes: From Disney To Mussorgsky's 'Boris'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  20. ^ Ryan, Desmond (December 4, 1984). "Disney classic on video?". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  21. ^ Solomon, Charles (December 17, 1986). "Cartoon Cassettes To Animate The Holidays". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  22. ^ Hunt, Dennis (June 28, 1991). "'Robin Hood' Predecessors Proliferate on the Shelves". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  23. ^ "Walt Disney Home Video Debuts the "Gold Classic Collection"". The Laughing Place. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  24. ^ "Robin Hood  — Disney Gold Collection". Archived from the original on August 15, 2000. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  25. ^ Truitt, Brian (August 5, 2013). "Prince John conspires in 'Robin Hood' deleted story line". USA Today. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  26. ^ Crist, Judith (November 12, 1973). "Calling the Blind Man's Bluff". New York. Vol. 6 no. 46. pp. 90–1. ISSN 0028-7369.
  27. ^ Canby, Vincent (November 9, 1973). "Screen: 'Robin Hood':Animals and Birds Star in Disney Version The Program". The New York Times. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  28. ^ Billington, Dave (December 22, 1973). "Sir Hiss is the show-stealer in Walt Disney's 'Robin Hood'". The Montreal Gazette. p. 23. Retrieved October 11, 2018 – via (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  29. ^ Gilbert, Ruth (November 26, 1973). "Movies Around Town". New York. Vol. 6 no. 8. p. 13. ISSN 0028-7369. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  30. ^ Champlin, Charles (December 21, 1973). "Disney's 'Robin Hood' an Animated Offering". Los Angeles Times. p. 37. Retrieved December 1, 2018 – via (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  31. ^ Nathan, Ian (July 31, 2006). "Robin Hood 1973 Review". Empire. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  32. ^ Cocks, Jay (December 3, 1973). "Cinema". Time. Vol. 102 no. 23. p. 78. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  33. ^ Siskel, Gene (December 25, 1973). "Facing 'Ash Wednesday'". Chicago Tribune. p. 7. Retrieved December 1, 2018 – via (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  34. ^ Baxter, John (January 1974). "Robin Hood". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 41 (480): 13.
  35. ^
  36. ^ Acuna, Kirsten (May 15, 2015). "How Disney reuses the same footage in different films". Business Insider. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  37. ^ "Robin Hood (1973)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  38. ^ Robb, Brian (December 9, 2014). A Brief History of Walt Disney. Running Press. ISBN 978-0762454754. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  39. ^ Chase, Chris (June 23, 1991). "Robin Hood Adds Up To a Thief for the Ages". The New York Times. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  40. ^ Spain, Tom (May 9, 1991). "Robin Hood's Classic Debut". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  41. ^ "Dove Cameron, Sofia Carson, Jordan Fisher, Auli'i Cravalho, and Oscar®-Winning Composer Michael Giacchino to Meet Fans at the Disney Music Emporium During D23 Expo 2017, July 14–16" (Press release). PR Newswire. Burbank, California. May 23, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  42. ^ "Fantastic Mr. Fox (2009)". IMDb.
  43. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2008). Hot Country Songs 1944 to 2008. Record Research, Inc. p. 180. ISBN 0-89820-177-2.
  44. ^ We Killed the Long-Term Contract – T-Mobile on YouTube
  45. ^ Android: Friends Furever on YouTube
  46. ^ Fleming Jr., Mike (December 4, 2014). "Robin Hood Now A Race As Disney Acquires Spec 'Nottingham & Hood'". Deadline Hollywood.


  • Grant, John (April 30, 1998). The Encyclopedia of Walt Disney's Animated Characters: From Mickey Mouse to Hercules. Disney Editions. ISBN 978-0-7868-6336-5.
  • Koenig, David (1997). Mouse Under Glass: Secrets of Disney Animation & Theme Parks. Irvine, California: Bonaventure Press. ISBN 978-0964060517.

External links[edit]