Robinson Crusoe on Mars
|Robinson Crusoe on Mars|
|Directed by||Byron Haskin|
|Produced by||Aubrey Schenck|
|Based on||Robinson Crusoe
by Daniel Defoe
|Music by||Nathan Van Cleave|
|Cinematography||Winton C. Hoch|
|Edited by||Terry O. Morse|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
Robinson Crusoe on Mars is a 1964 independently made Technicolor in Techniscope science fiction film distributed by Paramount Pictures that was produced by Aubrey Schenck, directed by Byron Haskin, and stars Paul Mantee, Victor Lundin, and Adam West.
Commander Christopher "Kit" Draper (Paul Mantee) and Colonel Dan McReady (Adam West) reach the Red Planet in their spaceship, Mars Gravity Probe 1. They are forced to use up their remaining fuel in order to avoid an imminent collision with a large orbiting meteoroid; they descend in their one-man lifeboat pods, becoming the first humans on Mars.
Draper eventually finds a rock face cave for shelter. He figures out how to obtain the rest of what he needs to survive: he burns some coal-like rocks for warmth after discovering that heating them releases trapped oxygen. This allows him to refill his air tanks with a hand pump and to move around in the thin Martian atmosphere. On one of his excursions, he finds McReady's crashed pod and dead body. He then finds their flight-test monkey, Mona, alive and returns with her to the cave. Draper then constructs a crude sand alarm clock to awaken him for periodic doses of oxygen.
Later, he notices that Mona keeps disappearing and is uninterested in their dwindling supply of food and water. He gives her a salty cracker but no water. When Mona gets very thirsty, he lets her out and follows her to a cave and an underground pool, which also has edible plant "sausages" growing in the water.
As the days grow into months, Draper slowly begins to crack from the prolonged isolation. He watches helplessly as his mothership, an inaccessible "supermarket", periodically orbits overhead; without fuel, the spaceship cannot respond to his radioed order to land.
While walking about, Draper comes upon a dark rock slab standing almost upright. Curious, he digs in the ground around it, exposing a skeletal hand and arm wearing a black bracelet. He uncovers the rest of the humanoid skeleton and determines that the alien was murdered; the front of the skull shows heavy charring. To hide his presence on Mars, Draper signals his low-orbiting mothership to self-destruct on its next overhead pass.
Just in time, as Draper sees a spaceship descend and land just over the horizon. Believing it might be a rescue ship from Earth, the following morning he heads towards the landing site, only to see alien spacecraft in the sky. He approaches cautiously and sees human-looking slaves being used for mining by equally human-shaped captors wearing spacesuits and holding weapons on their bare-skinned captives. One of the slaves (Victor Lundin) escapes, running into Draper; an alien ship blasts their area as the two escape. Draper notices the stranger is wearing black bracelets just like the one he found in the grave. The aliens bombard the mine area that night and then depart. When he and the stranger investigate, they find the bodies of the other slaves.
Draper names his new acquaintance "Friday," after the character in Robinson Crusoe, and begins teaching him English. In return Friday shares his "air pills", which provide oxygen; they gradually grow to trust and then like each other. After a while, the alien spacecraft returns, tracking Friday by his bracelets. Draper begins sawing away at the tough material with a wire hacksaw. When the aliens blast the castaways' hiding place, Draper, Friday, and Mona flee north through the underground Martian canals. They eventually surface near the polar icecap. Exhausted, freezing, and nearly out of the air pills, they build a snow shelter. Draper finally succeeds in cutting off Friday's bracelets shortly before a meteor crashes into the ice cap; the resulting explosion and firestorm melts the ice and snow, saving them from freezing to death.
Later, Draper detects an approaching spaceship. He fears it is the returning aliens, but is relieved when his portable radio picks up an English-speaking voice. Draper and Friday watch a descending rescue capsule; Mars recedes in the distance as the film credits scroll.
- Paul Mantee as Commander Christopher "Kit" Draper
- Victor Lundin as Friday
- Adam West as Colonel Dan McReady
- Barney the Woolly Monkey, as Mona. According to Mantee, because Barney was a male, he had to wear a fur-covered diaper.
Special effects by Lawrence Butler and Academy Award-winning matte artist Albert Whitlock gave the film the benefit of "big-studio resources usually lacking in movies about outer space". Whitlock provided the matte paintings used in Robinson Crusoe on Mars. "Some scenes of spacecraft in motion were created with the kind of flat animation seen in official NASA promotional films". For the alien spacecraft, designer Al Nozaki constructed three miniatures closely resembling the "Martian war machines" he had made previously for Haskin for The War of the Worlds (1953).
Ib Melchior was the original screenwriter, but had to drop out to work on other projects. He later complained about the changes made to his screenplay. According to producer Aubrey Schenck the original script featured a variety of monsters and alien beings which were jettisoned in the name of plausibility, the medium-sized budget and because those ideas detracted from the premise of an astronaut being stranded and alone on Mars; Melchior, however, denied this. Instead of Mona the Monkey, the original screenplay featured a Martian creature that would have been a costumed armadillo, but a monkey was deemed more believable and easier to train.
Paul Mantee was chosen out of approximately 70 actors (including Vic Lundin) based on his being an experienced unknown, and to director Byron Haskin, because he resembled Alan Shepard, the first American in space. The film was originally to be titled Gravity Probe One: Mars, but Paramount's sales manager Charles Boasberg thought that title sounded too much like a documentary.
Two songs were inspired by and named after the film. One was sung by Johnny Cymbal, the other by Victor Lundin. Lundin wrote the song "Robinson Crusoe on Mars" to perform during his science fiction convention appearances. He recorded it for his 2000 album Little Owl.
Despite positive critic reaction at the time, Robinson Crusoe on Mars did not do well at the box office. Film reviewer Glenn Erickson opined, "Despite laudable efforts from all concerned, the film didn't click with audiences. Indifferent distribution was blamed, but it's also likely that the public preferred to see its astronauts on the 6 O'Clock News." Film historian Leonard Maltin considered Robinson Crusoe on Mars, "a surprisingly agreeable reworking of the classic Defoe story ... beautifully shot in Death Valley by Winston C. Hoch; the film's intimate nature help it play better on TV than most widescreen space films."
In the Time Out review editor John Pym saw Robinson Crusoe on Mars as "... intelligently imaginative sci-fi ... most remarkably (director) Haskin avoids sentimentality when dealing with the monkey, such is the assured sensitivity of the film."
The Criterion Collection, a video company known for its painstaking restorations of films, released Robinson Crusoe on Mars on LaserDisc in 1994, on DVD on September 18, 2007 as a special edition, and on Blu-Ray on January 11, 2011. For the latter, a high-definition video transfer was performed using the film's original 35 mm negative print and the original monaural soundtrack was remastered at 24 bit.
Criterion added a number of bonus features on the releases of the film: a "stills" gallery from both the film itself, as well as behind-the-scenes shots. There is also the original theatrical trailer and an audio interview with director Byron Haskin recorded in 1979. A music video for Victor Lundin's song "Robinson Crusoe on Mars" was created in 2007 specifically for the film's DVD release. A full color booklet is also included with various facts about the film.
In addition to DVD release, the film has also been televised on the RetroPlex Channel.
- Michael Lennick (January 11, 2011). "Robinson Crusoe on Mars: Life on Mars". Criterion Collection. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- "Original print information: Robinson Crusoe on Mars." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
- Erickson, Glenn. "Robinson Crusoe on Mars." DVD Savant, January 9, 2011. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
- p. 268 Weaver, Tom Ib Melchior Interview Return of the B Science Fiction and Horror Heroes: The Mutant Melding of Two Volumes of Classic Interviews McFarland, 2000
- p. 294 Fischer, Dennis Byron Haskin Science Fiction Film Directors, 1895-1998 McFarland, 17 June 2011
- p. 283 Weaver, Tom Aubrey Schenk Interview It Came from Horrorwood: Interviews with Moviemakers in the SF and Horror Tradition McFarland, 26 October 2004
- pp. 294-295 Fischer, Dennis Byron Haskin Science Fiction Film Directors, 1895-1998 McFarland, 17 June 2011
- "Music Video: 'Robinson Crusoe on Mars' (supplementary material made for DVD release)". Criterion Collection DVD, 2007.
- Maltin 2009, p. 1166.
- Pym 2004, p. 1004.
- Maltin, Leonard. Leonard Maltin's Movie Guide 2009. New York: New American Library, 2009 (originally published as TV Movies, then Leonard Maltin’s Movie & Video Guide), First edition 1969, published annually since 1988. ISBN 978-0-451-22468-2.
- Parish, James Robert and Michael R. Pitts. The Great Science Fiction Pictures. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 1977. ISBN 0-8108-1029-8.
- Pym, John, ed. "Robinson Crusoe on Mars." Time Out Film Guide. London: Time Out Guides Limited, 2004. ISBN 978-0-14101-354-1.
- Strick, Philip. Science Fiction Movies. London: Octopus Books Limited. 1976. ISBN 0-7064-0470-X.
- Robinson Crusoe on Mars at the Internet Movie Database
- Robinson Crusoe on Mars at AllMovie
- Robinson Crusoe on Mars at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Robinson Crusoe on Mars at Rotten Tomatoes
- Robinson Crusoe on Mars, at the Criterion Collection
- "Patriotism, Politics, and Propaganda", essay, at Bright Lights Film Journal, by Walter Rankin
- Robinson Crusoe on Mars restoration review, by Robert Blevins, at Newsvine