Robotic vacuum cleaner

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A cleaning robot from 2006

A robotic vacuum cleaner, sometimes called a robovac or a roomba as a generic trademark, is an autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner which has a limited vacuum floor cleaning system combined with sensors and robotic drives with programmable controllers and cleaning routines. Early designs included manual operation via remote control and a "self-drive" mode which allowed the machine to clean autonomously without human control.[1] Some designs use spinning brushes to reach tight corners, and some include a number of cleaning features along with the vacuuming feature (mopping, UV sterilization, etc.).[2] More recent models use artificial intelligence and deep learning for better mapping, object identification and event-based cleaning.

Marketing materials for robotic vacuums frequently cite low noise, ease of use, and autonomous cleaning as main advantages.[3] The perception that these devices are set-and-forget solutions is widespread but not always correct. Robotic vacuums are usually smaller than traditional upright vacuums, and weigh significantly less than even the lightest canister models. However, a downside to a robotic vacuum cleaner is that it takes an extended amount of time to vacuum an area due to its size. They are also relatively expensive,[4] and replacement parts and batteries can contribute significantly to their operating cost.[5]


Retrofuturistic illustration of an "electric scrubber" in the year 2000, as envisaged by an artist in 1899

In 1956, the American science fiction author Robert A. Heinlein described the concept of a robotic vacuum cleaner with a recharging dock in his novel The Door into Summer: "Basically it was just a better vacuum cleaner .... It went quietly looking for dirt all day long, in search curves that could miss nothing .... Around dinner time it would go to its stall and soak up a quick charge."[6]

In 1969 on 2 April an episode of The Avengers was broadcast in which the character Inge Tilson played by Dora Reisser says "...I saw a demonstration once. A robot vacuum cleaner. It swept around the house, went back into its cupboard, automatically plugged in and recharged itself...". The teleplay for this episode which was entitled "Thingumajig" was written by Terry Nation. It was episode 27 of Season 7.[7]

In 1990, three roboticists, Colin Angle, Helen Greiner, and Rodney Brooks, founded iRobot.[8] It was originally dedicated to making robots for military and domestic use. It launched the Roomba in 2002, which was able to change direction when it encountered an obstacle, detect dirty spots on the floor, and identify steep drops to keep it from falling down stairs.[5] The Roomba proved to be the first commercially successful robot vacuum.[9] In 2005, iRobot introduced the Scooba, which scrubbed hard floors.

In 1996, Electrolux introduced the first “Robotic Vacuum Cleaner”, the Electrolux Trilobite.[5] It worked well but had frequent problems with colliding with objects and stopping short of walls and other objects, as well as leaving small areas not cleaned.[5] As a result, it failed in the market and was discontinued.[5] In 1997, one of Electrolux's first versions of the Trilobite vacuum was featured on the BBC's science program, Tomorrow's World.[10]

In 2001, Dyson built and demonstrated a robot vacuum known as the DC06. However, due to its high price, it was never released to the market.[11] Electrolux Released the Trilobite robotic vacuum cleaner. The Robotic vacuum cleaner launched at a price of $1,800.00. There were two models: The ZA1 and the ZA2.

In 2010, the Neato Robotics XV-11 robotic vacuum introduced laser based mapping, allowing navigation in straight lines rather than the traditional random navigation.[12]

In 2015, Dyson and iRobot both introduced camera based mapping.[13][14]

In 2016, iRobot CEO claimed that 20% of vacuum cleaners sales worldwide were robots.[15]

As of 2018, obstacles such as dog feces, cables and shoes remain very difficult for robots to navigate around.[16][17]

In 2022, ECOVACS launched DEEBOT-X1 Family featuring YIKO[18] Voice Assistant, the industry's first natural language for home robots with Al voice interaction technologies, including voice semantics from Google, you can control DEEBOT with the power of your voice[19][20][21]

Main features[edit]

Cleaning modes[edit]

A cleaning robot as seen from below

Robotic vacuum has different types of cleaning modes, usually include the following:[22]

  • Auto: This mode is helpful for general cleaning. Usually, the mode cleans a space until the battery runs out.
  • Spot: with the help of this mode, the vacuum focus on a particular dirty zone.
  • Turbo: This mode is used to clean and pick up the most dirt and dust, but it may create noise.
  • Edge: This mode helps to clean edges & corners.
  • Quiet: The mode helps to reduce noise levels while cleaning. It's helpful when you are at home.
  • Remote control: It allows the user to control the direction of the vacuum.

Wet mopping[edit]

Some models can also mop for wet cleaning, autonomously vacuuming and wet-mopping a floor in one pass (sweep and mop combo).

The mop is either manually wetted before attachment to the bottom of the robot or the robot may be able to automatically spray water on to the floor before running over it.

Some advance robot vacuum cleaners have a sensor that detects and avoid mopping in carpeted areas. However, if there is no sensor, most of the robot vacuum cleaner manufacturers adding no-mop zone feature in the app nowadays to make robot vacuums to avoid certain areas from mopping. These robot vacuums are also capable to mop about 150sqm in one go.

A Robot Mop can tackle multi surfaces and comes with a variety of different cleaning modes giving you options of sweeping, vacuuming and mopping damp or wet floors. The Robot Mop score better on hard floors surface and are ideally suited for hardwood, laminate and tile flooring types


The first robovacs used random navigation. This sometimes caused the unit to miss spots when cleaning or be unable to locate its base station to recharge, and did not provide the user a history of which spaces were cleaned.

More sophisticated models include mapping ability. The unit can use gyro, camera, radar, and laser (laser distance sensor or LDS) guided systems to create a floor plan, which can be permanently stored for more efficiency, and updated with information on areas which have been (or have not been) cleaned. Thus, the cleaning efficiency is greatly improved and the repetition rate is reduced significantly.

Models with a multiple floor plan feature can store several floor plans.


D-shape vacuum cleaner
Most robots include anti-drop and anti-bump IR sensors.
When approaching obstacles, will automatically turn away.
Prevents the robot getting twined by wires.
Virtual No-Go lines
Virtual No-Go lines set boundaries, to restrict the unit's movements to desired cleaning areas.
Quick recharge
Most robot vacuums come with a Lithium ion battery of around 2000 mAh that will last long enough to handle approximately 200 m2 of floor space (about 100 minutes). Regular charge time is 5 to 6 hours. Quick recharge allows the unit to calculate the shortest way to recharge (shortcut path) and charge only as much as needed, so it finishes more quickly (automatic cleaning resumption).
Scheduled daily cleaning. All-Timetable means a full week of different daily schedules can be programmed.
Connected app
Some models allow control of the unit using an app over a WiFi connection, from your smartphone or connected home automation device, e.g. Amazon Alexa and the Google Assistant.
Software upgrades
Some units are able to receive over the air (OTA) firmware updates.
HEPA Filters
HEPA air filters are industry standard now for robot vacuum cleaners. These remove dust and pollen from the air.

List of robotic vacuum cleaners[edit]

  • Electrolux Trilobite - 1996. Named for its appearance, basic functionality and mild functional success. Introduced the public to the concept. Discontinued.[5]
  • LG Roboking - launched in 2001
  • Dyson DC06 - 2001. Deemed too expensive; not released.[5]
  • iRobot Roomba - 2002. Basic features on this early iRobot model succeeded in defining the retail category in America.[5]
  • Kärcher RC3000 and RC4000 - sold from 2002 to 2015
  • Friendly Vac RV400 - 2004, from Hoover and Friendly Robotics (Robomow); discontinued
  • Koolvac - all U.S. models destroyed in 2005 due to a successful patent infringement lawsuit by iRobot
  • Ecovacs Robotics Deebot series - introduced in 2007
  • iRobot Pet Series - 2008.[23]
  • Dustbot - prototype for street cleanup, 2010
  • Neato Robotics XV-11 - 2010.[24] The Neato had average specifications for its time but implemented a laser mapping system.[12][25]
  • iRobot Roomba 980 - 2015. iRobot implements camera mapping, a wifi module, and a smartphone app.[14]
  • Dyson 360Eye - 2015. Marketed as Dyson's "first" robotic vacuum, this model included camera-based obstacle detection and room mapping.[13]
  • iRobot Roomba i7 Plus with Clean Base - 2018.[8] The iRobot consumer lineup now self-empties, docks, and charges, enabling continuous cleaning.
  • SharkNinja AI, IQ, and ION Robot Vacuums,[26] which were successfully defended against patent lawsuits by iRobot[27]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ilumpruj (2018-06-24). "The History of Robot Vacuum Cleaner". Retrieved 2021-05-12.
  2. ^ "Best Robot Vacuum Cleaners". Decoding. 2021-01-16. Retrieved 2021-01-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "10 Benefits of Owning a Robot Vacuum 2020". Best Robot Vacuums 2020. 2019-12-16. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  4. ^ "How Robotic Vacuums Work". How Stuff Works. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Invention of Robotic Vacuum Cleaners". Vacuum Cleaner History. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  6. ^ Heinlein, Robert A (1957). The Door into Summer. New York: Signet. pp. 20–21.
  7. ^ "The Avengers Thingumajig (TV Episode 1969)".
  8. ^ a b "the history of the roomba".
  9. ^ Bennett, Brian. "Why are iRobot's new Roombas so damn expensive?". CNET. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  10. ^ "BBC NEWS - Technology - Robot cleaner hits the shops".
  11. ^ Ulanoff, Lance. "Dyson Wants to Build a Robot Vacuum that Can See".
  12. ^ a b "Neato XV-11 robotic vacuum review". Engadget. August 24, 2010. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  13. ^ a b "Deluxe brand Dyson creates its first robot vacuum, the 360 Eye". 2014-09-04. Retrieved 2015-09-26.
  14. ^ a b "iRobot Brings Visual Mapping and Navigation to the Roomba 980". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. 16 Sep 2015. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  15. ^ "iRobot says 20 percent of the world's vacuums are now robots". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  16. ^ Solon, Olivia (2016-08-15). "Roomba creator responds to reports of 'poopocalypse': 'We see this a lot'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  17. ^ Bryan Heater (2017-12-06). "PerceptIn has raised $11 million to help robotic vacuums and self-driving cars see". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  18. ^ "DEEBOT X1 Family | New Arrival All in One Vacuum and Mop". ECOVACS US. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  19. ^ [, ,]. {{cite web}}: Check |url= value (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ "DEEBOT X1 Family | New Arrival All in One Vacuum and Mop". ECOVACS US. Retrieved 2022-11-18.
  22. ^ Jones, Andy. "10 best robot vacuum cleaners – how to pick between Dyson and Eureka". Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  23. ^ "History | iRobot". Retrieved 2021-05-12.
  24. ^ " - Neato XV-11 All Floor Robotic Vacuum System - Household Robotic Vacuums". Retrieved 2021-05-12.
  25. ^ "Neato XV-11 review | 22 facts and highlights". VERSUS. Retrieved 2021-05-12.
  26. ^ SharkNinja - Robot Vacuums
  27. ^ iRobot Roombas its way into Amazon’s arms

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