The Rockefeller Republicans, that usually called themselves Moderate Republicans or Liberal Republicans, are members of the Republican Party (GOP) who held moderates to liberal views on domestic issues similar to those of Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of New York (1959–1973) and Vice President of the United States (1974–1977). It was the last phase of the "Eastern Establishment" of the GOP, which had been led by New York governor Thomas E. Dewey. The group's powerful role in the GOP came under heavy attack in 1964 and it lost most of its influence. At a discouraging point in the 1964 California primary campaign against Barry Goldwater, political operative Stuart Spencer called on Rockefeller to "summon that fabled nexus of money, influence, and condescension known as the Eastern Establishment. 'You are looking at it, buddy,' Rockefeller told Spencer. 'I am all that is left.'".
The term largely fell out of use by the end of the twentieth century, and has been replaced by the terms "moderate Republican" and, pejoratively, "RINO" (Republican In Name Only). Rockefeller Republicans were typically moderate to center-right, vehemently rejected conservatives like Barry Goldwater and his policies, and were often, but not necessarily, culturally liberal. They espoused government and private investments in environmentalism, healthcare, and higher education as necessities for a better society and economic growth, in the tradition of Rockefeller. In general, Rockefeller Republicans opposed socialism and government ownership. They supported some regulation of business and many New Deal–style social programs. A critical element was their support for labor unions. The building trades, especially, appreciated the heavy spending on infrastructure. In turn, the unions gave these politicians enough support to overcome the anti-union rural element in the Republican Party. As the unions weakened after the 1970s, so too did the need for Republicans to cooperate with them. This transformation played into the hands of the more conservative Republicans, who did not want to collaborate with labor unions in the first place, and now no longer needed to do so to carry statewide elections.
In foreign policy, most wanted to use American power in cooperation with allies to fight against the spread of communism. They wanted to help American business expand abroad. Richard Nixon, a moderate establishment Republican within the Party's contemporary ideological framework, but who ran against Rockefeller from the right in 1968 and was widely identified with the cultural right of the time, nevertheless was influenced by this tradition within his party. Nixon set up the Environmental Protection Agency, supported expanded welfare programs, imposed wage and price controls, and in 1971 announced he was a Keynesian. Rockefeller Republicans were most common in the Northeast and the West Coast, with their larger liberal constituencies; they were rare in the South and Midwest.
Role in the American 20th century
Thomas E. Dewey, the Governor of New York from 1942 to 1954 and the Republican presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948, was the leader of the moderate wing of the Republican Party in the 1940s and early 1950s, battling conservative Republicans from the Midwest led by Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, known as "Mr. Republican". With the help of Dewey, General Dwight D. Eisenhower defeated Taft for the 1952 presidential nomination and became the leader of the moderates. Eisenhower coined the phrase "Modern Republicanism" to describe his moderate vision of Republicanism.
After Eisenhower, Nelson Rockefeller, the Governor of New York, emerged as the leader of the moderate wing of the Republican party, running for President in 1960, 1964, and 1968. Rockefeller Republicans suffered a crushing defeat in 1964 when conservatives captured control of the Republican party and nominated Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona for President.
Other prominent figures in the GOP's Rockefeller wing included Pennsylvania Governor Raymond P. Shafer, Pennsylvania Senator Hugh Scott, Illinois Senator Charles H. Percy, Oregon Senator Mark Hatfield, Arkansas Governor Winthrop Rockefeller, Nelson's younger brother (who was somewhat of an aberration in a conservative, heavily Democratic Southern state), and, according to some, President Richard Nixon.
After Vice President Rockefeller left the national stage in 1976, this faction of the party was more often called "moderate Republicans" or Nixonians, in contrast to the conservatives who rallied to Ronald Reagan. Rockefeller Republicans included moderates such as Senator Margaret Chase Smith and liberals such as Jacob Javits.
Historically, Rockefeller Republicans were moderate or liberal on domestic and social policies. They typically favored New Deal programs and a social safety net; they sought to run these programs more efficiently than the Democrats. Rockefeller Republicans also saw themselves as champions of "good government", contrasting themselves to the often corrupt machine politics of the Democratic Party (particularly in large cities). They were strong supporters of big business and Wall Street; many Republicans of the Eisenhower-Rockefeller vein were major figures in business, such as auto executive George W. Romney and investment banker C. Douglas Dillon. In fiscal policy they favored balanced budgets, and were not averse to raising taxes in order to achieve them; Connecticut Senator Prescott Bush once called for Congress to "raise the required revenues by approving whatever levels of taxation may be necessary".
In state politics, they were strong supporters of state colleges and universities, low tuition, and large research budgets. They favored infrastructure improvements, such as highway projects. In foreign policy, they tended to be Hamiltonian, espousing internationalist and realist policies, supporting the United Nations, and promoting American business interests abroad.
Barry Goldwater crusaded against the Rockefeller Republicans, beating Rockefeller narrowly in the California primary of 1964. That set the stage for a conservative resurgence, based in the South and West in opposition to the Northeast Rockefeller wing. However, in 1968 the moderate contingent captured control of the GOP again and nominated Richard Nixon. He was easily reelected in 1972 and after he resigned, moderate-to-conservative Republican Gerald Ford replaced him as President. Four years after nearly toppling the incumbent Ford in the 1976 presidential primaries, Ronald Reagan won the party's presidential nomination at the 1980 convention, and served two terms in the White House. By 1988, the Republicans had chosen Prescott Bush's son, George H. W. Bush as its presidential candidate on a conservative platform. Bush's national convention pledge to stave off new taxation were he elected president ("Read my lips: no new taxes!") marked the candidate's full conversion to the conservative movement and, perhaps, the political death knell for Rockefeller Republicanism as a prevailing force within Party politics.
Yet the Rockefeller Republican label is sometimes applied to such modern-day politicians as Senators Olympia Snowe, Susan Collins of Maine, and Governor Lincoln Chafee of Rhode Island. The departure of liberal Republican Vermont U.S. Senator Jim Jeffords from the Republican party in 2001 dramatized the still-existing tension between the moderates and liberals of the party and what is today its generally more influential socially conservative wing. The term could also be applied to former U.S. Representative Connie Morella of Maryland, who lost re-election in 2002 to Democrat Chris Van Hollen. In the 2006 elections after many moderate Republicans were defeated, including then-Senator Lincoln Chafee, Nancy Johnson and Rob Simmons of Connecticut, Charlie Bass of New Hampshire, and Jim Leach of Iowa, the prominence of Rockefeller Republicans dwindled even further. The 2009 departure of moderate-to-liberal Pennsylvania Senator Arlen Specter from the Republican Party further reduced their numbers. However, in 2010 Bass won his old seat. Also important politicians like the former Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger and the 2016 Republican primaries runner Jeb Bush were described as "liberal".
Ethnic changes in the Northeast may have led to the demise of the Rockefeller Republican. Many Republican leaders associated with this title were WASPs like Charles Mathias of Maryland. Liberal Republican New York Republican U.S. Senator Jacob Javits, who had an Americans for Democratic Action rating above 90% and an American Conservative Union rating below 10%, was Jewish. As time went on, the local Republican parties tended to nominate Catholic candidates who appealed to middle class, social values–laden concerns, such as George Pataki, Al D'Amato, Rick Lazio, Tom Ridge, Bobby Jindal, and others, who in many cases represented the party's diversity more on the basis of religion and were often otherwise like their Protestant conservative counterparts.
Recent use of the term
The term "Rockefeller Republican" is now somewhat archaic (Nelson Rockefeller died in 1979), and Republicans with these views are now generally referred to as simply "moderate Republicans" or, pejoratively, Republican In Name Only. The retired four-star generals Colin Powell and David Petraeus have both described themselves as "Rockefeller Republicans". Christine Todd Whitman, former Governor of New Jersey, referred to herself as a Rockefeller Republican, in a speech on Governor Rockefeller at Dartmouth College in 2008. Lloyd Blankfein, Chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs, who is a registered Democrat, referred to himself as a "Rockefeller Republican" in a CNBC interview in April 2012.
Notables Republicans classified as "Liberal"
- President Theodore Roosevelt
- President Dwight D. Eisenhower
- President Richard Nixon
- Governor Alf Landon
- Governor Thomas E. Dewey
- Governor Raymond P. Shafer
- Governor George W. Romney
- Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
- Senator Barry Goldwater (described himself as "libertarian")
- Senator Clifford P. Case
- Senator Charles H. Percy
- Senator Arlen Specter
- Vice President Nelson Rockefeller
- Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia
- Chief of Justice Earl Warren
- Factions in the Republican Party (United States)
- Republican Main Street Partnership
- Republican In Name Only
- Conservative Democrats, antonym
- Ripon Society
- South Park Republicans
- Richard Norton Smith, On His: Terms: A Life of Nelson Rockefeller (2014) p. xxi
- Nicol Rae. Decline and Fall of the Liberal Republicans: 1952 to the Present (1989)
- Rae. Decline and Fall of the Liberal Republicans: 1952 to the Present (1989)
- Richard Reeves, President Nixon: Alone in the White House (2002) p. 295
- Reiter (1981)
- Halberstam, David (1993). The Fifties. The Random House Publishing Group. New York. ISBN 0-449-90933-6. pp. 312–315.
- "If Nixon Were Alive Today, He Would Be Far Too Liberal to Get Even the Democratic Nomination"
- Alipio Baldi, The Grand Experiment (2012) p. 51
- Micklethwait, John; Woolridge, Adrian. The Right Nation. p. 29.
- "How Maine's GOP Senators Are Key to Obama's Agenda",
- Cox, Stephen. A Liberal in Conservative Clothing. Liberty. March 2004.
- Christian Science Monitor: "And in the Senate, the epitome of the Rockefeller Republican, Senator Chafee"
- John Gibson (August 29, 2003). "Is Arnold Schwarzenegger Too Socially Liberal for Conservatives to Support?". Fox News.
- Craig Shirley (February 6, 2015). "Is Jeb Bush just another ‘big government’ liberal?". Reuters.
- Steve Coll, "The General's Dilemma: David Petraeus, the pressures of politics, and the road out of Iraq". The New Yorker. 8 September 2008.
- Forbes 2008/10/19
- Fort Worth Star-Telegram
- CNBC Press Release
- Alex Henderson (October 3, 2013). "10 past Republicans who’d never make it in today’s crazy GOP". Salon.
- Ronald J. Pestritto (December 27, 2008). "Theodore Roosevelt Was No Conservative".
- Chester J. Pach, Jr. "http://millercenter.org/president/biography/eisenhower-domestic-affairs". Miller Center.
- Kristoffer Smemo (January 28, 2014). "The Myth of the Moderate Republican". Jacobin.
- Jason Scott Smith (September 2009). Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956. Cambridge University Press.
- "Almost Presidents: Alf Landon (Republican/1936)". Dead Presidents. March 27 2001. Check date values in:
- "Raymond P. Shafer: 1917-2006". Allegheny Magazine. 2007.
- Nicholas Carlson (August 15, 2014). "Meet Mitt Romney's Hero: His Surprisingly Liberal Dad". Business Insider.
- John Gibson (August 29, 2003). "Is Arnold Schwarzenegger Too Socially Liberal for Conservatives to Support?". Fox News.
- Robert D. McFadden (March 7, 1982). "Ex-Senator Clifford P. Case, 77, is dead".
- Emily Langer (September 17, 2011). "Former Illinois Sen. Charles H. Percy dies at 91".
- Philip Rucker (October 14, 2012). "Arlen Specter dies; he was Pennsylvania’s longest-serving senator". The Washington Post.
- Timothy Noah (December 14, 2011). "Rocky's Ghost". New Republic.
- Dominic J. Capeci (April 1977). Fiorello H. La Guardia, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and Civil Rights in New York City, 1941-1943. Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Inc.
- Anthony S. Chen (2008). The Fifth Freedom: Jobs, Politics, and Civil Rights in the United States, 1941-1972. Princeton University Press. p. 89.
- Burns, James MacGregor. The Deadlock of Democracy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: 1967.
- Joyner, Conrad. The Republican Dilemma: Conservatism or Progressivism (1963)
- Kabaservice, Geoffrey. Rule and Ruin: The Downfall of Moderation and the destruction of the Republican Party, from Eisenhower to the Tea Party (Oxford University Press, 2012), scholarly study but hostile to conservatives
- Kristol, Irving. "American Conservatism 1945–1995". Public Interest 94 (Fall 1995): 80–91.
- Perlstein, Rick. Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (2001) text search, survey of GOP politics in 1960s
- Reinhard, David W. The Republican Right since 1945 (1983)
- Rae, Nicol. Decline and Fall of the Liberal Republicans: 1952 to the Present. 1989.
- Reichley, A. James. Conservatives in an Age of Change: The Nixon and Ford Administrations. 1981.
- Reiter, Howard. "Intra-Party Cleavages in the United States Today." Western Political Quarterly 34 (1981): 287–300.
- Sherman, Janann. No Place for a Woman: A Life of Senator Margaret Chase Smith (2000)
- Smith, Richard Norton. On His: Terms: A Life of Nelson Rockefeller (2014), a major scholarly biography
- Underwood, James F., and William J. Daniels. Governor Rockefeller in New York: The Apex of Pragmatic Liberalism in the United States (1982)
- Republican Main Street Partnership - Republican group interested in building a pragmatic center in the GOP.
- Progressive Republicans
- Liberals Get The Action, Conservatives Get The Rhetoric Chapter 1 of Nixon: The Man Behind The Mask by Gary Allen.