Rockland County, New York
Location within the U.S. state of New York
New York's location within the U.S.
|Named for||its rocky terrain|
|Largest CDP||New City|
|• County Executive||Ed Day (R)|
|• Total||199.34 sq mi (516.3 km2)|
|• Land||173.55 sq mi (449.5 km2)|
|• Water||25.79 sq mi (66.8 km2) 13%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,877.21/sq mi (724.79/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
Rockland County is the southernmost county on the west side of the Hudson River in the U.S. state of New York, part of the New York City metropolitan statistical area. It is a suburb of New York City that is about 6 miles (10 kilometers) from the Bronx at their closest points. The county's population, as of the 2010 United States Census, was 311,687, increasing to a 2019 Census estimate of 325,789, making it the third-most densely populated county outside New York City within New York (after Nassau and neighboring Westchester Counties, respectively). The county seat is New City. Rockland County is accessible via the New York State Thruway, which crosses the Hudson to Westchester at the Tappan Zee Bridge ten exits up from the Bronx, as well as the Palisades Parkway five exits up from the George Washington Bridge. The county's name derives from "rocky land", as the area has been aptly described, largely due to the Hudson River Palisades.
Rockland County is the smallest county by area in New York outside New York City. It comprises five towns and nineteen incorporated villages, with numerous unincorporated villages (sixteen) and hamlets. Rockland County is designated as a Preserve America Community, and nearly a third of the county's area is parkland. The county has the largest Jewish population percentage of any U.S. county, at 31.4%, or 90,000 residents. Rockland also ranked 31st on the list of highest-income counties by median household income in the United States, with a median household income of $82,534 according to the 2010 census.
The area that became Rockland County was originally inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Native Americans, including Munsees, or Lenni Lenape. The Tappan tribe had a particularly noteworthy presence in the area, extending from present-day Nyack, south to Sparkill and Tappan, down the Hackensack River valley through present-day Bergen County, NJ, and also along the Palisades and Hudson shore all the way down to present-day Edgewater, NJ.
In 1609, Henry Hudson was the first major Dutch explorer to arrive in the area. Hudson, thinking he had found the legendary "Northwest Passage", sailed on the Half Moon up the river that would one day bear his name, and anchored near the area that is now Haverstraw before continuing north of what is now Albany.
In the years before 1664 when the area was formally a Dutch colony called New Netherland, present-day Rockland did not have formal European settlements. However, individuals did explore the area and made transactions with Tappan natives for land with the idea that it could have future use. For example, in 1640, Dutch Captain David Pieterszoon de Vries purchased from natives the area where the Sparkill Creek flows into the Hudson River.
In 1664, the British Crown assumed control of New Netherland from the Dutch. In June 1664, the Berkeley-Carteret land grant established the colony of New Jersey, dividing present-day Rockland and Bergen Counties into separate political areas. The northern border of New Jersey was placed in a straight line from the Delaware River at present-day Port Jervis to the Hudson River at 41 degrees even North latitude, where the Palisades Cliffs pause and give way to Sneden's Landing in Orangetown. The state line remains there to this day, though various disagreements along the exact border were had over the years.
In the 1670s, permanent Dutch settlers began to arrive with land grants, starting with the Tappan area. These settlers were eager to escape "city life", moving from Manhattan to Rockland. A number of unique, Dutch-style red sandstone houses still stand, and many place names in the county reveal their Dutch origin.
In 1683, when the Duke of York (who became King James II of England) established the first 12 counties of New York, present-day Rockland County was part of Orange County, known then as "Orange County South of the Mountains". Orangetown was created at the same time under a royal grant, originally encompassing all of modern Rockland County. Around this time, as the English began to colonize Nyack and Tappan, the Native Americans began to leave Rockland in search of undisturbed land further north.
The natural barrier of the Ramapo Mountains and the size of the county made carrying out governmental activities difficult. At one point, two governments were active, one on each side of the Ramapo Mountains, so Rockland split off from Orange in 1798 to form its own county. That same year, the county seat was transferred from Tappan to New City, where a new courthouse was built.
Haverstraw was separated from Orangetown in 1719, and became a town in 1788; it included the present-day Clarkstown, Ramapo, and Stony Point. Clarkstown and Ramapo became towns in 1791, followed by Stony Point in 1865.
During the American Revolution, when control of the Hudson River was viewed by the British as strategic to dominating the American territories, Rockland had skirmishes at Haverstraw, Nyack, and Piermont, and significant military engagements at the Battle of Stony Point, where General "Mad" Anthony Wayne earned his nickname. George Washington had headquarters for a time at John Suffern's tavern, the later site of the village of Suffern. British Major John André met with American traitor Benedict Arnold near Stony Point to buy the plans for the fortifications at West Point. André was captured with the plans in Tarrytown on his way back to the British lines; he was brought to Tappan for trial in the Tappan church, found guilty, hanged, and buried nearby. Still another important chapter in the story of the Revolution was written on May 5, 1783, when General Washington received Sir Guy Carleton at the DeWint House, where they discussed terms of a peace treaty. Two days later, Washington visited Sir Guy aboard a British war vessel. On this day, the king's navy fired its first salute to the flag of the United States of America.
In the decades following the Revolution, Rockland became popular for its stone and bricks. Many buildings in New York City were built with bricks made in Rockland. These products, however, required quarrying in land that many later believed should be set aside as a preserve. Many unsuccessful efforts were made to turn much of the Hudson Highlands on the northern tip of the county into a forest preserve. Union Pacific Railroad president E. H. Harriman, though, donated land and large sums of money for the purchase of properties in the area of Bear Mountain. Bear Mountain/Harriman State Park became a reality in 1910 when Harriman's widow donated his lands to the state, and by 1914, more than an estimated one million people a year were coming to the park. After World War I, Rockland County became the most important sausage-making hub in New York.
In 1911, Letchworth Village, an institution for the mentally disabled opened in Rockland County near Thiells. The institution gained national infamy in 1972, when an investigation by Geraldo Rivera revealed the patients there to having been housed in neglectful conditions. Letchworth closed in 1996.
Rockland remained semirural until the 1950s, when the Palisades Interstate Parkway, Tappan Zee Bridge, and other major arteries were built. In the decades that followed, the county became a maturely developed suburb of New York City. As people moved up from the five boroughs (particularly the Bronx in the early years) the population flourished from 89,276 in 1950 to 265,475 in 1990.
Rockland County lies just north of the New Jersey-New York border, west of Westchester County (across the Hudson River), and south of Orange County. Its east border is formed by the Tappan Zee portion of the Hudson River. The county's terrain ranges from 1,283' (391m) ASL on Rockhouse Mountain (northwest of Lake Welch) to approaching sea level along the Hudson River. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 199.34 sq mi (516 km2), of which 173.55 sq mi (449.49 km2) are land and 25.79 sqmi (66.80 km2) (13%) are covered by water. It is the state's smallest county outside the five boroughs of New York City.
About 30% of Rockland County is devoted to parkland, belonging to either the five towns, incorporated villages, the state, or the county. These parks provide walking and hiking trails, ballfields, dog runs, historic sites, ponds, streams, salt marshes, and equestrian trails. Some popular state parks include Bear Mountain State Park on the northernmost tip of the county, Harriman State Park, also along the county's northern boundary, and Nyack Beach State Park along the Hudson River, with trails connecting to Rockland Lake State Park. The county hosts numerous public and private golf courses, with the towns of Orangetown, Ramapo, Stony Point, and Haverstraw all operating public golf courses within their towns. The Palisades Interstate Park Commission operates two golf courses in Rockland Lake State Park. Notable private courses in the county include Paramount Country Club, Manhattan Woods Golf Course (designed by PGA great Gary Player), and Rockland Country Club (Sparkill).
- Antrim Lake
|US Decennial Census|
1990-2000 2010, 2019
As of the 2000 United States Census. 286,753 people, 92,675 households, and 70,989 families were residing in the county. The population density was 1,652/sq mi (638/km2). The 94,973 housing units averaged 547/sq mi (211/km2). Residents live closer together than the census numbers indicate, as 30% of the county is reserved as parkland. About 9% of residents reported speaking Spanish at home, 5% Yiddish, 3% French-based creole, 1.5% Italian, 1.3% Tagalog, 1.3% Hebrew, 1.2% French, and 1% Russian. Other languages spoken at home by at least 1000 people include Malayalam, Korean, Chinese, German, and Polish.
|Rockland County Demographics|
|Racial demographics of Rockland according to 2016 US Census Bureau data:|
|White (Whites of non-Hispanic origin: 63.0%)||77.5%|
|Hispanics and Latinos (of any race)||17.6%|
|American Indian and Alaska Native persons||0.5%|
|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander persons||0.1%|
Of the 92,675 households, 38% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63% were married couples living together, 10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23% were not families. Around 19% of households were made up of individuals, and 8% had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 3.0 and the average family size was 3.5.
The county's age distribution was 28% under 18, 8% from 18 to 24, 28% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, and 12% who were 65 or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 women, there were 95 men. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 91 men.
The median income for a household was $68,000 and for a family was $80,000. Males had a median income of $58,000 versus $39,000 for females. The per capita income for the county was $28,000. The mean, or average, income for a family in Rockland County is $73,500 according to the 2004 census. About 6% of families and 10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14% of those under age 18 and 8% of those age 65 or over.
- In 2000–2001, Liberty Elementary School in Valley Cottage (semi-finalists in 2004)
- In 2007, Strawtown Elementary School in West Nyack
- In 2008 & 2014, Franklin Avenue Elementary School in Pearl River
- In 2009, George W. Miller Elementary School in Nanuet
- In 2011, Pearl River Middle School in Pearl River
- In 2013, Cherry Lane Elementary School in Suffern
- In 2016, Nanuet Senior High School In Nanuet
- In 2018, Clarkstown High School South
Colleges and universities
- Dominican College (Dominican College of Blauvelt) - Orangeburg
- Long Island University extension site at Rockland Community College - Suffern
- Columbia University's Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory
- Nyack College - Nyack
- Rabbinical College Beth Shraga - Monsey, NY
- St. Thomas Aquinas College - Sparkill, NY
- Yeshiva D'Monsey Rabbinical College - Monsey
- Yeshivath Viznitz - Kaser (Monsey)
The Tappan Zee Bridge connects South Nyack in Rockland County and Tarrytown in Westchester County across the Hudson River in the Lower Hudson Valley of ew York. The old bridge was replaced with a new span in 2017.
The county is served by several major highways, including Interstate 87/287 (the New York Thruway), opening from Suffern to Yonkers in 1955. The oldTappan Zee Bridge opened the same year, connecting Rockland and Westchester, allowing Rockland County's population to grow rapidly. The Palisades Interstate Parkway, a project of master planner Robert Moses, and built between 1947 and 1958, connects the county directly to the George Washington Bridge due south. The Garden State Parkway opened in 1955, connecting New Jersey to I-87/287.
For further information
- List of county routes in Rockland County, New York
- List of county routes in Rockland County, New York (1–38)
- List of county routes in Rockland County, New York (41–75)
- List of county routes in Rockland County, New York (76–118A)
The Transport of Rockland operates several local bus routes throughout the county, and the express bus Hudson Link routes to city centers and train stations in Tarrytown and White Plains in Westchester County. TOR provides connections to other neighborhood bus operations – Minitrans and connections to private commuter lines, Rockland Coaches and Short Line providing service to northern New Jersey and New York City.
NJ Transit/Metro-North Railroad operates the Port Jervis Line, which stops at the Suffern Railroad Station and Sloatsburg Station, and the Pascack Valley Line, whose stops include Pearl River, Nanuet, and Spring Valley. in their respective hamlets and village of the same name. Connections on this line are available at Secaucus for service to Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan and service to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey. The southern terminus of both lines is Hoboken Terminal in New Jersey, where connections can be made to several NJ Transit bus lines, ferries, and PATH trains to New York City.
Until 1958, Rockland County's eastern side was served by the New York Central Railroad's passenger service on the West Shore Railroad from Weehawken, New Jersey, opposite midtown Manhattan up through Tappan, West Nyack, Congers, and Haverstraw, on to the West Hudson shore cities of Newburgh, Kingston, and Albany. The service ran to West Haverstraw, in the north of the until 1959. The Erie Railroad ran train service on the Northern Branch through the southeastern corner of the county to Nyack up to 1966.
NY Waterway operates a ferry service between Haverstraw and Ossining in Westchester County for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Commuters take the Transport of Rockland's Ferry Express route to the Haverstraw ferry terminal for service to Metro-North's Hudson Line service to Grand Central Terminal. Ferry service is typically suspended in the colder months when the Hudson River freezes over, and commuters must take shuttle buses across the Tappan Zee Bridge.
Nearby airports include:
- New York: John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, Westchester County Airport, and Stewart International Airport
- New Jersey: Newark Liberty International Airport, Teterboro Airport
Law, government, and politics
United States House of Representatives
All of Rockland County falls within the 17th Congressional District, along with central and western Westchester County. The district is represented by Congressman Mondaire Jones who alongside Ritchie Torres are the first black and openly gay members of congress.
New York politicians
|Rockland County Assembly Members|
|Kenneth Zebrowski Jr.||
Rockland County government is led by a county executive. Republican Ed Day was first elected in 2013 and re-elected in 2017. The previous county executive was Republican C. Scott Vanderhoef, who was re-elected in 2009 to his fifth four-year term. Day is the third county executive in Rockland history, with Vanderhoef having defeated the incumbent, John T. Grant (D), in 1993. Prior to 1985, Rockland County did not have a county executive. County Executive Day was sworn in for his second term on January 1, 2018.
Rockland County has a county legislature made up of 17 members, elected from single-member districts. The Chairman of the Legislature is Democrat Alden H. Wolfe. In the November 2019 election Republicans gained one seat, reducing the Democratic majority from 10–7 to 9–8. As of January 2020, the legislators are: Legislative District Maps
|Rockland County Legislators|
|Douglas J. Jobson||Republican||Stony Point|
|Michael M. Grant||Democrat||West Haverstraw|
|Jay Hood Jr. Majority Leader||Democrat||Haverstraw|
|Itamar Yeger||Democrat||Wesley Hills|
|Lon M. Hofstein Minority Leader||Republican||New City|
|Alden H. Wolfe Chair||Democrat||Suffern|
|Philip Soskin Deputy Majority Leader||Democrat||Monsey|
|Toney L. Earl||Democrat||Hillcrest|
|Christopher J. Carey||Republican||Bardonia|
|Harriet D. Cornell||Democrat||West Nyack|
|Laurie A. Santulli||Republican||Congers|
|Charles J. Falciglia||Republican||Airmont|
|Aron B. Wieder||Democrat||Monsey|
|Aney Paul Vice Chair||Democrat||Nanuet|
|John W. McGowan||Republican||Pearl River|
|Vince D. Tyer Deputy Minority Leader||Republican||Pearl River|
The five towns of Rockland County are led by town supervisors and town boards. The villages encompassed in the towns are led by mayors and village trustees.
As of the November 2019 elections, the town supervisors are:
|Rockland County Town Supervisors|
George A. Hoehmann
Howard T. Phillips Jr.
Teresa M. Kenny
There are three types of general trial courts in Rockland County: the New York Supreme Court, the County Court, and the Justice Courts. The Supreme Court is the trial level court of the New York State Unified Court System, which presents some confusion as the Supreme Court is the highest court of appeals in the federal system, as well as in most states (the Court of Appeals is the highest court in New York). The Supreme Court has broad authority over all categories of cases, both civil and criminal. Generally, the Supreme Court in Rockland County hears civil cases involving claims in excess of $25,000. While the Supreme Court has jurisdiction over criminal cases in most counties, this is handled by the County Courts. In Rockland, however, the Supreme Court does exercise jurisdiction over some criminal cases.
The County Court is inferior to the Supreme Court and is authorized to hear criminal cases that have occurred in the county as well as limited jurisdiction over civil cases. The County Court handles felony cases exclusively and shares jurisdiction with the town and village justice courts on misdemeanor cases and other minor offenses and violations. The County Court's jurisdiction on civil cases is limited to those involving less than $25,000.
Each of the towns and 15 of the villages have Justice Courts, which mostly hear routine traffic ticket cases, especially from the New York State Thruway and the Palisades Interstate Parkway. They also handle drunk driving charges, lower-level criminal misdemeanor matters, and occasionally perform arraignment on felonies (most felony proceedings are heard in County Court). These courts generally handle the highest volume of cases.
Like most of the Hudson Valley, Rockland County historically voted Republican but in recent years narrowly voted Democratic. Between 1892 and 1992, Rockland County only voted Democratic three times–Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide victory of 1964, Franklin Delano Roosevelt's landslide victory in 1936 (in which it was the only New York City suburb to vote Democratic), and Woodrow Wilson's first campaign in 1912. Rockland shifted Democratic in 1992, and has since voted Republican once, in 2004 for George W. Bush. Despite this shift, national elections have remained close in Rockland County as compared to neighboring Westchester County, which has witnessed dependable double-digit Democratic victories since the 1990s.
- The New York Boulders (formerly Rockland), a member of the Frontier League was founded in 2011 by former Yankee catcher John Flaherty of Pearl River, Clarkstown resident Michael Aglialoro (president of Clarkstown Education Foundation) and Stephen Mulvey (former part-owner of the Brooklyn-Los Angeles Dodgers). The team, owned by Bottom 9 Baseball, play their home games at the 4,350-seat, 16-suite Palisades Credit Union Park.
- Rockland Country Club is located in Sparkill, New York and features an 18-hole golf course.
- The New York Raiders, an American semi-professional rugby league football team based in Congers, New York, currently play in the American National Rugby League (AMNRL) competition. Their home games are at Rockland Lake State Park; they partner with the Canberra Raiders of Australia's National Rugby League (NRL).
- The Nyack Rocklands played minor league baseball in the North Atlantic League from 1946 to 1948. The Rocklands were an affiliate of the Philadelphia Athletics.
According to Scorecard.org, which integrates data from different sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in 2002, Rockland County ranked among the worst 10% in the United States in terms of air releases. Recent EPA statistics show that a total of 66 presently active Rockland County facilities are currently regulated. In Scorecard's list of Top 10 polluters from 2002, the Lovett generating station in Tompkins Cove is the top polluter, releasing 1,523,339 pounds of toxic emissions. Studies were released in 2000 and in 2004 by the Clean Air Task Force to study the impacts of power plant emissions in the United States. This data for Rockland County shows that a total of $2,150,800 was paid in compensation for numerous illnesses caused by power plant pollution, including asthma attacks, heart attacks and death. The Lovett generating station was closed and dismantled prior to 2014. From 2015 to 2018, the Haverstraw Quarry owned and managed by CRH Tilcon and Oldcastle Materials was heavily fined for air and water pollution, including over-blasting, over-excavating, non-viable use of its NESCO unhealthy dust suppression systems and lethal dust & water runoffs into protected waterways. In the period from 2017 to 2020, Suez experienced instances of discolored water and odor complaints. During 2020, the Rockland County Health Dept. and NYSDEC found/investigated and informed Suez of untreated polluted water at Tilcon operated discharge points at a stream that flows into Lake Deforest. After discovery, Tilcon stopped pumping the waste. Higher cancer rates in Rockland County as compared to Manhattan associate towards drinking water quality, aging drink water infrastructure/storm drain runoff concerns.
COVID-19 was first confirmed to have reached Rockland County on March 6, 2021. After the areas of Spring Valley and Monsey were identified as having the highest infection rates, County Executive Ed Day requested that state emergency management declare those areas a closed containment zone. As of July 4, 2021, there are a total of 47,027 COVID-19 cases and 966 deaths. At 14,450 cases per 100,000, Rockland had the greatest density of COVID-19 cases of any New York county. 47% of the population and 58% of the eligible population (aged 12 and over) have been vaccinated. The Orthodox Jewish community, the largest in the country, have some of the lowest vaccination rates in the state; Monsey's is the lowest in the state, at 17.8%, as of June 15, 2021.
In 2014, Clarkstown created a first-of-its-kind in New York State 2.3-megawatt solar system consisting of about 4,300 panels on top of a closed, highly regulated, flat shadeless 13-acre section of the former garbage landfill in West Nyack. The unit is sized to generate 3 million kilowatt-hours annually – enough power to supply about 200 homes, that provides one-third of the electric needs of the Town of Clarkstown government. The Clarkstown solar field project is at the maximum size that is currently allowed by New York State. The installation was projected to save taxpayers as much as $4 million over 30 years by reducing the amount of the town's annual electric bill – which is about $2 million and produce 10 percent of all the electricity that O&R gets through solar power. The project was installed in summer 2014, coming online in October.
Paul W. Adler, the chairperson of the Rockland County's Jewish Community Relations Council, said in a 1997 New York Times article that "There are two reasons villages get formed in Rockland. One is to keep the Hasidim out and the other is to keep the Hasidim in."
Administrative divisions of New York
There are five towns in Rockland County. The most populous is Ramapo at 126,595, while the least populous is Stony Point, at 15,059, according to the 2010 US Census.
There are nineteen incorporated villages in Rockland County, twelve of which are located at least partially in the town of Ramapo, and none of which are in Stony Point.
There are seventeen Census-designated places and seven Hamlets within the five towns of Rockland County.
Clarkstown is divided into 4 wards for the purposes of municipal representation 
Points of interest
Educational and cultural
- Major John Andre Monument - Tappan, New York. Represents British army officer John André, put to death for assisting Benedict Arnold in his attempted surrender in West Point during the American Revolutionary War.
- Camp Shanks - Orangetown, New York. A museum in a former military camp, named for Major General David Carey Shanks (1861–1940).
- Edward Hopper Birthplace and Boyhood Home- Nyack, New York. The home of American realism painter Edward Hopper, now an art center.
- Washington Avenue Soldier's Monument and Triangle - Suffern, New York. Honors George Washington and Rochambeau, where they encamped during the American Revolutionary War.
- The Old 76 House- Tappan, New York. One of the oldest bars in America, a meeting place for Patriots during the Revolutionary War, headquarters of Nathaniel Greene.
Commercial and entertainment
- Palisades Center - West Nyack, New York. Opened in 1998, one of America's largest shopping malls.
- The Shops at Nanuet - Nanuet, New York. Opened in 1969 as Nanuet Mall. It was the site of the notorious 1981 Brinks Robbery.
- Palisades Credit Union Park - Ramapo, New York. A baseball stadium home to the New York Boulders and the St. Thomas Aquinas College baseball team.
- Lafayette Theatre - A movie palace in downtown Suffern, New York.
- Blue Hill Plaza - Pearl River, New York. 21-story office tower and an eight-story office building on 90-acres of landscaped and wooded property.
- Rockland Bakery - Nanuet, New York. Opened in 1986, Rockland's biggest bakery, delivering bread and other baked products as far as New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut.
- Bear Mountain State Park - Stony Point, New York
- Blauvelt State Park - Blauvelt, New York
- Harriman State Park (bordered between Rockland and Orange County, New York)
- High Tor State Park - Clarkstown, New York
- Hook Mountain State Park - Clarkstown, New York
- Nyack Beach State Park - Upper Nyack, New York
- Rockland Lake State Park - Congers, New York
- Tallman Mountain State Park - Orangetown, New York
- Downstate New York
- Hudson Valley
- List of counties in New York
- List of New York State Historic Markers in Rockland County, New York
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Rockland County, New York
- Rumachenanck tribe
- Brink's robbery (1981)
- Gilchrest Road, New York crossing accident
- "QuickFacts Rockland County, New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Rockland County". New York State. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- "County of Rockland, New York :: Home". Co.rockland.ny.us. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Italian Food Center". Italian Food Center.
- "Italian Fest Returns To Blauvelt". Pearl River, NY Patch. August 3, 2018.
- "Event and Party Photos: On the Town (August 2011)". July 5, 2011.
- "Rockland County". Rockland County.
- "Rockhouse Mountain - Peakbagger.com". www.peakbagger.com.
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". US Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- "U.S. Census website". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Rockland County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- Khurram Saeed and Theresa Juva-Brown (December 17, 2012). "It's official: State picks builder for new Tappan Zee Bridge". Copyright © 2012 www.lohud.com. All rights reserved. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
- "Minitrans". Town.clarkstown.ny.us. Archived from the original on May 15, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Comments On The West Shore from James Knecht". Nyc.railfan.net. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- "New York Central Railroad, Table 50". Official Guide of the Railways. National Railway Publication Company. 92 (7). December 1959.
- "COMMUTERS LOSE BID TO KEEP ERIE TRAINS", The New York Times, p. 58, October 3, 1966, retrieved June 7, 2010
- Avery, Dan. "Mondaire Jones joins Ritchie Torres as first gay Black men elected to Congress". nbc news. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- "NY Senate District 38". NY State Senate.
- "NY Senate District 39". NY State Senate.
- "County of Rockland, New York :: Elected Officials". rocklandgov.com.
- Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
- "2020 Presidential Election Results". New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- "Nyack Rocklands - BR Bullpen". www.baseball-reference.com.
- "Rockland County's general pollution report card". Scorecard.goodguide.com. October 28, 2003. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Envirofacts Rockland county data sheet". Oaspub.epa.gov. December 22, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Scorecard's Top ten polluters". Scorecard.goodguide.com. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Clean Air Task Force interactive map". Catf.us. January 1, 1979. Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Matsuda, Akiko. "DEC cites Tilcon on Haverstraw Quarry". The Journal News.
- D'Onofrio, Michael. "Haverstraw: Dust, noise are facts of life with Tilcon as neighbor". The Journal News.
- "State DEC Issues Violation Against Haverstraw Quarry". North Rockland Daily Voice. November 30, 2015.
- "Division of Mineral Resources Statewide Contacts - NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation". www.dec.ny.gov.
- Taliaferro, Lanning (March 23, 2020). "Coronavirus Cases In Rockland Triple, 5 Dead: Update". Patch.com. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
- Cutler, Nancy; Brum, Robert; Lieberman, Steve (April 2, 2020). "Coronavirus: Rockland county executive demands containment zone; see map of cases". The Journal News.
- "JHU COVID-19 Dashboard". Johns Hopkins University. July 4, 2021. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- "New York Coronavirus Map and Case Count". The New York Times. July 4, 2021. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
- Reich, Aaron (June 15, 2021). "Ultra-Orthodox zip codes have some of New York's worst vaccination rates". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
- "Clarkstown Turns Old Landfill Into Solar Energy Field". Rockland Times. July 8, 2014. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
- "Supervisor Hoehmann Invited to Speak in Arlington, VA About Clarkstown's Solar Field". The Rockland County Times. March 17, 2017.
- Supervisor Bio: George Hoehmann (accessed 10 July 2019)
- Berger, Joseph. "Growing Pains for a Rural Hasidic Enclave." The New York Times. January 13, 1997.
- Clarkstown Ward Districts
- Rockland Bakery. (n.d.). Our History. Retrieved March 30, 2020, from https://www.rocklandbakery.com/history