Rodez

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Rodez
A general view of Rodez
A general view of Rodez
Coat of arms of Rodez
Coat of arms
Rodez is located in France
Rodez
Rodez
Coordinates: 44°21′02″N 2°34′30″E / 44.3506°N 2.5750°E / 44.3506; 2.5750Coordinates: 44°21′02″N 2°34′30″E / 44.3506°N 2.5750°E / 44.3506; 2.5750
Country France
Region Midi-Pyrénées
Department Aveyron
Arrondissement Rodez
Intercommunality Grand Rodez
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Christian Teyssèdre (PS)
Area1 11.18 km2 (4.32 sq mi)
Population (2008)2 24,540
 • Density 2,200/km2 (5,700/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 12202 / 12000
Elevation 501–643 m (1,644–2,110 ft)
(avg. 627 m or 2,057 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Rodez (French pronunciation: ​[ʁo.dɛz]; Occitan: Rodés) is a town and commune in the South of the France, northeast of Toulouse. It is the prefecture of the department of Aveyron in the region of Midi-Pyrénées. Rodez is the seat of the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez (fr), of the First Constituency of Aveyron as well as of the general Council of Aveyron.

Former capital of the Rouergue,[1] the city is seat of the Diocese of Rodez and Vabres. Its inhabitants are called Ruthénois,[2] from the name of the Ruteni, a Gallic tribe which once occupied the territory, the former demonym of "Rodanois" having given way to this scholarly form.

Contents

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Located in the south-west of France, in the heart of the triangle formed by Toulouse, Clermont-Ferrand and Montpellier, in the western foothills of the Massif Central, the Rodez landscape is organised between the valleys and high plateaus of Grands Causses (fr) and the moist hills of Ségala. It extends into Grand Rodez (fr), with the communes of Onet-le-Château, Sainte-Radegonde, Le Monastère, Olemps and Luc-la-Primaube, which forms an agglomeration of 83,000 habitants[3] adjoining the city of Rodez.

Geology and landforms[edit]

The territory of Rodez is packed with geological diversity. It straddles on the ancient base of Ségala composed of acidic siliceous earths of Les Rougiers to soil consisting of red argillite, and causses composed of limestones and marls. The city was built on a conical isolated terrain, locally called Le Piton, and gradually spread to the surrounding slopes. It is located in a level 2 zone of seismicity, in other words at a low level.[4]

Hydrography[edit]

The commune is crossed, below, by the Aveyron, an important place for fishing or walks through green spaces proposed for the Layoule (fr) Quarter, and the Auterne (fr) stream.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Rodez is part of the supra-Mediterranean level. Under the influence of a semi-continental climate in winter and Mediterranean in summer, Rodez remains a cold city compared to other cities in the south of France. Winters are sharp and the summers often very hot and sunny. During winter, Rodez has fairly occasional snowfall due to its low altitude of 550 metres (1,800 ft) in contrast to other towns in the north of the department, which are closer of the Aubrac plateau and therefore higher.

In 2011, with nearly 2,400 hours per year of sun and 304 days of sunshine per year, Rodez was ranked 2,407th of cities in terms of sunshine in France. This is significantly above the national average.[5]

Comparison of weather conditions
City Sunshine (hrs/yr) Rain (mm/yr) Snow (days/yr) Storm (days/yr) Fog (days/yr)
Rodez[6][7] 2300[8] 770 11 22 22
National Average 1973 770 14 22 40
Paris 1661 637 12 18 10
Nice 2724 733 1 29 1
Strasbourg 1693 665 29 29 53
Brest 1605 1211 7 12 75
Climate data for Rodez
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C 6.0 7.0 11 13 17 22 26 26 20 15 9.0 7.0 14.9
Daily mean °C 3.0 4.0 6.4 8.5 12.6 16.2 18.8 18.9 15.4 11.9 7.6 4.0 10.61
Average high °F 42.8 44.6 52 55 63 72 79 79 68 59 48.2 44.6 58.93
Daily mean °F 37.4 39.2 43.5 47.3 54.7 61.2 65.8 66 59.7 53.4 45.7 39.2 51.09
Source: Météo France[9]

Events based on the data of Météo-France at Millau Soulobres station, from 1965:[10]

Lowest temperature −17.5 °C (0.5 °F)
Coldest day 16 January 1985
Coldest year 1980
Highest temperature 37.5 °C (99.5 °F)
Hottest day 30 July 1983 and 16 August 1987
Warmest year 1997
Maximum rainfall in 24 hours 115 millimetres (4.5 in)
Maximum snowfall in 24 hours 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in)
Rainiest day 26 September 1992
Driest year 1967
Wettest year 1969

On 28 January 2006, Rodez experienced an important snow episode. A metre of powdery snow, which was very adherent, fell on the agglomeration, crippling the economy for several days and the life of Le Piton.[11]

Transportation[edit]

Rodez is growing day by day and has affirmed its leading place in the Midi-Pyrénées since the early 2000s. The city and the metropolitan area is located at the foot of the RN 88 (fr), the Toulouse-Lyon axis, an essential route for its economic and tourist development and which plays a complementary role to the main cities of the region, Toulouse, Albi and Castres, with which it is developing collaborations.

As of 2005, the Aveyron department continued its opening up in terms of communication tools. The ring road of Rodez, surrounding the agglomeration of Grand Rodez (fr) and gradually converted into a dual carriageway urban boulevard, to serve the strategic locations of the Rodez settlement. Continuity of a dual carriageway on the entire ring road should emerge on the horizon in 2018 as part of the 2014-2018 plan. Indeed, three grade separated roundabouts are planned as part of this dual carriageway urban boulevard project: Moutiers, La Gineste and Saint-Marc. Finally, the principle of a large bypass has not been excluded (without a deadline, to date).[12]

In 2009, the Rodez-Aveyron Airport experienced changes with the expansion of its terminal and the opening of new international scheduled destinations.

Once in town, options for getting around include car rental, the local bus system (Agglobus), or on foot. The pedestrian city centre (centre ville) is paved in cobblestone streets, which are lined with buildings that are hundreds of years old.

Routes[edit]

Railway lines[edit]

Rodez is at the centre of a railway formed by lines going to Capdenac (fr) (to Paris), Albi along the Castelnaudary to Rodez line (fr) (destined for Toulouse) and Sévérac-le-Château (fr) (destined for Millau). The rail network has undergone numerous restructurings, including through its plan rail Midi-Pyrénées.[13] Between 2009 and 2013, the complete change of the rails, the rehabilitation of the structures, replacing the systems of information and operation of traffic on the lines in Rodez-Toulouse and Rodez-Paris have resulted in an improvement of the network. In addition, the region was equipped in 2013 with new TER trains, faster and comfortable.[14]

Main roads[edit]

Rodez is situated to the foot of the RN88 (fr) (route linking Toulouse to Lyon), transformed in the Rodez area into an urban boulevard [dual carriageways, many on and off sliproads, speed limited to between 70–110 km/h (43–68 mph)] to allow the flow of traffic totalling 35,000 vehicles per day.[15] Counting loops (fr) are buried to assess traffic for transcription by real-time traffic maps.[16] The portion of this highway, declared a national priority in 1993 between Rodez and Albi, is currently in the process of restructuring with the doubling of the carriageways, after decades of studies and that since 18 October 2010, date of the official launch of this vast site.

A portion of the RN88 road between Rodez and Carmaux should be completely converted into a dual carriageway expressway and put into service in 2018, thus allowing a virtually seamless dual carriageway journey between Rodez and Toulouse[17] (with the exception of the portion between Albi and Carmaux the route upgrading to motorway is envisaged but not programmed to date). Indeed, the A68 has been in service between Albi and Toulouse for several years. As of 2018, the RN88 which is an extension of the A68 will then almost all be dual carriageway, thus reducing the time between Rodez and Toulouse. Note that this axis is one of the largest in the Midi-Pyrénées in terms of traffic.[18] As for the portion of the RN88 between Rodez and Sévérac-le-Château, this last link is missing dual carriageway, studies are underway but work will not begin before 2020 due to lack of credits granted. At the end of this work, the entire journey will be converted into dual carriageway between Rodez and the principal cities around the Mediterranean.[19]

Furthermore, the segment of the city between Espalion and Rodez underwent a restructuring with the diversion of Curlande commissioned in 2011.[20] A bypass project of the town of Espalion is ongoing since the beginning of this year towards the west of the Lot Valley and Aurillac. With the RN88 which is the most important artery of the agglomeration, Rodez is the focal point of several routes from its own department or bordering departments:

Place Distance Average travelling time[note 1]
Toulouse 150 kilometres (93 mi) 1 hrs 50 mins (as of 2013)

(1 hrs 15 mins in January 2016,[21] by dual carriageway)

Montpellier 173 kilometres (107 mi) 2 hrs 00 mins
Perpignan 273 kilometres (170 mi) 2 hrs 50 mins
Clermont-Ferrand 244 kilometres (152 mi) 2 hrs 40 mins
Bordeaux 345 kilometres (214 mi) 3 hrs 45 mins
Marseille 342 kilometres (213 mi) 4 hrs 00 mins
Lyon 330 kilometres (210 mi) 4 hrs 15 mins
Nice 497 kilometres (309 mi) 5 hrs 00 mins
Paris 661 kilometres (411 mi) 6 hrs 00 mins

Transport network[edit]

Rail[edit]
Main article: Gare de Rodez

The railway station of Rodez, located on Avenue du Maréchal Joffre, is the main station of Aveyron. There are daily trains to Paris and Toulouse, as well as other trains and buses connecting Rodez to smaller towns. It serves Paris-Austerlitz (Intercités), Toulouse-Matabiau (TER), Brive-la-Gaillarde (TER), Millau (TER and regional bus), Montpellier (bus with mandatory charging at Millau station) and other stations of the department and bordering departments. In addition, it is noted that many other large French cities can be reached by the connections in Toulouse and Brive. The lines and railway infrastructure have undergone important renovations with the complete change of the rails, the modernisation of technical systems and structures as well as the implementation of new systems of traffic management. In the next few years, the aim is for a time of 1 hour 45 minutes from Rodez to Toulouse and 4 hours 50 minutes from Rodez to Paris through the LGV Poitiers-Limoges.[22][23]

In the past, the Rodez and Aveyron rail network was part of the company of the Chemins de fer du Midi. Formerly, there was a second station, that of "Paraire" below the current Lycée Foch, close to the city centre but closed in the 1970s. Today, there is no service there.

Road[edit]

Rodez is the central point of numerous bus routes coming from the department or bordering departments. Indeed, there are currently nearly 60 routes.[24]

Air[edit]
The ATR 72-500, a 75-seat aircraft, has a daily connection from Rodez-Aveyron to Paris-Orly in 1 hour 25 minutes.
Main article: Rodez-Aveyron Airport

Rodez is served by the nearby Rodez Marcillac Airport, located within the commune of Salles-la-Source. The international airport of Rodez-Aveyron is the third airport of the Midi-Pyrénées region after Toulouse and Tarbes, and the main platform of the south of the Massif Central, with direct scheduled flights to:

Public transport[edit]
Main article: [[Agglobus (fr)]]

The city has had a longstanding public transport system, the tramway of Rodez (fr) having circulated from 1902 to 1920. Nowadays, these journeys are made by buses. Agglobus is the transit network serving the communes of the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez (fr), nearly 60,000 people, where a multiple purchase ticket shall not exceed €0.20. It allows service to the centre of Rodez from outside communes (and vice versa) before 8am with a time range for operation of the service between 7am (5am for some lines) and 8pm. These lines have scheduled timing.[25] This network is complemented by an evening service that operates Monday to Saturday, from 8pm to 11:30pm, by a transport service scheduled running Monday to Saturday with two round trips per day, and for persons with reduced mobility which works at the same times as the bus network. The Rodez topography makes it difficult to create special lanes for buses. As such, the Agglobus network is equipped with a system of prioritisation at traffic lights and also a geolocation for buses.

Postal transport[edit]

Rodez has had an operational sorting centre since July 2009. It receives about 400,000 letters every day and processes 14 per second. All of the letters posted from Rodez to a destination within the agglomeration and its own region are delivered the next morning.[26] Courier services, international and domestic carriers are also present in Rodez. The city has three post offices[27] with its central office located in the city centre, at Place Foch, near the cathedral. Other branches are located in the suburbs as well as in the Bourran Quarter. In addition, other communes forming the urban agglomeration of the Grand Rodez also have their post offices, including the Aveyron sorting centre located in the commune of Onet-le-Château.

Urban planning[edit]

Urban morphology[edit]

Tour des Corbières, 15th century, with a section of the ramparts at the Boulevard d'Estourmel.
Main articles: [[Quarters of Rodez (fr)]], [[Vieux-Rodez (fr)]], [[Place d'Armes (Rodez) (fr)]] and [[Bourran (Rodez) (fr)]]

Rodez is an ancient city, the road becomes gradually narrower as it approaches Vieux-Rodez (fr) [Old Rodez] and the remains of the ancient city fortress are still strongly present in the form of ramparts. Its hyper-centre is extended over many streets and pedestrian alleys between the squares of Place du Bourg, Place de l'Olmet, Place de la Cité and the Place de la Madeleine, one discovers typical houses in a mostly preserved historical setting. In these squares markets or fairs are held while the Passage du Mazel hosts a daily trade of fresh and seasonal produce. Pedestrian streets, very concentrated in the old centre, today are a place of life with many commercial signs.[28] Beyond, Avenue Victor-Hugo (fr) is a long straight avenue lined with trees, leading to a central hub, the Place d'Armes (fr), to access the boulevards on the periphery of the city centre. Road traffic is carried around the walls located on the boulevards of Estourmel, Belle Isle, Denys Puech and Flaugergues encircling the centre and served by streets parallel to this historic heart.

Beyond Vieux-Rodez, the city expanded during the 20th century. To meet the demands of the era, new neighbourhoods and economic zones were developed. Rodez was, during the post-war period, an average city that had the most buildings beyond its circular boulevards. Finally, the creation of the Bourran Viaduct allowed the extension of the city beyond the Auterne Valley.[note 2]

The town of Rodez is part of the Grands Sites de Midi-Pyrénées. It continues to work to obtain the label Ville d'Art et d'Histoire and wishes to file its candidacy for UNESCO world heritage. Thus, the historic centre, and joined developments, are designed to meet the criteria of these institutions.

The municipality is divided into five major quarters:[29]

West Quarter North Quarter Central Quarter South Quarter East Quarter
Bourran (fr) Saint-Félix Vieux-Rodez (fr) Paraire Cardaillac
Versailles Saint-Éloi (fr) Centre-Ville Gourgan Ambec
La Fontanile Les Moutiers La Mouline Layoule
La Gineste L'Oustal Nau Pont Viel Fayet
Camonil Paul Ramadier, etc. La Gascarie, etc. Le Cimetière, etc.
Pré Lamarque (fr), etc.

Housing[edit]

Rodez has many rental housing units. In addition, the average of new housing has four rooms. Its housing stock remains fairly young, 59% of dwellings are from subsequent to World War II. Despite this, planning is progressing day by day and the homes and other premises have increased by 23% each year. As regards social housing, and particularly the SRU Act (fr) which introduced a minimum quota of 20% social housing for cities, Rodez had 10% in 2007 and stagnated at around 12% in 2011.[30]

Arrangements of the "Forail-Cathedral" axis[edit]

Quadrilatère Combarel[edit]

The now demolished old Combarel hospital will be replaced by housing and green spaces. Since the 19th century, the Combarel hospital enjoyed a privileged location in the heart of the city and at the centre of the agglomeration. The purchase of the former hospital by the agglomeration of Grand Rodez aims to impose the site as a centre of activity of the city, as it once was. A conversion will redraw all of the area and allow it to become a real neighbourhood to live, in order to revitalise the heart of the metropolitan area of Grand Rodez. The district wants a place with trees and green space, in which can be found housing as well tertiary activities, shops. The whole of the 30,000 square metres (320,000 sq ft) area will be mid-residential and mid-institutional, probably with the construction of a new hotel. This area will be part of a construction complying with environmental standards. The project is based on maintaining, on the upper plateau, the entire quadrilatère and chapel, as well as the development of the former Capuchin convent.[31]

Forail public garden[edit]

The Foirail public garden, and the Esplanade du Foirail, is located in the heart of the city. Consisting of a large courtyard with various mood lighting, it can accommodate some entertainments and events (concerts, outdoor performances etc.). This place has coherence with the various cultural and economic facilities which are adjacent (Musée Soulages (fr), festival hall, cinema multiplex and the centre of L'Amphitheatre). Finally, the public garden located nearby, having gained 20% more land after the redevelopment of the area, offers different walks around the different peripheral facilities.

Multiplex cinema[edit]

The multiplex consists of 10 cinema rooms with between 68 and 404 seats, spread over two levels with a total of 1580 seats opened in November 2013.[32] Double access (next to the Giratoire de l'Europe and Avenue Victor-Hugo). A fast food area as well as a night beerhouse are integrated within the confines of the cinema centre having also two other shops.[33] This cinema complex with of entertainment and exhibition spaces has the distinction of offering, in all of its rooms, entirely to digital broadcasts and is equipped to watch movies in 3D. Cultural or sports broadcasts on the other side of the world are proposed. Finally, this complex has the distinction of being used for conferences or congresses through the audio-visual and videoconferencing facilities which it offers and the available gauge in terms of seating capacity. The creation of a new square in front of the multiplex highlighting the continuing interdependence of the festival hall, cinema complex and, in the wider spectrum, the amphitheatre will allow cultural or economic events.

With a cinema ticket, at certain times, it is possible to park in the underground parking free of charge, for less than 3 hours.

Underground parking[edit]

To allow the population to take advantage of the cultural and economic facilities and hold a means of parking for people working in the centre of Rodez, entirely underground parking totalling 400 spaces was built at a depth of 10 metres (33 ft), and on two levels, under the Esplanade des Ruthènes. It opened at the same time as the multiplex.

Exhibition park[edit]

This project, scheduled for the commune of Olemps will open its doors in the second half of 2016, after work which will begin in 2015.[34] This will be designed to host cultural performances, economic events or conferences, with a set of 3,000 seats.

Toponymy[edit]

In antiquity, during the Roman occupation, the city was named Segodunum. The roots being sego "strong"[note 3] and dunum "hill", where Segodunum "high Hill, stronghold" is at the origin of the Gaulish name of Rodez.[35]

During the mid to late Roman Empire, the city was called Civitas Rutenorum, the city of the Rutènes. Then, it became Ruteni and finally Rodez. Rodez is pronounced ""Rodess" [ʀodɛs] in local French. There is the explanation of this local pronunciation by looking at the spelling of the city in Occitan: Rodés, pronounced "Rroudéss" [rruˈðes]. Rodez was spelled with a final z instead of s to maintain the closed e of Occitan and prevent it from becoming silent.[36]

History[edit]

Existing from at least the 5th century BC, Rodez was founded by the Celts. After the Roman occupation, the oppidum (fortified place) was renamed Segodunum, while in late Imperial times it was known as Civitas Rutenorum, whence the modern name. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was captured by the Visigoths and then by the Franks, being also ravaged by the Arabs in 725. Later it was occupied by the armies of the Dukes of Aquitaine and of the Counts of Toulouse. English troops occupied Rodez during the Hundred Years War.

However, in medieval times the city's history was marked by strong rivalry between the Counts and the Bishops of Rodez, who exerted their authorities in different sectors of the city, divided by a wall. The counts were able to defy the royal French authority until the submission of count John IV by the future King Louis XI in the 15th century. In the following century bishop François d'Estaing built the Rodez Cathedral.

The last count of Rodez, Henry VI of Rodez, who became Henry IV of France, sold his title to Royal Crown in 1589. The city remained a flourishing merchant centre up to the 18th century, but it lost much of its importance when Villefranche-de-Rouergue was made prefecture capital in the wake of the French Revolution.

Prehistory[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Latin inscription found in Rodez (Augustan era)

Rodez is a city of more than two millennia: its existence dates back to the 5th century BC, when a Celtic tribe of Central Europe, the Ruteni, stopped in the south of Auvergne to found one of these characteristic oppida of the Gallic civilization, that of Segodunum (fr).[37] Many elements of heritage bear witness to the Romanisation of Segodunum.[38]

While Christianity spread in the wake of the evangelising activity of Saint Amans (fr), the city did not escape the troubles of the barbaric times that followed the fall of the Roman Empire.

Middle Ages[edit]

Main article: [[List of Counts of Rodez (fr)]]

Rodez was successively occupied by the Visigoths, the Franks, the armies of the Dukes of Aquitaine and the Counts of Toulouse, as well as by the Moors, which invested in it in 725, and laid down the ancient church. Years later, it was the English who invested in Rodez, during the Hundred Years' War.

The history of the city remained marked for a long time by an intense rivalry between the Counts of Rodez, masters of the village, and the Bishops of Rodez (fr), masters of the city. A wall separated the two sectors. Each community had a town hall, its consuls, and its own administration; each competing for power. To the town, the famous dynasty of the Counts of Armagnac and Rodez, eventually acquired sovereign privileges: Coining money at the Martelenque Tower, wearing the crown and persisting to recognise the antipope Benedict XIII and his heirs Bernard Garnier and Jean Carrier (fr), for a time. This led inevitably to confrontation with the King of France in 1443. The dauphin, the future Louis XI, came to occupy Rodez and submit Count Jean IV. Later his son would have a seditious idea, trying to betray Louis XI. This caused him to be killed in Lectoure, with his family, during his escape.[39]

Early Modern era[edit]

At the beginning of the 16th century, Rodez was marked by Bishop François d'Estaing (fr) (from one of the most famous families of Rouergue). He finished the work of construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Rodez. He added the architectural masterpiece that is the bell tower, at 87 metres (285 ft), topped by a Virgin, yet today the highest bell tower, without a spire, in France. The works were completed in the fifteen years between 1510 and 1526 and this despite the plague ravaging the city.[40]

The rivalry between the two powers somewhat served the development of Rodez. Despite the testimonies that are its many made Gothic masterpieces from the 13th to the 16th century, the city has not really experienced long periods of prosperity. In 1589, Henri IV, Count of Rodez, attached the destiny of the County of Rodez to the Crown. The story of Rodez then copied that of France. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, Rodez became a thriving market city.

Rodez was divided into 6 parishes:

  • Notre-Dame (cathedral, suburb)
  • Saint-Amans, including the hamlet of Pont-Viel, a large part of the territory of the current commune of Olemps (Olemps, La Mouline, Toizac, Linars, Benechou) and a part of the municipality of La Monastère (Foulhoubous)
  • Sainte-Catherine
  • La Madeleine (church demolished)
  • Saint-Martin-des-Prés (Layoule area)
  • Saint-Félix: The area of Saint-Felix, Calcomier, La Peyrinie, and the entire valley of the Fontanges stream located in the current municipality of Onet-le-Château (Canaguet, Fontanges, Floyrac, Labro, Vabre (fr), Puech Baurez Flars)

Modern era[edit]

The old rival of Rodez was Villefranche-de-Rouergue. The French Revolution took away Villefranche's role of administrative capital, for the benefit of Rodez, which became prefecture and chef-lieu district (fr) of the new department of Aveyron due to its central position. The religious heritage of the city was only partially degraded.

In June 1792, the scientists of the time cared about to know the exact measurement of the metre. Rodez would be a "central" element to accomplish this measure. Indeed, Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre was responsible for measuring the distance from Dunkirk to Rodez, while Pierre Méchain was the one measuring between Barcelona and Rodez. They were to meet in Rodez to combine their results and determine the value of the metre. In 1793, at Montjouy in Barcelona, Méchain detected an inconsistency between the recorded lengths and an astronomical survey of the position of the stars. The Franco-Spanish war prevented him from repeating measurements. This difference (which was in fact not due to a handling error but the uncertainty of the instruments used) plunged him into deep trouble and he made every effort to avoid having to report on his work in Paris. In 1799, he resigned himself to attend an international conference which welcomed his scientific work. In 1798, the Société centrale d'agriculture de l'Aveyron (fr) was created.

The city centre in the early 20th century. It was connected to the station with the tramway of Rodez (fr), which we see here with a tram.

Under the Bourbon Restoration, the Affaire Fualdès (fr) hit a judicial review, giving rise to a highly controversial trial and executions. Rodez received many journalists, on this occasion, who described the behaviour of Rodez people from a very subjective standpoint.

The 19th century also experienced a cultural revival. In 1836, the Society of Letters, Sciences and Arts of Aveyron (fr) was founded on the initiative of Hippolyte de Barrau (fr). The main leaders of the department were involved in the cultural life of the province. Modernisation of Rodez occurred very slowly during the 19th century. Little by little, Rodez evolved by affirming and developing its role as capital of the department of Aveyron from the 21st century, creating its own economy and independence, whilst remaining linked to Toulouse. Thus, from this period, many facilities have appeared such as the Jacques Puel Hospital (fr), the development of the Rodez-Marcillac Airport platform, high-speed connections to Rodez, the Esplanade du Foirail with its multiplex cinemas, the Pierre Soulages Museum and its festival hall.[41]

Politics and administration[edit]

List of mayors[edit]

The city hall
Main article: [[List of mayors of Rodez (fr)]]
List of mayors of Rodez
Start End Name Party Other details
1983 2008 Marc Censi (fr) UDF then UMP Mayor
2008 In progress Christian Teyssèdre (fr) PS Mayor

Intercommunality[edit]

An artistic view of Rodez and the agglomeration

Rodez is the seat of the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez (fr), whose headquarters is at 1 Place Adrien Rozier. Established in 1964 and incorporated in the district, it then became an agglomeration community on 20 December 1999. Today, it has eight communes.

The commune, an important part of the southern Massif Central, is also close to other cities located in the southwest such as Toulouse and Albi, as well as in the centre and north of the Massif Central such as Aurillac and Mende with which it forms the Estelle city network.[42] Finally, one can note the existence of the Espace urbain Rodez-Decazeville (fr).

Judicial and administrative authorities[edit]

The town of Rodez is the seat of the General Council of Aveyron (fr) and the Council of the community of the Grand Rodez (fr). The conurbation has a fire service barracks, a municipal police force, an SAMU (fr) and an SMUR (fr) (both medical emergency services), a poison control centre and a remand prison while the State administers the prefecture of the department, and a gendarmerie brigade.[43] A new remand prison will be located in the commune of Druelle in July 2013 with a capacity of about 100 male inmates, including a capacity of ten for people eligible for day parole. Finally, the administrations of the State are present in Rodez (tax office, Bank of France, social security, family allowance, etc.).

For the courts, it has an instance tribunal and a high court (fr) with an assizes court, a tribunal of commerce (fr), an industrial tribunal (fr) and a juvenile court. The court of appeal is located in Montpellier.[44]

Cantons of Rodez[edit]

Rodez is the chef-lieu of three cantons:

General Councillor Canton Cantonal code Population Communes
  Bernard Saules (fr) Rodez-East (fr) 1228 14,500 inhabitants 3
  Jean-Louis Roussel Rodez-North (fr) 1246 15,200 inhabitants 3
  Nicole Laromiguière Rodez-West (fr) 1245 21,600 inhabitants 4
Blue → Miscellaneous right (Departmental majority) Pink → Socialist Group

Environmental policy[edit]

International relations[edit]

Honorary citizens[edit]

Íngrid Betancourt has been an honorary citizen of the city of Rodez since 28 March 2008.[46]

Municipal administration[edit]

The city council has 35 seats, arranged in a semicircle, of which 26 are occupied by the Socialist majority and nine seats by the opposition. The leader is Christian Teyssèdre (fr).

Political trends and results[edit]

Municipal elections of 23 and 30 March 2014

  • Outgoing mayor: Christian Teyssèdre (Socialist Party)
  • 35 seats in the municipal council (2011 legal population: 23,794 inhabitants)
  • 21 seats in the community council (CA of the Grand Rodez (fr))
Results of the municipal elections of 23 and 30 March 2014 in Rodez[47]
Main candidate List First round Second round Seats
Votes % Votes % CM CC
Christian Teyssèdre PS-PCF-EELV 3,857 42.48 4,433 48.50 26 16
Yves Censi UMP 2,666 29.36 3,220 35.22 6 4
Bruno Berardi DVG 1,200 13.21 1,487 16.26 3 1
Matthieu Danen DVD 816 8.98
Guilhem Serieys FG 540 5.94
Registered 14,821 100.00 14,821 100.00
Abstentions 5,343 36.05 5,269 35.55
Voters 9,478 63,95 9,552 64,45
Blank and spoiled 399 4.21 412 4.31
Expressed 9,079 95.79 9,140 95.69

Municipal elections of 2008

Results of the municipal election in Rodez in March 2008
Candidate Political party 1st round
Percentage (%)
Seats
Christian Teyssèdre (fr) PS 52.49 28
Jean-Louis Chauzy MoDem 19.27 3
Régine Taussat UMP 15.49 2
Frédéric Soulié DVD 12.75 2

Legislative and presidential elections[edit]

2012 legislative elections

2012 French Presidential election

Population and society[edit]

Demography[edit]

Demograpic evolution[edit]

In 2012, the commune had 23,744 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10 000 inhabitants have a census each year as a result of a survey poll, unlike the other commues which have a real census every five years.[note 4][note 5]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1793 5,592 —    
1800 6,233 +11.5%
1806 6,613 +6.1%
1821 7,352 +11.2%
1831 8,240 +12.1%
1836 9,685 +17.5%
1841 9,272 −4.3%
1846 10,936 +17.9%
1851 10,280 −6.0%
Year Pop. ±%
1856 10,877 +5.8%
1861 11,856 +9.0%
1866 12,037 +1.5%
1872 12,111 +0.6%
1876 13,375 +10.4%
1881 15,333 +14.6%
1886 15,375 +0.3%
1891 16,122 +4.9%
1896 16,303 +1.1%
Year Pop. ±%
1901 16,105 −1.2%
1906 15,502 −3.7%
1911 15,386 −0.7%
1921 14,201 −7.7%
1926 15,150 +6.7%
1931 16,195 +6.9%
1936 18,450 +13.9%
1946 20,437 +10.8%
1954 20,383 −0.3%
Year Pop. ±%
1962 20,924 +2.7%
1968 23,328 +11.5%
1975 25,550 +9.5%
1982 24,368 −4.6%
1990 24,701 +1.4%
1999 23,707 −4.0%
2008 24,540 +3.5%
From 1962 to 1999: Population without double counting; for the years following: municipal population.
Source: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1999[52] then INSEE from 2004[53]

With 23,744 inhabitants in 2012, Rodez remained the most populous commune of the Aveyron department.[54][55] The Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez (fr) consists of 55,922 people. The urban area of Rodez (fr) concentrates more than 83,000 inhabitants and its urban unit (fr) is the fifth of the Midi-Pyrénées.[56] The population of Rodez has increased gradually, over the years until 2009[57][58] without yet recovering the maximum levels reached in 1975.

Age structure[edit]

The population of the commune is relatively old. The rate of persons of an age over 60 years (23.2%) is higher than the national rate (21.6%) while being less than the departmental rate (29.8%). Like national and departmental allocations, the female population of the municipality is greater than the male population. The rate (53.5%) is higher than the national rate (51.6%).

In 2007, the distribution of the population of the commune by age group was as follows:

  • 46.5% of males (0-14 years = 14.2%, 15-29 years = 26.7%, 30-44 year olds = 20.2%, 45-59 years = 20.1%, more than 60 years = 18.8%)
  • 53.5% of females (0-14 years = 12.5%, 15-29 years = 22.9%, 30-44 year olds = 17.5%, 45-59 years = 20.1%, more than 60 years = 27%)

Education[edit]

The commune is located in the Academy of Toulouse. The city administers five nursery schools (fr) and six elementary schools (fr). The department manages two colleges (fr) and the region three lycées.[61]

Écoles

Public Private
École Fabié École Foch École Jeanne d'Arc
École Paul Girard École Paraire École Saint-Paul
École Calcomier École Gourgan École Sainte-Procule
École Cambon École Ramadier École Sainte-Geneviève
École Monteil École Saint-Félix École Saint-Joseph
École Cardaillac École San-Pau École Sainte-Thérèse
École Flaugergues

Collèges

Public Private
Collège Amans Joseph Fabre Collège Saint-Joseph/Sainte-Geneviève
Collège Départemental Jean Moulin Collège du Sacré Cœur I et II (Rodez)
Collège des Glycines Collège du Sacré Cœur (Onet-le-Château)

Lycées

Public Private
Lycée Ferdinand Foch (fr)
General education and vocational
Lycée François d'Estaing
General and technical education
Two sites, Boulevard D.Puech and Boulevard d'Estournel
Lycée Alexis-Monteil (fr)
General education, vocational, technical and higher
Lycée Saint-Joseph
General education, technical and vocational
Lycée La Roque (Onet-le-Château)
Agricultural education, general, technical, vocational and higher
Lycée Louis Querbes[62]
General technical and vocational education
Two sites, Rue Béteille and Site du Cedec

Higher education

Rodez has to date more than 2,500 students on its agglomeration.[63][41] By 2016, a campus on 6 acres (2.4 ha) with University Library, presence of the Crous, housing will be depending on the site of Saint-Eloi. After the restructuring and extension of the IUT between 2009 and 2012, this campus is implemented throughout the domain of EDF-GDF. Ultimately this site should concentrate more than 10,000 students of science subjects, hydroelectricitys, mechanical or food production.[64]

Employability

The Communal Office of Employment Training (MCEF), located at 41-43 Rue Béteille opened its doors in March 2013 after two years of work. This area of 2,500 square metres (27,000 sq ft) includes the employment centre and its service platform, the local mission for employment of youth, the inter-institutional centre of personal and professional skills assessment (CIBC), the Information Centre and Orientation (academic inspection), the territorial office Aveyron,[note 6] Cap Employment,[note 7] the AFIJ (graduates) and the Aveyron branch of ADEFPAT[note 8] which is a regional structure whose mission is to reinforce the strategies of territorial development.[67] 55 employees work on all the services present in this institution which covers a pool of 142,000 inhabitants.[68]

Educational associations

  • School Occitan school
Main article: Calandreta

The Calandreta schools (in Occitan, petite alouette) are Franco-Occitan bilingual colleges and schools.

  • Companions of the duty

Health[edit]

Jacques-Puel Hospital

Main article: [[Hôpital Jacques-Puel (fr)]]

This medical, surgical, gynaecology and obstetrics (MCO) hospital with emergency adult and paediatric facilities, is the second regional technical platform[69] after the CHU de Purpan in Toulouse. It is the headquarters of the SAMU and SMUR of Aveyron, and has nearly 60 medical and surgical services. Specialised and ultra-specialised in the disciplines of medicine, paediatrics, neonatology, oncology and surgery, it holds medical equipment of the latest generation.

Saint-Louis surgical specialties clinic

After a restructuring between 2007 and 2010, the Saint-Louis Clinic is a large installation between the Boulevard d'Estournel, Rue Cabriere and 22 Rue Béteille. Two buildings of three floors joined by an underground level and raised tunnels are built on a total area of 6,000 square metres (65,000 sq ft). This clinic is equipped with a laboratory for medical analyses and a radiological platform equipped with an MRI scanner. Each floor extends over 900 square metres (9,700 sq ft) and the last floor, with 24 beds, is dedicated to post-operative care specialised in cardio-pneumology.[70] 100 beds, all disciplines, are operational in this surgical facility. Surgical specialties in this clinic are:[71]

Other centres of care nearby

In the commune of Olemps, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Rodez, are also the Les Peyrieres Hospital and Sainte-Marie Hospital.

Sports[edit]

Rodez is home to Rodez AF (called le Raf by its fans) of the Championnat National (Third Division). The women's team is in the First Division and are known as les Rafettes. Rodez also has rugby, basketball, handball and fencing teams.

Infrastructure

The Dojo gym

The city has numerous sports facilities. Most of these facilities have been reunited in what is called the Vallon des Sports, at the level of Pré Lamarque (fr) in the Western Quarter. It is composed of the dojo gym, sports rooms of l'Amphithéâtre and the Aquavallon aquatic centre. The Paul Lignon Stadium (fr) is located nearby. Many other sports complexes are present in the metropolitan area. All these facilities are intended to improve the reception of sports clubs of the city, whether they are independent or federated in combination as the Rodez Omnisports Stadium.

The various sports institutions:[note 9]

  • L'Amphithéâtre Cultural Centre has several rooms in order to practice badminton, basketball, boxing, climbing, fencing, martial arts, gymnastics and table tennis.
  • Dojo gym: Badminton, basketball, handball, volleyball, judo
  • Paul Lignon Stadium: Football, rugby
  • The Vabre complex: Athletics, basketball, football, handball, rugby, tennis, volleyball
  • The Trauc complex: Football, quilles de huit (fr), rugby, archery
  • Louis Polonia Stadium: Football, pétanque, quilles de huit
  • Boulodromes of Camonil and Saint-Eloi: Petanque
  • Fabre Gymnasium: Basketball, volleyball
  • Avenue de Paris, Sports Valley, Le Trauc: Shooting stands
  • Ramadier City Stadium: Basketball, football
  • Nautical centre: Swimming, competitions, aquatic activities, sauna, hammam
  • Domaine de Combelles: Riding centre[72]

The city of Rodez hosted the Jumping International de France (fr) in 2009, Top 12 of the SRA[73] in 2009, international Championship of aerobic gymnastics in 2010, Championship of the world of women's basketball for under-17s in 2010 and the 2010 Tour de France. Rodez will welcome the return of the Tour de France in 2015, for the finish of Stage 13, on 17 July, and the departure of Stage 14, on 18 July.

Associations

The basketball club of Stade Rodez Aveyron plays in the Nationale masculine 3 (fr), football clubs including Rodez Aveyron Football in the CFA for the men's team and in Division 1 for the women's team (fr), and in rugby Stade Rodez Aveyron plays in Federale 1. These are the principal sports clubs of the commune. In fencing, Rodez Aveyron currently plays in Division 1 for men's team and women's team. The men's team was champion of France's division 1 in 2012 and 2014, 3rd in the European Cup of Champion Clubs in 2013 and runner up of Europe 2015. The Rodez Badminton (CBR) Club organises a tournament every year of national scope at l'Amphithéâtre. The Aveyronnais, very fond of bowling games, participate each year for the Championship of France of quilles de huit (fr), beginning in August. The Vélo-Club Ruthenois [Ruthenois Cycling Club], founded in 1891, is the oldest sports club in the city.[74]

  • R.A.F. (Rodez Aveyron Football)
  • R.S.A. (Stade Rodez Aveyron), rugby
  • S.R.A.B. (Stade Rodez Aveyron Basket (fr))
  • C.B.R. (Rodez Badminton Club)
  • Rodez athletics stadium
  • Stage Ruthenois Tennis
  • Gym-Club Ruthenois
  • Judo Rodez Aveyron
  • Grand Rodez swimming
  • Fencing Rodez Aveyron
  • Vélo-Club Ruthenois
  • Sport keel Ruthenois
  • R.O.C. Aveyron Handball
  • Combelles riding club

Military life[edit]

Headquarters of the Army of Aveyron, located in Rodez, near Bourran (fr).

The regiments whose barracks were in Rodez:

Non-divisional elements:

Media[edit]

Local and regional print media

Rodez is the seat of the Centre Presse (fr) newspaper. It is part of the Les Journaux du Midi (fr) Group. The group lies in vast premises, on Avenue Victor Hugo, at the foot of the Cathedral of Rodez. Indeed, there are three daily newspapers of local and regional news being edited every day, namely the Centre Presse, La Dépêche du Midi and Midi Libre.

In addition, a Rodez weekly based on the news of the agglomeration of the Grand Rodez (fr) is produced on Le Piton, namely Le Ruthenois.[75] A monthly journal is published by the General Council of Aveyron (fr) which tells the news of the institution each month, and the same for the city of Rodez which has its own monthly called Rodez, notre ville [Rodez, our city].[76] Finally, a quarterly published by the Midi-Pyrénées region is delivered to the mailbox of each person in Rodez.[77]

With regard to the history of the Rodez press, some newspapers have disappeared namely La Gazette du Rouergue (fr) (1832-1835), L'Écho de l'Aveyron (fr) and Le Peuple (fr).

National and international press

The city has the national and international press in its kiosks. To facilitate the work on press articles, the media library of Rodez contains many archives, such as the departmental archives and the house of the press.

Radio

Apart from all major national stations to which the city of Rodez can access, other local radio stations are also available such as Totem (fr) which has a registered office in Luc-la-Primaube, Radio cent pour cent [100% Radio], Radio Menergy and CFM (107.9FM), which has its studios in Rodez. Finally, Radio Temps [Time Radio] (107 FM) was created in the Lycée Louis Querbes.

Television

The commune has had digital terrestrial television channels since 1 June 2008. In addition, a branch of France 3 Sud, for France 3 Quercy-Rouergue, is headquartered in Bourran (fr) and thus allows Rodez news to be brought to television.[78] A television studio is installed here in order to present the newscasts for Quercy-Rouergue Aveyron-Lot. Finally, the idea of establishing a continuous channel dedicated to the town of Rodez was born.[79] The city of Rodez has broadcast digital television channels to replace analogue broadcasts, since 8 November 2011.[80]

Internet and telephony

Rodez has broadband internet cable technology and Wi-Fi as well as commissioning, in 2008, several kilometres of fibre optic coupled to WiMAX and UMTS base stations across Grand Rodez (fr) and particularly to trading areas such as the international airport, railway station, Bourran Quarter and the historic centre.[81] The 3G, 3G+ and 4G networks allow the digital opening up of the city of Rodez. The various road works, in the city centre, and especially in the historic heart, allowed new internet loops of very high-speed to be built between 2011 and 2012.

Religion, philosophical and humanist associations[edit]

Catholic worship

The city of Rodez, seat of the bishopric, is part of the parish of Our Lady of the Assumption, which includes 6 branches: Cathedral Notre-Dame de Rodez, Saint Amans, Le Monastère, La Mouline, Gorgan and Sacré-Cœur. François Fonlupt (fr) is the Bishop of Rodez since 2011.

Protestant worship

The Protestant temple of Rodez (Reformed Church of France) was erected in 1947, on Rue Louis Lacombe.

Evangelical worship

The Evangelical Reformed Church of Rodez is located on the Séverac road to Onet-le-Château.

Muslim worship

The Rodez mosque built on the Avenue de Bamberg between 2000 and 2002, was inaugurated in May 2003. The religious building was expanded between 2010 and 2011.[82]

Masonic Lodges

Rodez welcomes several Masonic Lodges:

Cultural events and festivities[edit]

In summer, the city offers many entertainments and festive events. Three museums and many art galleries (Gallery Sainte-Catherine among others) attract many tourists. Finally on the side of young people, Grand Rodez (fr) student associations are present and, in addition, throughout the year, many bar-restaurants and bar-discos of the city participate in entertainment on the Ruthenois Piton ("terrasses en fêtes" [terraces in festivals],[86] for example).

Musical events and venues

There are several music venues and festivals in or near Rodez. Music venues La Guinguette and Le Studio often host concerts, as does the local amphitheatre, and the local Maisons des Jeunes et de la Culture of Rodez and Onet-Le-Château.

Skabazac is probably the best-known music festival, and it takes place in mid-June. Just on the outskirts of Rodez in a town called Sébazac, Skabazac attracted over 30,000 people in 2010, when Cypress Hill headlined. In 2011 the festival's 13th edition was cancelled due to a lack of government funding. In midsummer the Occitan festival, called Estivada, takes place over several days. The festival promotes Occitan culture with food, cultural displays, and live music.

Folklore groups

In order to preserve the traditions of folklore and the Occitan language, the langue d'Oc, two folk groups are based in Rodez. La Pastourelle (the young Shepherdess in Occitan) founded in 1948 and the Escloupeto (the carrier of hooves in Occitan) in 1953. It is through music, dances, songs and costumes from southern folklore that the various volunteers, we are revisiting the era. Occitan theatre is also part of their repertoire. The popular folklore of the Aveyron was created in Pont-de-Salars, at the International Folklore Festival of Rouergue in 1955.

Main events

This non-exhaustive list presents the main cultural events and festivities of the town of Rodez:[86]

Spring
Summer
  • In early June, the important festival of Skabazac (fr).
  • Mid-June, a large funfair.
  • On 21 June, Rodez deploy scenes around the city on the occasion of the feast of music.
  • In July, a medieval market place. In effect, many craftsmen, actors, jugglers and costumed musicians involved.[86]
  • At the same time, the rally of Rouergue.[87]
  • Also in July, the Estivada (fr) (Languedoc word pronounced [esti'βaδo]), an Occitan festival, is a four day showcase of Occitan creation, through the music, stories, theatre, dance, film and conviviality. This event brings together 35,000 people.[88]
  • Cit'équestre (horses)
  • In August, le Foirail public garden welcomes Rodez beach.[86]
  • In early August the International Rouergue folklore festival is held.
  • At the same time, mobile cinemas are in the city as well as open-air theatre performances.
  • At the end of August is the Template:Ramazick festival
  • In early September, the banks of the Aveyron, a flea market, musical aperitif, fishing competitions and various events at the Vuoto.
Autumn
  • Heritage days
  • The Photosfolies
  • In autumn, the former book salon, chocolate lounge[89]
  • Amphithéâtre: A cultural program shows which each year attracts more than 15,000 spectators with a record occupancy rate of 90% for 6 years. It regularly hosts large scale artists.[90]
Winter
  • In December, a Christmas market and ice rink are installed throughout the period in the Place Foch.[86]
All year
  • Amphithéâtre: A cultural program shows which each year attracts more than 15,000 spectators with a record occupancy rate of 90% for 6 years. It regularly hosts large scale artists.[90]

Economy[edit]

Rodez asserts itself from an economic and tourist perspective at the centre of a triangle formed by Toulouse at the southwest, the regional prefecture located 130 kilometres (81 mi) from the Piton Ruthenois, at the southeast by Montpellier 180 kilometres (110 mi) and to the north by Clermont-Ferrand, the farthest, located 260 kilometres (160 mi) away.

Over the main city of the province, with 20,000 inhabitants, Rodez is, according to INSEE the 13th most prosperous urban unit of France just behind most of the cities in Île-de-France such as Saint-Cloud, Courbevoie, Paris and Suresnes. It is the 28th city where there are the most "jobs on the spot", Rodez is also the 91st commune of France in terms of viable start-ups by inhabitants (1 per 116 inhabitants) and the 157th in terms of share of taxed households representing 58 per cent (well above the national average).[91] This result can be explained by two mechanisms. First, the diversity of the economic base is that companies of Rodez touch on numerous and varied areas. Moreover, Rodez was for many years separated from the major national economies without relevant communications. To do this, it endeavoured by its own skills to produce and build its own corporate panel in order to sustain its territory.

Income of the population and taxation[edit]

In 2008, the median income tax per household (fr) was €18,678, which placed Rodez at 10,042nd position among the 31,604 communes with more than 50 households in metropolitan France.[92]

Employment[edit]

Today, Rodez is the main employment area of Aveyron. The population is organized around Grand Rodez (fr), which concentrates the largest number of jobs with high-growth sectors as health, education, trade, food processing (dairy, cheese, meat processing), the wood furniture sector, mechanics, computer science, tertiary industries, aviation and research. The Aveyron inhabitants have three lives in the area of influence of Rodez. The geographical location of Rodez at the junction of the major Aveyron communication routes has long channelled a rural exodus to the prefecture: The presence of an airport and the improvement of the road network to Toulouse today contributes to the dynamism of the Rodez area with the emergence of many jobs.[93]

According to the results of the 2009 census,[94] the active population (15–64 years) of the municipality had 11,851 people, or 72.3%, this rate is 73.0% at the departmental level. In 2009, the unemployment rate among those aged 15–64 was 6.5% of the workforce.[95]

Distribution over 15 years by sector of activity in France[94][95]
Agriculture Industry Construction Commerce Services
Rodez 0.8% 8.5% 5.6% 44.2% 40.8%
Comparison with the department 11.1% 15.4% 8.2% 34.9% 30.4%

Businesses[edit]

Rodez and its agglomeration focus a wide range of businesses and economic sectors, by automotive equipment with the Bosch Group, by research on GMOs and the distribution of seeds for agriculture with the national headquarters of the RAGT (fr) group within the grouping Biogemma (fr), aeronautics with the Sofop working for Airbus Industries or its international airport platform, health with its hospital, computing with the Sopra Group, and the food industry. This set of dynamics places the agglomeration of Rodez in second place in economic growth in the Midi-Pyrénées[96] after its regional capital, Toulouse. These companies are one of the keys to the "engineering valley".[97]

Rodez is the seat of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Aveyron located in the city centre and in the district of Bourran.[98] The Grand Rodez (fr) is the second largest economy of southwestern France where there are 2,700 companies in Grand Rodez and 1,500 in the centre of Rodez. Finally, there was an increase of 14.5% for the creation of companies on Rodez and its region between 2000 and 2006. The rate of survival of businesses was 71.5%, three years after opening.[41] Major centres include:

  • The Hospital Group of Rodez (fr) with its 2,000 employees is the second platform of health of the Midi-Pyrénées region.
  • Robert Bosch Rodez with 1,700 employees is the largest industrial employer in the department of Aveyron. Designated reference site in regards to glow plugs, the injector "common rail", became the standard on diesel systems, is the "flagship" product, according to the director of the Albert Weitten Group. The company of the project was expected to produce 1,800,000 for 2011.[99]
  • National headquarters of the RAGT (fr), located in the district of Bourran (fr), brings together 250 scientists from a total of 1,000 employees.
  • The Sainte-Marie Clinic in Rodez: 1,000 employees
  • The Saint-Louis Clinic in Rodez: closed in 2013
  • OPRA Group Inforsud with 400 employees (computer engineering).
  • Verdie Travel Group employs 250 employees and many seasonal (tour operator) or even the Group CLC NACEL, 150 employees and also many seasonal (tour operator).

On 1 January 2010, 490 companies were created in the territory.

Distribution of businesses by sector[94]
Total Industry Construction Various businesses and services Public sector
Number of establishments 3,026 171 207 2,143 505
 % 100 % 5.7 % 6.8 % 70.8 % 16.7 %
Distribution of new businesses by sector in 2009[94]
Total Industry Construction Various businesses and services Public sector
Number of establishments 490 25 61 355 49
 % 100 % 5.1 % 12.4 % 72.4 % 10.0 %

Economic centres of the territory[edit]

The Viaduct de l'Europe: Gateway to the Rodez economy between the city centre and the Bourra Quarter

The present economic hubs on Rodez and/or its suburbs are closely linked with the chef-lieu.[100] Found:

  • Zone of the Comtal (fr), with dozens of national commercial or local signs, all established over 55 hectares (140 acres), it is the first commercial area of its department and one of the most important in its region.
  • Bourran Quarter (fr): Services and administrations of the State, private enterprises, health.
  • Zone of Bel Air: Close to the international airport of Rodez, it is the first business park of Grand Rodez. Spread over 200 hectares (490 acres) and in structuring business for the whole territory, Bel Air is a recognized Regional Interest Zone of the Midi-Pyrénées.[101] 160 companies are located here.
  • Zone of La Gineste: With its 10 hectares (25 acres) in the heart of Rodez, it focuses in trade activities and services dominant to new technologies. A dozen companies are located here, including RM Ingénierie [RM Engineering], ETI, RDS and D’Médica.
  • Zone of the Balquieres: Automotive centre of Grand Rodez, located just outside Rodez. Several companies are present including Peugeot, Citroën, Ford, Volvo, Land Rover, Mercedes, etc.
  • Zone of Cantaranne: One of the areas of "historic" activities dedicated to industry, craft and wholesale trade in the communes of Onet-le-Château and Rodez. Forty companies are already installed on 68 hectares (170 acres), including: Bosch (1700 employees), Lactalis, Drimmer, Bonneviale, Mathou, Thermatic, Garrigues SA, etc.
  • Zone of Arsac: Agri-food area of 47 hectares (120 acres) in the commune of Sainte-Radegonde
  • Zone of Naujac: Business Park of 20 hectares (49 acres), in the commune of Luc-La Primaube, devoted to crafts and industry. 25 companies are installed including Eiffage-construction.
  • Zone of Montvert: This is located at Luc-La Primaube, and devoted to crafts and small logistics (on the edge of the RN88).
  • Zone of Malan: Crafts and industry, an exhibition park in 2016.

Agriculture[edit]

Rodez is traditionally an agricultural trade centre. The city is the headquarters of Aveyron agriculture through its departmental chamber of agriculture.[102] However, within the city walls, Rodez has little to no farming (0.8% of the distribution of jobs). Instead, it focuses in this field of research, including for example the RAGT (fr) or Lycée La Roque. Beyond the city and agglomeration, agricultural activity is present. During the 2011 session of the Congress of Young Farmers held in Rodez,[103] Bruno Le Maire, Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, as well as Rurality and Development, came to close this congress.[104]

Trade[edit]

Rodez and its suburbs have developed local trade and large national brands, during the 21st century, to avoid a brain drain to the major centres like Toulouse and Montpellier. The city developed businesses in the city centre[105] and its surroundings (commercial hub of Le Comtal (fr) located at Sébazac-Concourès).

The city market is held three times per week (Wednesday morning, Friday afternoon and Saturday morning).[106] A large fair happens each quarter on Le Piton in Rodez.

The commune of Cransac, located 30 kilometres (19 mi) away, has planned the establishment of a casino which is scheduled to open in March 2015.[107][108]

Tourism[edit]

Due to the geographical location of Rodez, between the Millau Viaduct and Conques, but also close to cities of the Midi such as Toulouse and Montpellier, its 2,000 years old historical past offers culture with museums, including the Musée Soulages (fr). The development of road, rail and air transport, and also its UNESCO World Heritage candidacy contributes to a positive and dynamic tourist area (300,000 tourists each year to the Rodez Cathedral).[109] Finally, the office of tourism of Rodez conducts guided tours of the monuments and landmarks of the city.[110] However, beyond the city, tourists have also turned to the major centres of the department such as the lakes of Lévézou, Conques, Laguiole to the north of the department. The Millau Viaduct to the south provides the junction of the A75 to the Mediterranean Sea and also the most beautiful villages of France which place the department of Aveyron at the forefront of the French departments hosting the prettiest villages.[111] Finally, Rodez has two promotional clips of the city issued by Grand-Rodez (fr)[112] and the "Great Sites of Midi-Pyrénées" group.[113] The Grand Rodez tourist office is located on the Place de la Cité (opened in July 2013).

Some data[112]
  • The Office of Tourism of Rodez is classified 3 ***
  • Certified Qualité Tourisme (fr)
  • Guided tours of the Office of Tourism: 10,000 visitors
  • 90,000 tourists welcomed each year
  • 211,645 overnight stays in hotels in 2008 (63% business clientele, 37% tourist)
  • Many signs in the city centre indicate strategic and historic places of Rodez.
  • For accommodation, around 12 establishments are present on the agglomeration. In addition, a campsite with 80 plots is available for holidaymakers.[114]

Gastronomy[edit]

There are three weekly farmers' markets. On Wednesday mornings the market is located in Place du Bourg. On Saturday mornings, the market expands into Place de la Cité and Place Emma Calvé (behind the Cathedral). On Friday evenings there is a small farmers' market on the Parking du Sacré Cœur.

Several restaurants serve local specialities, notably aligot, farçous, tripoux, and Roquefort, Laguiole, and Cantal cheeses, as well as red wine from the nearby village of Marcillac. Fouace is a breakfast item, a sweet bread that can be found in many local bakeries.

Local culture and heritage[edit]

The town centre is almost exclusively pedestrian and is filled with history, as well as shops and local artisans. The agglomeration of Grand Rodez comprises the towns of Rodez, Onet-le-Château, Druelle, Luc-la-Primaube, Le Monastère, Olemps, Sainte-Radegonde and Sébazac-Concourès.

Places and monuments[edit]

Most of the important buildings of the city are located in Vieux-Rodez (fr). In addition, many buildings, houses, places, places of worship and châteaus are registered and protected by the State.[115]

Since 3 February 2012, the Ruthenois Piton is classified among the "big sites" of Midi-Pyrénées[116][117] and a steering committee is preparing the candidature of Rodez to the label of Towns and Lands of Art and History as well as the UNESCO World Heritage.[118][119]

Religious buildings[edit]

Notre-Dame Cathedral

Main article: Rodez Cathedral

Made an Historic Monument in 1862.[120]

The Cathedral of Notre-Dame of Rodez is the main religious building of the department. Burned, damaged over the centuries, the Cathedral of Rodez is a remarkable compendium of architectural styles from the 13th century to the 17th century: Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque interior decoration elements. It has imposing dimensions; the central nave, quite narrow, is 102 metres (335 ft) long and has a particularly graceful elevation 30 metres (98 ft). The building is equipped with a beautiful bell tower, genuine laced pink sandstone, visible from afar, dominating the top of the city of its 87 metres (285 ft). Four hundred steps climb to reach the statue of the Virgin (located at the top of the bell tower) and the magnificent panorama of the city. At night, it is illuminated from inside.

Episcopal Palace

Main article: [[Palais épiscopal de Rodez (fr)]]

Made an Historic Monument in 1942.[121]

The old episcopal palace of the 15th century, lay between the transept of the present cathedral and the rampart of the city. Paul-Louis-Philippe de Lezay de Lusignan was appointed Bishop of Rodez in 1684. He began the construction of the current palace upon his arrival, which ended in 1694. The palace was built in the style of Louis XIII with a staircase reminiscent of the Château de Fontainebleau.

Presbytery

Made an Historic Monument in 1950.[122]

Saint-Amans Church

Main article: [[Église Saint-Amans de Rodez (fr)]]

Made an Historic Monument in 1943.[123]

The Church of Saint-Amans was built in the 12th century, it was completely rebuilt from 1758 to 1761 with materials salvaged from the old building. The outside is Baroque but the interior has maintained the Roman purity. The dome was decorated in the 18th century by Salinier. Tapestries of the 6th century decorate the choir and represent the miracles of Saint Amans. It retains a 15th century Pietà and a statue of the Trinity (16th century), as well as a Limoges enamel reliquary casket.

Sacré-Cœur Church

Made an Historic Monument in 2005.[124]

The Sacré-Cœur [Sacred Heart] Church, whose construction was inspired by the Abbatiale Sainte-Foy de Conques (fr) with notable influences from major Perigord churches.

Chapel of the former Jesuit college

Made an Historic Monument in 1927.[125]

The former Jesuit college is a group of historic buildings constituting the Lycée Foch (fr). This college remains a chapel, a building and a fountain, the fountain of Vors (fr) of Denys Puech, placed against the exterior wall of the chapel, in Place Foch.

Ancient monastery

Made an Historic Monument in 1942.[126]

The national stud is now installed in this former religious building.

Others

The Paraire Chapel (fr) in Rodez (April 2008)
  • The Paraire Chapel (fr), last vestige of the asylum for the insane, where the Paraire writer and poet Antonin Artaud was confined. Today, it houses a 'space Antonin Artaud'.
  • The chapel of Saint-Martin, it was situated halfway up, overlooking Layoule. Before 1789, it served as a Ruthenoise parish, and then before the second world war, deposit garbage and playgrounds for children. In ruins since the war, it was entirely demolished in 1966.
  • The Chapel of Our Lady of Mercy, located on the Chemin de la Boriette (a remote green space). Owned by the municipality of Rodez, it was originally incorporated into La Chartreuse (today the Haras national de Rodez (fr)). Restored by the Companions of the Duty, it is open to the public in the afternoon on good days.
  • The Rodez mosque,[127] inaugurated in May 2003 and remarkable for its architecture, is located on the Avenue Bamberg.

Civil buildings[edit]

Hôtel de la préfecture

Made an Historic Monument in 1947.[128]

The hotel was built in the first half of the 18th century by François Le Normant d'Ayssènes, counsellor to the king, and his receiver in the election of Rodez. It is now home to the prefecture of the Aveyron.

Hôtel de Bonald

Hôtel de Bonald

Made an Historic Monument in 1991.[129]

Hôtel du Cheval Noir

Made an Historic Monument in 1947.[130]

Hôtel Séguret

Made an Historic Monument in 1944.[131]

Maison d'Armagnac

Maison d'Armagnac
Main article: [[Maison d'Armagnac (Rodez) (fr)]]

Made an Historic Monument in 1862.[132]

Maisons bourgeoises

Haras National

Main article: [[Haras national de Rodez (fr)]]

Layoule Bridge

Layoule Bridge

Made an Historic Monument in 1947.[133]

Château de Saint-Félix

Made an Historic Monument in 1984.[134]

La Gascarie Viaduct

The Gascarie Viaduct, around 1910
Main article: [[Viaduc de la Gascarie (fr)]]

Railway bridges of the 19th century, including the Gascarie Viaduct.

Parks and gardens[edit]

Foirail public garden
  • Foirail public garden
  • Square François Fabié: This small square presents a very broad view of all the southern part of the Rodez territory.

Rodez was awarded with three flowers[135] of the competition of flowery cities and villages (fr), was awarded 1st place in 1996, and 3rd in 2007. Rodez also has the label "Child-friendly city", given by UNICEF.

  • Combelles recreational park

Combelles recreation park, located in the commune of La Monastère, a few kilometres from the city centre is at the heart of a park of 120 hectares (300 acres). It is a place which is dedicated to the activities of its equestrian centre and its holiday-village accommodation. Vabre Park offers children's activities with outdoor games. Rodez has an 18-hole golf course located more precisely in the commune of Onet-le-Château. Layoule, located on the edge of the Aveyron river, offers a route laid out for pedestrians or cyclists. Finally, there is also a guide Les Belles Balades de l’Aveyron [The beautiful walks of the Aveyron].[136] The Foirail, where the cultural buildings are integrated, offers a natural setting in the heart of the city.

Cultural heritage[edit]

Linguistic heritage[edit]

Occitan Cross

The city of Rodez (Rodés, in Rouergat (fr)) was one of the last centres of Occitania, with many troubadours who found refuge there and attempted to perpetuate the Occitan culture (fr). Today, Occitania and the Langue d'Oc are in revival thanks to the Estivada (fr) of Rodez and the presence of numerous festive and cultural events. This language has become, over the years, a real cultural crossroads of the Pays d'Oc in the service of the revival of Occitan culture.

Learned society[edit]

Society of letters of Aveyron

On 3 December 1836, at the invitation of Hippolyte de Barrau (fr), the Society of Letters, Sciences and Arts of Aveyron was created in Rodez. Its purpose is the study of the history and the heritage inventory (fr), both natural and cultural, of the Aveyron department, formerly Rouergue. This cultural institution was recognised as being of public utility on 29 October 1857. It is open to researchers, teachers, students, and to all those who are interested in the culture of Aveyron and the Rouergue. The Society of Letters, Sciences and Arts of Aveyron has a library of more than 50,000 books and several archival fonds.

Museums[edit]

Fenaille museum housed in the Hotel Jouéry
Main articles: [[Musée Fenaille (fr)]], Musée Denys-Puech and [[Musée Soulages (fr)]]

Rodez has three museums:

  • Musée Fenaille classified MH (1944):[137] Museum of history and archaeology with a unique collection of statues and menhirs of the Rouergue. Its collections also include sculptures from other periods: antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and modern times.

Art galleries[edit]

Others[edit]

  • Departmental archives of Aveyron (fr)
  • Large multimedia library of Rodez, rich in old and current works.
  • A House of Associations,[141] close to the square of the sacred heart, to open its doors in January 2012. It allows activities of a social, cultural, educational, sporting or environmental character to be carried out.

Cultural facilities[edit]

  • Cultural centre L'Amphitheatre offers sports functions with several sports halls on several disciplines (fencing, climbing, badminton, dance etc.) as well as a large room accommodating up to 3000 people and being adaptable for congresses, trade shows, conferences, debates, seminars, shows or theatrical performances. In addition, for shows, concerts and other artistic performances, the programming of the facility offers a great place to internationally recognised artists.[142]
  • House of Youth and Culture offers opportunities for theatre and shows, entertainments, or congresses and conferences, exhibitions (several rooms of different capacity).
  • Salle des fêtes [Festival hall]: Near Haras and the Paul Lignon Stadium, the hall of 2,800 square metres (30,000 sq ft) opened on 7 January 2012, by its designer, Emmanuel Nebout and political representatives.[143] A futuristic and original architecture, it marks the total break between the historical centre and the new district. It has the distinction of offering a large discovery area and its configuration allows it to accommodate with its facilities (dressing rooms, locker rooms, stage, audio-visual, widescreen) of fairs, exhibitions, festivals and events by associations and businesses. In this room, is juxtaposed another (which can be split into two). It can serve as a dressing room or bar, or even of meeting room. Finally, on the floors, three meeting rooms are available. The entire building is in synergy and complementary to the restructuring and enlargement of the Paul Lignon Stadium, and more broadly with the multiplex, and the museum, to meet economic or cultural events.
  • Palais des Congrès [Congress hall]: Boulevard de la République, it meets an economic role for enterprises, associations with several committee rooms and an auditorium and exhibition hall.
  • National School of Music of the Grand Rodez: Music, exhibitions, conferences and debates.
  • Theatre of Grand Rodez (fr) to Onet-le-Château, La Baleine:[144] the acoustics are particularly designed for the performing arts and speech (theatre, symphonic music, opera). This building is located in the commune of Onet-le-Château and can also accommodate conventions and conferences with broadcast equipment, image and sound equipment with the latest technologies.[145] The theatre, or more accurately the auditorium occupies 6,000 square metres (65,000 sq ft) for 500 seats at the service of culture. Indeed, this theatre consists of 3 levels on 2,000 square metres (22,000 sq ft), among technical premises, entrance hall, concert hall of 2,000 square metres (22,000 sq ft) with set of 240 square metres (2,600 sq ft), backstage, two collective areas, three individual areas, a quick area, government offices, a rehearsal room, two control rooms (including a mobile), changing rooms, two elevators for people with reduced mobility. Finally this auditorium of 500 seats is adjustable to 300 or 500 places. With a prestigious cultural programming, this building is a centre of culture in south-western France.
  • Exhibition Park of Malan: Economic and cultural infrastructure, located on the edge of the RN88, this place is modular for congress, exhibitions, shows based on events, and offers entertainment venues and catering. It can accommodate up to 3000 people. Opening in 2015.
  • Several municipal halls (municipal campsite, Calcomier, Saint-Eloi, Grange of Vabres and Foch parking) for meetings, activities, events.

Personalities linked to the commune[edit]

Heraldry, logo and motto[edit]

Heraldry

Arms of Rodez
Malte-Brun, in France illustrated (1882), reported two different blazons:
  • "Of gules, three bezants of or."
  • "Of gules, three wheels of or, two in chief and one in base; to the chief of azure, charged three fleurs-de-lis of or," and quotes:

"Civitas Ruthena deo fidelis et regi semper." (The Ruthenoise community of eternal fidelity to God and the King.) The wheels (rodas) canting arms of Rodez, resemble bezants, hence the confusion of the blazon. The head of "France" ("of azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis of or") corresponds to an increase granted by King Henry IV in 1596, and therefore is not in contradiction with the first blazon, oldest (should say "stitched"). The accuracy of two in chief and one in base for the position of the wheels is useless (it's the default position) and therefore brings no difference between the two blazons.

A more correct Blazon would be: "of gules, three wheels of or; in chief stitched of modern France."



Logo of Rodez

The Rodez logo consists of a small yellow drawing representing the branch from the bottom of the Occitan cross - this cross on the flag of Midi-Pyrénées - and the Rodez name in red capitals. The upper part of the logo, meanwhile, represents the Cathedral of Rodez perched on its "piton". The slogan: "Rodez, un art de ville" [Rodez, a city of art] is sometimes added to the logo.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Geography - geology

  • Suau, Bernadette; Bugat, Annie; Verninas, Geneviève; Bories, Marie-Claude (1983). Rodez, Aveyron, plan et notice [Rodez, Aveyron : map and instructions] (in French). Paris: Ed. du CNRS. ISBN 2-222-03298-9. 3 p. : ill. ; 42 cm + 1 plan dépl. + 1 f. de carte + 1 f. de légende.  (BnF no FRBNF37310789k)
  • Boisse de Black, Yvonne (1933). Le détroit de Rodez et ses bordures cristallines, étude géologique et morphologique [The Strait of Rodez and clear borders : Geological and morphological study] (in French). XXXVI. Paris ; Liège: Librairie polytechnique Ch. Béranger. ISSN 0366-4201. ill. ; 25 cm + 1 carte géologique.  (BnF 373759558)
  • Trumpy, Daniel M. (1984). Le Lias moyen et supérieur des Grands Causses et de la région de Rodez, contributions stratigraphiques, sédimentologiques et géochimiques à la connaissance d'un bassin à sédimentation marneuse... [The Middle and Upper Lias of Grands Causses and the Rodez area : stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical contributions to the knowledge of a marl sedimentation basin...] (in French). Pau: Université de Pau et des pays de l'Adour. ISSN 0247-8463. ill. ; 30 et 57 x 82 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF37699009h)

Urbanism - administration

  • Centre d'études des transports urbains (France); Direction départementale de l'équipement (Aveyron); Ville de Rodez (1983). Étude d'environnement Rocade de l'Auterne [Environmental study of the bypass of Auterne] (in French). Paris: CETUR. ISBN 2-222-03298-9. 3 p. : ill. ; 42 cm + 1 plan dépl. + 1 f. de carte + 1 f. de légende.  (BnF no FRBNF35672189w)
  • Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez; Lourgant, Julie; Joy, Diane (2011). Chroniques du patrimoine, Grand Rodez, Recueil d'articles précédemment publ. dans le journal "Centre-Presse", septembre 2010-juin 2011. [Chronicles of the Heritage of Grand Rodez: Collection of articles previously publ . in the newspaper "Centre-Presse" , September 2010 - June 2011] (in French). Rodez: Éd. du Musée Fenaille. ISBN 978-2-9540689-0-9. ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. ; 21 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF42563529p)
  • Agence publique pour l'immobilier de la justice (France); Weiss, Jean-Pierre; Lansoy, Yves; Caumette, Marie-Bénédicte (2013). Maison d'arrêt de Rodez, Aveyron [Rodez Prison, Aveyron] (in French). Paris: APIJ. ill. en coul., couv. ill. en coul. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF436441407)
  • Terral, Pierre-Marie (2011). Bosch Rodez, une ville, une usine [Bosch Rodez , a town, a factory] (in French). Toulouse: Éd. Privat. ISBN 978-2-7089-8352-6. ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. ; 18 x 25 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF42558960x)
  • Censi, Marc (2012). Rodez, la révolution tranquille de l'intercommunalité [Rodez, the quiet revolution of intercommunality] (in French). Rodez: Maison du livre. ISBN 978-2-9543043-0-4. ill., couv. ill. ; 23 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF42798334w)

Cantons of Rodez

  • Bedel, Christian-Pierre (2004). Rodés-nòrd, Ònes, Sebasac / Christian-Pierre Bedel e los estatjants del canton de Rodés-nòrd [Rodez-north, Ònes, Sébazac-Concourès / Christian-Pierre Bedel inhabitants of the canton of Rodez-north] (in Occitan). Rodez: Mission départementale de la culture. ISBN 2-907279-61-0. ISSN 1151-8375. ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. ; 28 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF39300572c)
  • Bedel, Christian-Pierre (2004). Rodés-est, La Monestere, Saint-Radegonde / Christian-Pierre Bedel e los estatjants del canton de Rodés-est [Rodez-east, Le Monastere, Sainte-Radegonde / Christian-Pierre Bedel the inhabitants of Rodez-east] (in Occitan). Rodez: Mission départementale de la culture. ISBN 2-907279-60-2. ISSN 1151-8375. ill., couv. ill. ; 28 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF39300576r)
  • Bedel, Christian-Pierre (2004). Rodés-oèst, Druèla, Luc, Olemps / Christian-Pierre Bedel e los estatjants del canton de Rodés-oèst [Rodez-west, Druelle, Luc, Olemps / Christian-Pierre Bedel and the inhabitants of the canton of Rodez-west] (in Occitan). Rodez: Mission départementale de la culture. ISBN 2-907279-59-9. ISSN 1151-8375. ill., couv. ill. ; 28 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF393005773)

History

  • Enjalbert, Henri (1981). Histoire de Rodez [History of Rodez] (in French). Toulouse: Privat. ISBN 2-7089-8218-4. ISSN 0293-3675. Pays et villes de France.  (BnF no FRBNF347314452)
  • Taussat, Robert (1992). Sept siècles autour de la cathédrale de Rodez, histoire et vie quotidienne [Seven centuries around the cathedral of Rodez, history and everyday life] (in French). Rodez: Éd. du Rouergue. ISBN 2-905209-55-0.  (BnF no FRBNF355239116)
  • Dhombres, Jean; Labat, Yves; Thubières, Édouard; Vignes, Roger (1996). Rodez, deux mille ans d'histoire [Rodez, two thousand years of history] (in French). Rodez: Éd. du Rouergue. ISBN 2-84156-022-8.  (BnF no FRBNF358567941)

Prehistory - Antiquity

  • Philippon, Annie; Baud, Michel; Caubet, Annie; Costantini, Georges (2007). Statues-menhirs, des énigmes de pierre venues du fond des âges [Statues-menhirs : des énigmes de pierre venues du fond des âges] (in French). Rodez: Éd. du Rouergue. ISBN 978-2-84156-942-7. ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF412679142)
  • Albenque, Alexandre (1948). Les Rutènes, études d'histoire, d'archéologie et de toponymie gallo-romaines [The Rutenes: Studies of history, archaeology and Gallo-Roman Toponymy] (in French). Rodez: P. Carrere. cartes, ill. ; 25 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF37394724m)
  • Gruat, Philippe; Marty, Georges (2003). Vivre et mourir à Segodunum durant l'Antiquité, les enseignements des fouilles de Notre Dame du Bon Accueil à Rodez, Aveyron [Segodunum to live and die in antiquity : The techings of excavations of Notre Dame du Bon Accueil in Rodez, Aveyron] (in French). Rodez ; Montrozier: Musée du Rouergue ; Musée de Montrozier. ISBN 2-907279-57-2. ISSN 1242-7896. ill., couv. ill. en coul. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF391067005)

Middle Ages

  • Archives départementales (Aveyron); Lemaître, Jean-Loup (1985). Manuscrits du Chapître et de l'Évêché de Rodez, manuscrits conservés aux Archives départementales et à l'évêché [Manuscripts of Chapître and Rodez Bishopric : manuscripts kept in the departmental archives and the bishopric] (in French). Rodez: Archives départementales de l'Aveyron. ISBN 2-86012-007-6. couv. ill. en coul. ; 30 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF366194132)
  • Nougaret, Roger (1986). Hôpitaux, léproseries et bodomies de Rodez, de la Grande peste à l'hôpital général : vers 1340-1676 [Hospitals, leper colonies and bodomies of Rodez : Great Plague General Hospital : towards 1340-1676] (in French). Rodez: Subervie. ill., couv. ill. ; 21 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF35006033g)
  • Lemaître, Nicole (1988). Le Rouergue flamboyant, clergé et paroisses du diocèse de Rodez, 1417–1563 [The flamboyant Rouergue clergy and parishes of the diocese of Rodez, 1417–1563] (in French). Paris: Éd. du Cerf. ISBN 2-204-02851-7. ill., couv. ill. en coul. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF34938787v)
  • Austry, Raymond d'; Débat, Antoine (1991). Livre de raison de Raymond d'Austry, bourgeois et marchand de Rodez (1576-1624) / transcrit et annoté par Antoine Débat [Book of reason of Raymond Austry, bourgeois and merchant of Rodez (1576-1624) / transcribed and annotated by Antoine Debate] (in French). Rodez: Société des lettres, sciences et arts de l'Aveyron. ISBN 2-908570-01-7. ill., couv. ill. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF36653510p)
  • Bousquet, Jacques (1992). Le Rouergue au premier Moyen âge. Tome 1, vers 800-vers 1250 : les pouvoirs, leurs rapports et leurs domaines [Rouergue in the early Middle Ages. Volume 1 , to 800 - 1250 : the powers, their relationships and their areas] (in French). Rodez: Société des lettres, sciences et arts de l'Aveyron. ISBN 2-908570-02-5. ISSN 1245-9747. couv. ill. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF35552831x)
  • Bousquet, Jacques (1994). Le Rouergue au premier Moyen âge. Tome 2, vers 800-vers 1250 : les pouvoirs, leurs rapports et leurs domaines [Rouergue the early Middle Ages. Volume 2: 800 - to 1250 : the powers, their relationships and their areas] (in French). Rodez: Société des lettres, sciences et arts de l'Aveyron. ISBN 2-908570-04-1. ISSN 1245-9747. couv. ill. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF36684881w)
  • Wroe, Ann (1996). Le marchand, le juge et le magot, chronique d'une querelle familiale au Moyen âge ; trad. de l'anglais [The merchant , the judge and the loot , chronicle of a family feud in the Middle Ages ; trans. English] (in French). Paris: J.-C. Lattès. ISBN 2-7096-1700-5. couv. ill. en coul. ; 23 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF358230477)
  • Médiathèque municipale (Rodez) (2003). Un livre d'heures à l'usage de Rodez, vers 1460-1470 [A book of hours for the use of Rodez , towards 1460-1470] (in French). Rodez: Médiathèque de Rodez. ISBN 2-9519594-0-0. ill. en coul., couv. ill. en coul. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF38974346k)
  • Desachy, Matthieu (2005). Cité des hommes, le chapitre cathédral de Rodez, 1215-1562 [City of Men, the cathedral chapter of Rodez, 1215-1562] (in French). Rodez: Éd. du Rouergue. ISBN 2-84156-665-X. couv. ill. en coul. ; 25 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF40063427k)
  • Dufour, Jean (1989). Les Évêques d'Albi, de Cahors et de Rodez, des origines à la fin du 17e seicle [The Bishops of Albi, Cahors and Rodez, from its origins to the late 17th seicle] (in French). Paris: Éd. du CTHS. ISBN 2-7355-0176-0. ISSN 0985-5106. couv. ill. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF35041801p)
  • Bonal, Antoine (1885). Comté et comtes de Rodez [County and Counts of Rodez] (in French). Rodez: E. Carrère. in-8.  (BnF no FRBNF30124501n)
  • Bonald, Joseph de (2010). Les comtes de Rodez et les seigneurs de Bénavent, Fac-sim. de l'éd. de : Paris : H. Champion, 1905 [The Counts of Rodez and the lords of Bénavent , Fac -sim . of Ed. from: Paris : H. Champion, 1905] (in French). Nîmes: Lacour-Ollé. ISBN 978-2-7504-2523-4. ISSN 0989-4616. couv. ill. en coul. ; 21 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF421992862)

Modern era

  • Mouysset, Sylvie (2000). Le pouvoir dans la bonne ville, les consuls de Rodez sous l'Ancien régime [The power in the right city, the consuls of Rodez under the Ancien Regime] (in French). Rodez: Société des lettres, sciences et arts de l'Aveyron. ISBN 2-912025-04-4. ill., couv. ill. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF371088281)
  • Médiathèque municipale (Rodez) (2002). Atlas, cartes et plans sous l'Ancien Régime dans les collections de la Médiathèque de Rodez, exposition présentée à la Médiathèque de Rodez du 3 mai au 4 juillet 2002 [Atlases, maps and plans under the Ancien Regime in the collections of the Library of Rodez, exhibition at the Library of Rodez from 3 May to 4 July 2002] (in French). Rodez: Médiathèque de Rodez. ill., couv. ill. en coul. ; 30 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF400876830)
  • Maurel, Jean (2006). Rodez et son pays au temps des Lumières, chronique intime [Rodez and its country during the Enlightenment, intimate chronicle] (in French). Toulouse: J. Maurel. ISBN 2-9508759-5-5. ill., couv. ill. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF40933482n)

French Revolution

  • Andrieu, Alfred (28 December 1927). Les prêtres-martyrs de la place du Bourg, à Rodez (1793-1794) [The priest-martyrs of the Place du Bourg, in Rodez (1793-1794)] (in French). Rodez: P. Carrère,. In-8, 55 p. (BnF no FRBNF31721391)

Contemporary era

  • Carcenac, Yves (2012). Henri Carcenac, 1790-1855, un maire de Rodez tourné vers l'avenir [enri Carcenac, 1790-1855 , forward-looking mayor of Rodez] (in French). Montauban: Éd. Toute latitude-Terres d'excellence. ISBN 978-2-35282-029-1. couv. ill. ; 22 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF426392422)
  • Saboya, Emma-Paule (1984). À l'ombre de la cathédrale, mémoire d'une collégienne (1923-1930) [In the shadow of the cathedral, memory of a schoolgirl (1923-1930)] (in French). Rodez: Subervie. couv. ill. ; 19 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF34765733g)
  • Pouget, Bernard (1996). Les enfants du faubourg de Rodez, 1930-1950 [The children of the suburb of Rodez, 1930-1950] (in French). Martel: Éd. du Laquet. ISBN 2-910333-46-9. couv. ill. en coul. ; 23 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF36158882q)

The Fualdès Case

Main article: [[Affaire Fualdès (fr)]]
  • Darmon, Pierre (1991). La rumeur de Rodez, histoire d'un procès truqué [The rumor of Rodez, story of a rigged trial] (in French). Paris: A. Michel. ISBN 2-226-05447-2. couv. ill. en coul. ; 23 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF366528030)
  • Méraux, Philippe (1999). Clarisse et les égorgeurs, l'affaire Fualdès [Clarisse and cutthroats , the case Fualdes] (in French). Rodez: Éd. du Rouergue. ISBN 2-84156-197-6. ill., couv. ill. en coul. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF37082505k)
  • Bony, Maurice; Batut, Amans (2008). L'afar de Fualdes, qué n'en sabèm uèi ? [The question of Fualdes, of which we know today ?] (in Occitan). Onet-le-Château: Éd. du Grelh Roergàs. ISBN 978-2-85579-072-5.  (BnF no FRBNF41438489j)

Notre-Dame Cathedral

  • Société des lettres, sciences et arts de l'Aveyron (1979). VIIe centenaire de la cathédrale de Rodez, communications / présentées à la séance de la Société des lettres du 20 mai 1977... Rodez [Seventh centenary of the Rodez Cathedral : communications / presented at the meeting of the Society of letters of 20 May 1977 ... Rodez] (in French). Rodez: Société des lettres, sciences et arts de l'Aveyron. ill., couv. ill. ; 22 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF34684767s)
  • Delmas, Claire (1986). Inauguration du grand orgue reconstruit de la cathédrale de Rodez, 10 et 11 octobre 1986 (programme) [Inauguration of the rebuilt organ of Rodez Cathedral : 10 and 11 October 1986 ( program)] (in French). Rodez: Ville de Rodez. Non paginé : couv. ill. ; 30 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF37070394s)
  • Delmas, Claire (1991). Cathédrale de Rodez [Rodez Cathedral] (in French). Saint-Georges-de-Luzençon: Ed. du Beffroi. ISBN 2-908123-09-6. ill. en coul., couv. ill. en coul. ; 22 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF35551957n)
  • Bessière, Gérard; Vulliez, Hyacinthe (1994). "La mise au tombeau" de la cathédrale de Rodez ["The Entombment" of the Rodez Cathedral] (in French). Rodez: Ed. du Rouergue. ISBN 2-905209-96-8. ill. en coul., couv. ill. en coul. ; 25 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF35740777m)
  • Magne, F. (2001). Notice archéologique sur l'église cathédrale de Rodez, Fac-sim. de l'éd. de Rodez : Impr. N. Ratery, 1842 [Archaeological instructions on Rodez Cathedral Church : Fac-sim . of Ed. Rodez : Impr. N. Ratery 1842] (in French). Nîmes: C. Lacour. ISBN 2-84692-149-0. ISSN 0989-4616. couv. ill. ; 21 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF37650052n)
  • Talvard, Françoise (2005). La maîtrise de la cathédrale de Rodez aux 17e et 18e siecles [Mastering the Cathedral of Rodez in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries] (in French). Versailles: Éd. du Centre de musique baroque de Versailles. ISBN 2-911239-46-6. ill., fac-sim. ; 30 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF400248540)
  • La cathédrale de Rodez, les vitraux de Stéphane Belzère [Rodez cathedral : stained glass of Stéphane Belzère] (in French). Paris: Éd. du Patrimoine. 2008. ISBN 978-2-7577-0028-0. ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. en coul. ; 23 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF41312162n)

Miscellaneous

    • Aveyron. Archives départementales; Bousquet, Jacques (1961). En Rouergue à travers le temps, guide commenté du Musée des archives départementales [Rouergue through time, the commentary guide of the museum departmental archives] (in French). Rodez: Archives départementales. In-8°.  (BnF no FRBNF33110879n)
  • Bernard, Christian; Lycée agricole (Rodez) (1983). La Flore du domaine du Lycée agricole de Rodez-La Roque [Flora of the area of the agricultural school of La Roque - Rodez] (in French). Rodez: Lycée agricole. 54 f. : ill., couv. ill. ; 30 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF34713536f)
  • Ferdière, Gaston (1992). Rapport sur le fonctionnement de l'hôpital psychiatrique de Rodez du 23 juillet 1941 au 30 novembre 1942 [Report on the functioning of the psychiatric hospital of Rodez of 23 July 1941 to 30 November 1942] (in French). Paris: Maxmed--Nervure. ill. ; 30 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF366694493)
  • Taussat, Robert (1998). Rodez, un nom, une rue [Rodez , a name, a street] (in French). Rodez: Société des lettres, sciences et arts de l'Aveyron. ISBN 2-908570-07-6. ill., couv. ill. en coul. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF370320322)
  • Cosson, Jean-Michel (2003). Histoire des rues de Rodez [History of the streets of Rodez] (in French). Romagnat: de Borée. ISBN 2-84494-198-2. ill., couv. ill. ; 31 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF391035346)
  • Samson-Bécouze, Catherine (2001). Rodez [Rodez] (in French). Rodez: Éd. du Rouergue. ISBN 2-84156-304-9. ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. en coul. ; 21 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF37716179r)
  • La Dépêche du Midi (Toulouse); Hurel, Stéphane; Boudes, Claude (2008). RAF, 80 ans de fidélité, du stade ruthénois au Rodez Aveyron Football [RAF 80 years of loyalty, the stadium Rodez Rodez AF] (in French). Bez-et-Esparon: Études & communication éd. ISBN 978-2-911722-50-9. ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. ; 29 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF412817792)
  • Lombard, Michel (2011). Les diablotins du pensionnat, récit [Imps of boarding school, story] (in French). Portet-sur-Garonne: Loubatières. ISBN 978-2-86266-638-9. couv. ill. ; 21 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF42392658k)
  • Teyssèdre-Jullian, Émily; Smith-Vaniz, Thomas (2001). Rodez de A à Z [Rodez A to Z] (in French). Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire: A. Sutton. ISBN 978-2-8138-0331-3. ISSN 1773-6951. ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. en coul. ; 24 cm.  (BnF no FRBNF42434972c)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Google maps consulted 15 February 2013
  2. ^ Magazine "Rodez Notre Ville" - June 2011
  3. ^ Segovia or Segobriga, the capital of Celtiberians, shares the same etymology.
  4. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the terms of census have been amended by Act No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, called "grassroots democracy law" on the democracy of proximity and in particular Title V "of census operations", in order, after a power transition period from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with populations greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is carried out annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is included at the end of the same period of five years. The first post-legal population from 1999, and fitting in the new system which came into force on 1 January 2009, is the census of 2006.
  5. ^ In the census table, by Wikipedia convention, the principle was retained for subsequent legal populations since 1999 not to display the census populations in the table corresponding to the year 2006, the first published legal population calculated according to the concepts defined in Decree No. 2003-485 of 5 June 2003, and the years corresponding to an exhaustive census survey for municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants, and the years 2006, 2011, 2016, etc. For municipalities with more than 10,000, the latest legal population is published by INSEE for all municipalities.
  6. ^ Service of the Regional Council for Vocational Training
  7. ^ Association working for the employment of disabled people
  8. ^ Association for development through training in the countries of Aveyron, Tarn, Lot and Tarn-et-Garonne
  9. ^ Magazine Bonjour Rodez - December 2006

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External links[edit]