Rodney Howard-Browne

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Rodney Howard-Browne
Born
Rodney Morgan Howard Browne[1]

(1961-06-12) June 12, 1961 (age 59)[1]
Port Elizabeth, South Africa
NationalitySouth African
Spouse(s)Adonica Howard-Browne (nee Weyers)
WebsiteRevival Ministries International

Rodney (Morgan) Howard-Browne (born June 12, 1961)[2] is a South African-born American Christian evangelist and conspiracy theorist.[3][4][5][6] He has resided in Tampa, Florida since the mid-1990s and is pastor of The River Church in Tampa Bay. The River is considered both Pentecostal and Charismatic with revival meetings, led by Howard-Browne, known for those in the audience breaking into "holy laughter".[7][8][9][10][11] Howard-Browne is the head of Revival Ministries International, a group he and his wife founded in 1997.

Biography[edit]

Howard-Browne and his three brothers (Mervyn, Bazil, and Gil) were raised in a Pentecostal family in the cities of Port Elizabeth and East London, South Africa. His father, Frank Mervyn Derric Howard-Browne (1924–2005),[12] was a cleric. Howard-Browne became a Christian at age five.[8] In 1981, he met and married his wife Adonica (née Weyers).[10] In the 1980s, he volunteered to work for Youth for Christ before doing a teaching stint with Rhema Bible School in Johannesburg.

In December 1989, the family emigrated from South Africa to the United States,[13][8] Howard-Browne opened his first U.S. church in Clifton Park, New York, in April 1989.[14] In 1991, he moved to Louisville, Kentucky where he began holding revival meetings.[12][15][16] The Rodney Howard-Browne Evangelistic Association was incorporated in November 1993[17] and the family moved to the Tampa Bay, Florida area in 1994. Rodney's eldest brother Gil[12] went on to operate Times of Refreshing Ministries, an online evangelical ministry.[18] Likewise, his youngest brother Bazil established an eponymous evangelical ministry on 1 January 1994 with the professed aim of people achieving financial freedom through the special anointing of God.[19] Prior to this he had worked alongside his brother Rodney for a year.

In 1996, Howard-Browne founded a church he named "The River" at Tampa Bay Church in Tampa, Florida, serving as its pastor ever since.[20] Howard-Browne and his wife also founded Revival Ministries International in 1997, as well as River Bible Institute and River School of Worship.[21]

Howard-Browne's services are characterized by laying on of hands with worshipers giggling in apparent spiritual drunkenness, speaking in tongues, emitting animal noises, breaking into uncontrollable holy laughter, shaking, dancing in the aisles, or falling to the ground.[7][8][9][10][11][22] He refers to himself as "God's bartender" and the "holy ghost bartender".[9][7]

Howard-Browne is credited with introducing holy laughter to Carpenter's Home Church in Lakeland, Florida during a series of revival services with Karl Strader in 1993. The holy laughter revivals later spread to nearby churches in Melbourne, Titusville, Stuart and Vero Beach, Florida.[23][24] Howard-Browne is credited with bringing holy laughter to the charismatic Toronto Airport Vineyard Church (soon after expelled by its parent Vineyard Church) at a 1994 revival in Toronto, Canada with evangelist Randy Clark, known as the “Toronto Blessing," and then a year later, to Assemblies of God (AOG) Brownsville Church in Pensacola, Florida with evangelist Steve Hill. The event became known in Christian circles as the Brownsville Revival.[23][24][15] Howard-Browne also ministered under pastor Mike Rose at the Juneau Christian Center (formerly known as the Bethel Assembly of God) in Juneau, Alaska, an AOG church that Sarah Palin later attended after becoming governor of Alaska.[25][26][27][28]

Howard-Browne first came to national prominence in the US in 1999 when his Revival Ministries organization rented Madison Square Garden in New York City for six weeks. The event, called Good News New York, was described as “an effort to achieve a Billy Graham-style faith uprising”, but was “derided in local media as a giant flop”. It was estimated to cost up to $10 million but only 3,000 people were counted in attendance at the 19,000-seat arena.[8][9][7] Investigative journalists in his home town of Tampa reported at the time that since arriving from South Africa almost penniless in December 1989, his sudden wealth included a boat, a Harley Davidson motorcycle, a home in one of Tampa's exclusive gated communities and access to a private jet; however, they were unable to find evidence of financial wrongdoing.[8][7]

Howard-Browne's daughter Kelly died of cystic fibrosis on Christmas Day 2002, at the age of 18. He then vowed that “since the devil has taken their daughter with this dreaded disease, he would pay with one million souls over the next ten years”.[29][30]

In 2012, it was reported that Howard-Browne's River Church had hosted political meetings for the Florida chapter of the Republican Party during the preceding two years, including a rally for then presidential candidate Newt Gingrich, at which Howard-Browne called for a national "rising" of Christian Americans "that will not sit idly by and allow the killing of unborn babies and allow Islam to take over this country". At the same event, he described Mormonism as a "cult" that, in the 19th century, "had death squads that would go around killing everybody that was not a Mormon". He later recanted, saying Mormons were "honourable people".[8]

Howard-Browne published The Killing of Uncle Sam: The Demise of the United States of America, which was scheduled to be released in May 2018, and announced that proceeds from sales of the book would go to the River School of Government, a degree granting program, operated by Howard-Browne and his wife under the auspices of Revival Ministries, that funds training for people seeking to run for political office.[31]

Howard-Browne's evangelical movement has been rejected as cult-like by many mainstream Christian organisations, and it has been described as "a combination of brimstone and fire about God’s power, sprinkled with hipster references and a conviction that church—like Disneyland—should be 'the happiest place on earth'."[8] The Christian Research Institute labelled his operation a “cult” and called the him "a good stage hypnotist" who has made millions from vulnerable believers.[8] According to The Tampa Tribune, critics have described him as "a manipulator leading followers into a cult; a circus ring leader making a good living."[7]

Statements and controversies[edit]

Diploma mill doctorate[edit]

Howard-Browne claimed to have earned a "doctorate of ministry degree" in 1992 from "The School of Bible Theology", a non-accredited Pentecostal correspondence school in San Jacinto, California that has been described as a "diploma mill".[7][32][33][29]

Multi-level marketing: Monavie and Jeunesse[edit]

Howard-Browne and his wife Adonica were top-ranking (“Black Diamond executive level”) distributors for Monavie, a multi-level marketing company that sold acai berry juice-based beverages until folding in 2014 subsequent to a $182 million loan default and allegations of pyramid scheming, fraudulent advertising, and patent infringement.[34][35][36] As of 2016, Howard-Browne also served as a "North America Emerald Director" for the multi-level marketing company Jeunesse.[37]

Allegation of plot to attack Donald Trump[edit]

In July 2017, Howard-Browne was one of 17 evangelical pastors who visited the White House to pray for and lay hands on President Donald Trump.[38] In a video several days later, Howard-Browne stated that “there is a planned attack on our president and that’s all I can tell you about right now; I know what I’m talking about, I’ve spoken to high-ranking people in the government".[39] Howard-Browne later said that the Secret Service met with him to discover which congressman told him about the plot but he refused to say, citing pastoral privilege.[40] Howard-Browne praised God for giving America a 'Rambo'.[41]

In March 2016, Howard-Browne wrote a Facebook post titled “Donald Trump Is the New World Order’s Worst Nightmare,” where he detailed his choice to back Trump in the election as a check against a global conspiracy to destroy America.[42]

Hurricane Irma[edit]

In September 2017, Howard-Browne received media attention after referring to Hurricane Irma—a category 4 storm that caused the death of fifty people in the U.S. and Caribbean and resulted in power outages affecting 5.5 million people in Florida—as a "nothingburger". He further stated that "prayer took the teeth out of the storm".[43]

Alleging human sacrifice[edit]

In an October 2017 sermon at The River at Tampa Bay church, Howard-Browne alleged that "They sacrifice children at the highest levels in Hollywood. They drink blood of young kids. This is a fact", continuing, "The human sacrifice and the cannibalism has been going on for years" in Hollywood and Washington, D.C.[44][45][46]

Arming of the River at Tampa Bay church[edit]

Howard-Browne drew attention for a social media post in November 2017, two days after the Sutherland Springs church shooting, stating that his church was not a gun-free zone and that he and the church's pastors “are all heavily armed” and would use “deadly force”.[47][48][49]

Conspiracy theories on InfoWars[edit]

In March 2018, Howard-Browne made an appearance on Alex Jones' InfoWars program during which he claimed: that a string of bombings in Austin, Texas were being used by "anarchist terrorists" in an attempt to bring "everything under control"; that churches and religious groups were being censored in the U.S.; and that "globalist gremlins" were attempting to thwart Donald Trump.[50]

Christchurch Mosque shootings[edit]

Shortly after the Christchurch mosque shootings in March 2019, Howard-Browne tweeted his opinion that it was a 'false flag' operation: "There is no doubt that what happened in New Zealand as horrific as it is, is a false flag that will be blamed on conservatives when it’s all said and done! Only a total nutjob lunatic, insane demonized freak goes into a building and kills people, it’s unacceptable on every level!"[51]

Iqaluit sermon[edit]

On August 27, 2019, Howard-Browne delivered a sermon in the Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut as part of a 300-city tour. He preached for over an hour at an Iqaluit church to a mostly Inuit audience of more than 100 people. The event featured a call for donations, including a video of Howard-Browne claiming “God loves a generous giver,” which Nunatsiaq News criticized on the basis that poverty is widespread in the city and nearly half of Nunavut's population relies on social assistance amidst long-standing crises in food security and housing.[22] The news outlet also noted that he “lashed out” at and “harangued” audience members who tried to leave before the end of the sermon. Commenting after the event, Anglican bishop for the Arctic, David Parsons, described Howard-Browne as an extremist.

Coronavirus pandemic[edit]

Howard-Browne kept his church open during the COVID-19 pandemic and on March 15 told his congregants to continue shaking hands because they were “revivalists, not pansies”. He dedicated most of the sermon to mocking fears about the spread of the coronavirus and calling it a “phantom plague” designed to shut down churches and terrify people into receiving a vaccine that would cause mass deaths as a population control scheme, which he claimed was part of a plan laid out in a 2010 document “Scenarios for the Future of Technology and International Development” produced by The Rockefeller Foundation and Global Business Network.[52][53][54] Several weeks prior, Howard-Browne claimed in a video that he would cure Florida of coronavirus,[55] and in a 2019 video he had falsely claimed that he and other worshipers at his church had cleansed Florida of Zika virus.[56][55][57][58]

On March 29, 2020, Howard-Browne's congregation received a visit from the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office warning about his violations of the county's safer-at-home order, which limited public gatherings to 10 people.[59][60] The next day, Hillsborough County Sheriff Chad Chronister announced that he had issued an arrest warrant for unlawful assembly and for violating rules regarding public health emergencies after Howard-Browne continued to hold large church services in defiance of the public order.[61][6][62][63] Chronister said he had no choice but to take action against Howard-Browne, stating "His reckless disregard for human life put hundreds of people from his congregation at risk and thousands of residents who may interact with them this week."[60]

On March 30, 2020, Howard-Browne was arrested and jailed for unlawful assembly and for violating health and safety rules, with each charge carrying a maximum penalty of 60 days in jail and a $500 fine.[6][61] He was released from jail after posting a $500 bond.[64] On April 1, Howard-Browne said that he would not open his church the following weekend over fear of his congregation's safety and to protect them from “government tyranny."[65] However, his lawyer, Mathew Staver of the law firm Liberty Counsel, said that Howard-Browne's arrest earlier in the week had led to the pastor's insurance policy being cancelled.[65][66] Howard-Browne also claimed and that he had received death threats. The pastor held open the possibility that the church would be open for Easter services but then announced on April 9 that it would instead be closed.[66] Prosecutors dropped the charges on May 15, deeming that Howard-Browne posed no ongoing risk to public health after he took steps to maintain responsible social distancing at the church.[67]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Holy Laughter - Rodney Howard-Browne and the Toronto Blessing". jbeard.users.rapidnet.com. Retrieved Mar 31, 2020.
  2. ^ "Hernando County Inmate Booking Information: Rodney Howard Browne". Hernando County Detention Center. March 30, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
  3. ^ Wilson, Jason (April 4, 2020). "The rightwing Christian preachers in deep denial over Covid-19's danger". The Guardian. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  4. ^ Carlie Porterfield, Carlie (March 31, 2020). "Florida Megachurch Pastor Arrested For Defying Coronavirus Stay-At-Home Order And Holding Services". Forbes. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  5. ^ Williamson, Elizabeth (March 17, 2020). "On the Political Right, Anger and Suspicion Over Virus Precautions". New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Marrero, Tony (March 30, 2020). "Pastor of Tampa church that held two large Sunday services arrested, jailed". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Bearden, Michelle (1999-06-28). "The Holy Ghost Bartender". The Tampa Tribune. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2019-02-23.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Philp, Rowan Philp (March 16, 2012). "God's bartender in good spirits". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d Carnes, Tony. "Howard-Browne Takes New York." Christianity Today, August 9, 1999
  10. ^ a b c Ravitz, Jessica. "Up for Godly giddiness: Pastor spreads the joy of salvation 'anywhere the Lord opens a door.'" The Salt Lake Tribune, March 22, 2007
  11. ^ a b Socolovsky, Jerome (July 9, 2014). "African-born Pastor Brings 'Holy Laughter' Revival to Washington". Voice of America. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  12. ^ a b c "Frank Howard-Browne Obituary". Tampa Bay Times. September 2, 2005. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  13. ^ "Profile: Evangelist Rodney Howard-Browne." Religion and Ethics NewsWeekly, PBS, August 20, 1999
  14. ^ Billings, Kevin (March 17, 2020). "Who Is Rodney Howard-Browne? Evangelical Pastor Won't Close Florida Church Amid Coronavirus Panic". International Business Times. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  15. ^ a b Ostling, Richard N (June 24, 2001). "Laughing for the Lord". Time Magazine. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  16. ^ "History of Campmeetings". Revival Ministries International. Retrieved April 6, 2019. Through the summer of 1991, we held revival meetings in Louisville, Kentucky, and all over the surrounding…
  17. ^ "Rodney Howard Brown Evangelistic Association, Inc.: Annual Report 1994". Florida Department of State, Division of Corporations. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  18. ^ "Times of Refreshing Ministries:The Internet Ministry of Evangelists Gil & Loraine Howard-Browne – About Us". Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  19. ^ "What you need to know about Bazil Howard-Browne". May 26, 2009. Retrieved Mar 31, 2020.
  20. ^ Graham, Kevin (January 10, 2005). "Church's Hummer prize too worldly?". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  21. ^ Howard-Browne, Rodney "About us" Revival.com
  22. ^ a b Rohner, Thomas (September 5, 2019). "Conspiracy-theorizing megachurch preacher visits Nunavut". Nunatsiaq News. Retrieved January 4, 2020. Howard-Browne also spoke in tongues, which he claimed was once understood in the obscure native dialect of a Papua New Guinea pastor
  23. ^ a b Pinsky, Mark I (September 1, 1996). "When Holy Laughter Starts, Some Find It Hard To Stop". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  24. ^ a b McMullen, Cary (May 18, 2008). "Florida Outpouring: Internet Draws Thousands to Lakeland Revival". The Ledger. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  25. ^ Wilson, Bruce (October 12, 2008). "Palin and the Holy Laughter Anointing". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  26. ^ Bradley Hagerty, Barbara (September 5, 2008). "Examining Palin's Pentecostal Background". NPR. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  27. ^ Silverstein, Ken (August 30, 2008). "Palin and Her Pastors: "Those that die without Christ have a horrible, horrible surprise"". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  28. ^ Miller, Lisa (October 27, 2008). "What Are Sarah Palin's Religious Beliefs?". Newsweek. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  29. ^ a b Kambulow, Walter (June 1, 2003). The Best of the Kambulows. p. 879. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  30. ^ "Kelly Howard-Browne Obituary". Tampa Bay Times. December 28, 2002. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  31. ^ McGregor, Grady (November 17, 2017). "Controversial pastor visits Dickinson: Rival pastor from Montana dragged from church after protesting". Dickinson Press. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  32. ^ Kowalski, David (2012). ""Name it and Frame it" — Phony Doctorates in the Church". Apologetics Index. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  33. ^ Stokes, Jerry. Joseph Smith and Word of Faith Movement. p. 21. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  34. ^ "MV Three Sixty Five Magazine" (PDF). p. 86. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  35. ^ "Rodney and Adonica Howard-Browne MonaVie Black Diamond". Monavie Corporate. YouTube. March 18, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  36. ^ "Imagenetix, Inc. vs. Monavie LLC et al" (PDF). United States District Court for the Southern District of California. May 2, 2018. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
  37. ^ "Legacy Powered by Jeunesse" (PDF). Jeunesse Global Holdings, LLC. 2016. p. 41. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  38. ^ Gutierrez, Lisa (July 12, 2017). "'Great spiritual awakening': Pastors lay hands on Donald Trump in the Oval Office". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  39. ^ Mantyla, Kyle (July 17, 2017). "Rodney Howard-Browne Prayed Over Trump In Order To Avert 'A Planned Attack On Our President'". Right Wing Watch. People for the American Way. Retrieved December 21, 2017. There is a planned attack on our president," he said, “and that’s all I can tell you about right now; I know what I’m talking about, I’ve spoken to high-ranking people in the government and this is being planned by people that hate God, hate America, hate our president and we have to stop this, in Jesus name.”
  40. ^ Mantyla, Kyle (July 31, 2017). "Pastor Who Claimed His Prayers Averted Anti-Trump Attack Refuses To Provide Details To Secret Service Because It's 'Not My Problem'". Right Wing Watch. Right Wing Watch. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Somebody reported me to the Secret Service, so they came over” he claimed. “Three guys, we sat and talked; very nice people and they wanted to know who the congressman was. I said, ‘I can’t tell you that, it was pastoral privilege.’ I said, ‘I prayed for him’ and he said, ‘So, it was like a confession?’ I said, ‘Yeah, I can’t tell you. I’m not going to tell you, I can’t tell you, it’s impossible.'” “If the Secret Service in Washington, D.C., don’t know what’s coming down, then why should somebody from Tampa?” Howard-Browne added. “This is a senior member of Congress. If he actually knew anything, he would inform the Secret Service himself. It’s not my problem.
  41. ^ "Rodney Howard-Browne Thanks God For Giving America 'A Rambo' In Trump". 18 May 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  42. ^ Weaver, Hilary (July 12, 2017). "Donald Trump's Oval Office Prayer Circle, Explained". Vanity Fair. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  43. ^ Gaffey, Conor (September 12, 2017). "Hurricane Irma Was A Nothingburger, Says Pastor Who Prayed Over Trump At White House". Newsweek. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  44. ^ Justice, Jessilyn (October 20, 2017). "Rodney Howard Browne: Hollywood Execs Are 'Full of the Devil,' 'Drink the Blood of Young Kids'". Charisma News. Charisma Media. Retrieved December 21, 2017. They sacrifice children at the highest levels in Hollywood. They drink blood of young kids. This is a fact. That's why the next thing to be exposed will be all the pedophilia that is going to come out of Hollywood and come out of Washington, D.C. The human sacrifice and the cannibalism has been going on for years
  45. ^ Mazza, Ed (October 20, 2017). "Trump-Linked Pastor: Hollywood Is Full Of Satanists Who Drink Children's Blood". Huffpost. Oath Inc. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  46. ^ Macintyre, James (October 20, 2017). "Pastor who prayed over Donald Trump says Hollywood is full of devil worshippers who drink children's blood". Christian Today. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  47. ^ Eltagouri, Marwa (November 21, 2017). "This church has a warning for visitors: 'WE ARE HEAVILY ARMED — The Pastors'". Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  48. ^ Denker, Angela (April 18, 2018). "We Are Heavily Armed. -The Pastors". Sojourners. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  49. ^ Aaron, Charlene (November 20, 2017). "After Deadly Church Shooting, Rodney Howard-Browne's Church Warns 'We Are Heavily Armed'". Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  50. ^ Holt, Jared (March 20, 2018). "Rodney Howard-Browne Says Only 'Divine Intervention' Can Save America". Right Wing Watch. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  51. ^ Reed, Brad. "Megachurch pastor who was invited to Trump's White House declares New Zealand terror attack a 'false flag'". www.rawstory.com.
  52. ^ Palmer, Evan (March 16, 2020). "Conservative pastor says his church 'will never close' because of coronavirus: 'we're raising up revivalists, not pansies'". Newsweek. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
  53. ^ Naughtie, Andrew (March 16, 2020). "Coronavirus: US conservatives spark backlash after socialising against official health advice". The Independent. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
  54. ^ March 16, Kyle Mantyla |; Am, 2020 10:24. "Rodney Howard-Browne: Coronavirus Pandemic Is a Globalist Plot to Kill People With Vaccines". Right Wing Watch. Retrieved Mar 31, 2020.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  55. ^ a b Wolf, Colin (February 26, 2020). "Tampa pastor who claimed to cure Zika now says he will cure Florida of coronavirus". Orlando Weekly. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
  56. ^ "Christians Protest the River at Tampa Bay Church for Risking the Spread of COVID-19, Including Pastor's False Promise to Cure the Coronavirus". Boca Raton Tribune. March 31, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  57. ^ Fearnow, Benjamin (March 30, 2020). "Tampa megachurch draws hundreds despite social distancing order, pastor defends holding service". Newsweek. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  58. ^ Lanning, Jason (March 31, 2020). "Pastor Arrested on Public Health Violation: "Church is an Essential Business"". Bay News 9. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  59. ^ Right Wing Watch (Mar 30, 2020). "Right-wing pastor Rodney Howard-Browne has repeatedly stated that he will never cancel services at his The River church in Tampa. Now it looks like he received a visit from the local sheriff's office after holding services yesterday.pic.twitter.com/ABFYq4RtCg". Retrieved Mar 31, 2020.
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  62. ^ "Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office on Facebook Watch". Retrieved Mar 31, 2020 – via Facebook.
  63. ^ Mantyla, Kyle (March 30, 2020). "Arrest Warrant Issued for Rodney Howard-Browne for Hosting Church Services Amid Coronavirus Pandemic". Right Wing Watch. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  64. ^ Sommer, Will; Connor, Tracy (March 30, 2020). "Rodney Howard-Browne, Megachurch Pastor Who Flouted Virus Rules, Arrested". The Daily Beast. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  65. ^ a b Wolf, Colin (April 3, 2020). "Orlando lawyer for pastor who held services during coronavirus outbreak says church lost its insurance". Orlando Weekly. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
  66. ^ a b Siemaszko, Corky (April 10, 2020). "Florida megachurch pastor caves after defying coronavirus rules". NBC News. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
  67. ^ Marrero, Tony (May 15, 2020). "Charges dropped against Tampa pastor who held services during stay-at-home order". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved May 27, 2020.

External links[edit]