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16 December 1934 |
|Residence||New York City, New York, United States|
|Institutions||NYU School of Medicine|
|Alma mater||Universidad Javeriana and Australian National University|
|Known for||Physiology of the cerebellum, the thalamus, Thalamocortical dysrhythmia as well as for his pioneering work on the inferior olive, on the squid giant synapse and on human magnetoencephalography (MEG)|
|Mind and brain portal|
Rodolfo R. Llinás (Bogota, Colombia 16 December 1934) is a Colombian American neuroscientist. He is currently the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman Emmeritus of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the NYU School of Medicine. He attended the Gimnasio Moderno school and received his MD from the Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá in 1959 and his PhD in 1965 from the Australian National University working under Sir John Eccles. Llinás has published over 500 scientific articles.
Llinás was born in Bogotá, Colombia. He went to the Gimnasio Moderno school in Bogotá and graduated as a medical doctor from the Pontifical Xavierian University. Llinás is an atheist and describes himself as a logical positivist.
He has studied the electrophysiology of single neurons in the cerebellum, the thalamus, the cerebral cortex, the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampus, the vestibular system, the inferior olive and the spinal cord. He has studied synaptic transmitter release in the squid giant synapse. He has studied human brain function using magnetoencephalography (MEG) on the basis of which he introduced the concept of Thalamocortical dysrhythmia.
- Discovery of dendritic inhibition in central neurons (at the mammalian motoneuron).
- The functional organization of the cerebellar cortex neuronal circuits.
- Defining cerebellar function from an evolutionary perspective.
- First description of electrical coupling in the mammalian CNS (mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus).
- First determination of presynaptic calcium current, under voltage clamp, at the squid giant synapse.
- Discovery that vertebrate neurons (cerebellar Purkinje cell) can generate calcium-dependent spikes.
- Proposal and Organization of NASA Neurolab Project that flew on April 17, 1998, Space Shuttle Columbia.
- Discovery of the P-type calcium channel in the Purkinje cells.
- Discovery of low threshold spikes generated by low voltage activated calcium conductaces (presently known as due to T-type calcium channel) in inferior olive and thalamus neurons.
- Asserting the law of no interchangeability of neurons, which it is known as Llinás' law.
- Direct demonstration of calcium concentration microdomains at the presynaptic active zone.
- Utilization of magnetoencephalography in clinical research.
- Discovery of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in the inferior olive, thalamus and entorhinal cortex.
- The discovery of Thalamocortical dysrhythmia.
- Artificial olivo-cerebellar motor control system as part of the project BAUV (Undersea Vehicle) of the US Navy developed by P. Bandyopadhyay.
Memberships and Honors
Llinás is a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences (1986), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1996), American Philosophical Society (1996), the Real Academia Nacional de Medicina (Spain) (1996) and the French Academy of Science (2002). Dr. Llinás has received honorary degrees from the following universities:
- Universidad de Salamanca (Spain) (1985)
- Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain) (1993)
- National University of Colombia (1994)
- Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain (1997)
- Los Andes University (Colombia), Bogota, Colombia, (1998)
- Toyama University, Toyama, Japan (2005)
- University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy (2006)
- Dr. Llinás has received the following awards:
- Bernard Katz Award Biohysical Society, Washington USA (2012)
- Gold Medal of CSIC, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain (2012)
- Cajal Diploma given by Queen Sofia of Spain Madrid, Spain (2013)
- Ragnar Granit Lecture and Award, Nobel Institute, Stockholm, Sweden (2013)
- Castilla del Pino Lecture and Award Cordoba, Spain (2015)
- Nansen Neuroscience Lecture and award Norwegian Academy of Science, Oslo, Norway (2016)
- Scholar of the Year Australian National University, Canberra, Australia (2016)
He was the chairman of NASA/Neurolab Science Working Group and in 2013, the NYU Neuroscience Institute created the Annual Rodolfo Llinás Lecture Series in recognition of his contributions to the field of neuroscience.
- Hubbard, J.I., Llinás, R. and Quastel, D.M.J. Electrophysiological Analysis of Synaptic Transmission. London: Edward Arnold Publishers 1969.
- Llinás, R. Editor. Neurobiology of Cerebellar Evolution and Development. (Chicago: Am. Med. Association, 1969)
- Llinás, R. I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 2001). ISBN 0-262-62163-0
- Llinás, Rodolfo R. The Squid Giant Synapse : A Model for Chemical Transmission Oxford University Press, USA (December 15, 1999) ISBN 0-19-511652-6
- Llinás, Rodolfo R. and Churchland, Patricia S. Mind-Brain Continuum: Sensory Processes The MIT Press (September 9, 1996) ISBN 0-262-12198-0
- Llinás, Rodolfo R., and Steriade, Mircea. Bursting of thalamic neurons and states of vigilance. Invited Review J. Neurophysiol, 95:3297-3308, 2006. doi:10.1152/jn.00166.2006
- Squire, Larry R (2006). The history of neuroscience in autobiography. New York, New York: Elsevier. p. 413. ISBN 978-0-12-370514-3.
- P. (2016). Rodolfo R. Llinas - Can Science Talk God? Retrieved August 26, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VpJ-FpshcsE
- Llinás R, Ribary U, Jeanmonod D, Kronberg E, Mitra P (1999). "Thalamocortical dysrhythmia: A neurological and neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by magnetoencephalography". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (26): 15222–7. PMC . PMID 10611366. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.26.15222.
- Llinas, R; Terzuolo CA (1965). "Mechanisms of supraspinal actions upon spinal cord activities. Reticular inhibitory mechanisms upon flexor motoneurons". The Journal of Neurophysiology. 28: 413–422.
- Llinás, Rodolfo; Walton, Kerry D; Lang, Eric J (2004) [1st pub. 1974]. "Chapter 7: Cerebellum". In Shepherd, Gordon M. The synaptic organization of the brain. New York, New York: Oxford University press. pp. 271–310. ISBN 0-19-515955-1.
- Llinas, RR (1969). "Functional aspects of interneuronal evolution in the cerebellar cortex". UCLA Forum Med Sci. 11: 329–48. PMID 5397400.
- Baker, R.; Llinás, R. (1971-01-01). "Electrotonic coupling between neurones in the rat mesencephalic nucleus". The Journal of Physiology. 212 (1): 45–63. ISSN 0022-3751. PMC . PMID 5545184. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1971.sp009309.
- Llinás, R.; Steinberg, I. Z.; Walton, K. (1976-08-01). "Presynaptic calcium currents and their relation to synaptic transmission: voltage clamp study in squid giant synapse and theoretical model for the calcium gate". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 73 (8): 2918–2922. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC . PMID 183215. doi:10.1073/pnas.73.8.2918.
- Llinás, R.; Steinberg, I. Z.; Walton, K. (1980-09-01). "Transmission in the squid giant synapse: a model based on voltage clamp studies". Journal de Physiologie. 76 (5): 413–418. ISSN 0021-7948. PMID 6256531.
- Llinas, R; Sugimori (1980). "Electrophysiological Properties of in Vitro Purkinje Cell Somata in Mammalian Cerebellar Slices". The Journal of Physiology. 305: 171–195. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1980.sp013357.
- Llinás, R.; Sugimori, M. (1980-08-01). "Electrophysiological properties of in vitro Purkinje cell dendrites in mammalian cerebellar slices". The Journal of Physiology. 305: 197–213. ISSN 0022-3751. PMC . PMID 7441553. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1980.sp013358.
- Buckey, Jay C. (2003). Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space. Houston, Texas: NASA. ISBN 0-9725339-0-7.
- Llinás, Rodolfo (1990). «Intrinsic Electrical Properties of Mammalian Neurons and CNS Function». Fidia Research Foundation Neuroscience Award Lectures, 1988-1989 (Raven Press) 4: p. 175.
- Rezai, A. R.; Hund, M.; Kronberg, E.; Deletis, V.; Zonenshayn, M.; Cappell, J.; Ribary, U.; Llinás, R.; Kelly, P. J. (1995). "Introduction of magnetoencephalography to stereotactic techniques". Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. 65 (1-4): 37–41. ISSN 1011-6125. PMID 8916327.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rodolfo Llinás.|
- Rodolfo Llinás official website
- NYU website about Rodolfo Llinás
- "List of Articles on Google Scholar". Google Scholar. 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- Enter the "I" of the Vortex The Science Network interview with Rodolfo Llinás
- In a Host of Ailments, Seeing a Brain Out of Rhythm The New York Times December 8, 2008
- New Way Of Looking At Diseases Of the Brain The New York Times October 26, 1999
- Listening to the Conversation of Neurons The New York Times May 27, 1997
- New York Times announcement of election to the [National Academy of Sciences]