Rodrigo Duterte presidential campaign, 2016

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Rodrigo Duterte presidential campaign, 2016
Rodrigo Duterte 2016 campaign.png
Campaign Philippine presidential election, 2016
Candidate
Affiliation PDP-Laban
Status Announced: November 21, 2015
Launched: November 30, 2015
Won election:
May 9, 2016
Headquarters EDSA, Makati, Metro Manila[1]
Key people
Slogan Tapang at Malasakit
(lit. Courage and Compassion)
Matapang na solusyon, Mabilis na aksyon (lit. Fearless solutions, fast action.)
Change is Coming
Atin to Pre! (lit. This is ours, pal!)
Chant Duterte!
Duterte! Cayetano!
DuCay!
Website
www.dutertecayetano.com

The 2016 presidential campaign of Rodrigo Duterte was announced on November 21, 2015. Rodrigo Duterte, who was serving as Mayor of Davao City, had repeatedly refused to run for several months and turned down other presidential and vice-presidential aspirants' offers to be his running mate, including Jejomar Binay, Miriam Defensor-Santiago and Bongbong Marcos. He was eventually elected President of the Philippines. Duterte's positions resonated with older, working class Filipinos. This was particularly true regarding his promise to eliminate the wide-scale drug menace in the country, his record of zero criminal tolerance in Davao City, which he ruled for more than 22 years, as well as his stronger stance against corruption. Duterte's campaign reached out to these Filipinos who had been suffering poverty, were heavily nationalistic, and possessed growing distrust of Western institutions as well as the political establishment in Manila that were controlled by the elites and oligarchs. In his campaign, Duterte accused the political elites of not doing much to solve the problems in a move that was described as populist.

Background[edit]

Calls to run for presidency and negotiations[edit]

In his speech during the change-of-command ceremony of the Philippine National Police, then-candidate Duterte credited former president Fidel V. Ramos as his inspiration. Ramos was the first person who flew to Davao City to ask Duterte to run in the higher office as President.[3]

Early in 2015, Duterte hinted to the media of his intent to run for the presidency in 2016, with the promise of abolishing the Philippine Congress altogether in favor of a Parliament should he win.[4][5][6] Earlier, in February 2014, Duterte was reportedly enjoying the support of several netizens who were lauding his performance as mayor of Davao, especially in maintaining peace and order in the city, but he was quick to shrug off calls for him to run for President, saying he was not qualified for a higher public office.[7] A year later, Duterte said in a Baguio federalism forum that he would only run for president "if (it is) to save the republic." Duterte cited the need for about 10 to 15 billion pesos for a campaign war chest as what was keeping him from running.[8] Days later, however, Duterte "re-entered" PDP-Laban; he maintained he never left the party, and only had to stand under the local party banner, Hugpong sa Tawong Lungsod, in the 2013 local election in order to ensure his victory.[9] PDP-Laban president Aquilino Pimentel III later said that Duterte was among his party's options for a presidential candidate for 2016, noting that the party's position on federalism coincides with Duterte's advocacy.[10] A few days after reports came out saying incumbent Vice-President Jejomar Binay (a presidential aspirant) was eyeing Duterte as his possible running mate, Duterte issued a statement saying he was not interested in running for a national post.[11]

In September 2014, Duterte declined presidential aspirant and incumbent senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago's offer to be her running mate, saying that instead of picking him as the senator's running mate, she could ask former defense secretary Gilberto Teodoro, Jr..[12] In March 2015, Lakas–CMD national president Ferdinand Martin Romualdez announced that his party was preparing for the 2016 elections; incumbent congressman Danilo Suarez remarked that they were convincing Teodoro to come out of retirement and run anew for a high office.[13] However, in October 2015, Santiago chose Bongbong Marcos as her running mate.[14]

Rodrigo Duterte

Later, during the airing of his weekly program, Gikan Sa Masa, Para Sa Masa, on a local channel on June 21, 2015, Duterte stated that he was considering suggestions from his friends and supporters to run for President. He also added that he would stop expressing non-interest in starting a presidential campaign.[15]

However, at the ASIA CEO Forum in Makati held on June 25, Duterte again stated that he would not run for the national office and said that he never desired to do so. A month later, however, Duterte, responding to Justice Secretary Leila de Lima's statement that she would not run with Duterte as a matter of principle, said that he would campaign against the Liberal Party if de Lima is drafted, calling her "hypocritical" and her principles as "rotten."[16]

In August, while at a meeting with military officers, Duterte spoke with Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) founder Jose Maria Sison. Duterte said that he told Sison that he would run for President if the CPP's armed wing, the New People's Army, abandoned its over-40-year insurgency, saying, "Armed struggle as a means to achieve change is passe in the modern world we are living in today". Duterte disclosed that Sison was asking him about his plans for 2016 and that he told Sison that he did not have plans yet.[17]

On September 7, 2015, in a press conference held at Davao City, Duterte declared he would not be running for President in 2016 and apologized to all of his supporters on the decision. He additionally stated that he might retire from politics after his term as mayor of Davao City ended in 2016 and if his daughter ran for the office. Other factors in his possible retirement included age, health concerns and his family's objections.[18] Mixed reactions erupted on social media hours after the declaration and several supporters still continued to petition online, urging the mayor to revert his decision.[19]

On September 26, 2015, a large number of supporters gathered at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila, to urge Duterte to run for the presidency in 2016. The gathering was dubbed "The Million People March" by the media,[20] but its followers preferred to call it "The People's Call".[21] Duterte was not present at the event and was in Zamboanga City to assist a kidnapping case involving three foreigners and a Filipina taken by armed men in a luxury resort in Samal Island that week.[22] It was then reported that the (hashtag)#Duterte2016 topped on Twitter with a 1,966,830 reach and 2,641,635 impressions during the rally.[23] In a statement read by retired Armed Forces chief Hermogenes Esperon to the crowd at Quirino Grandstand, Duterte asked for more time to "do some final soul-searching" as per a text message sent by Duterte himself.[24] Since Duterte claimed that one of the primary reasons he declined for a presidential bid was lack of finances needed to bankroll a campaign, supporter Atty. Vitaliano Aguirre reported that a group of businessmen had pledged P1 billion to fund Duterte's bid if ever Duterte accepted the offer. One offer was made by Benigno Gopez, who spoke for a group of anonymous businessmen, after the gathering of Duterte supporters at Quirino Grandstand on September 26.[25] Despite being an undeclared candidate, Pulse Asia Research Director Ana Tabunda still considered Duterte "a serious contender" as he was already ranked fourth in a presidential survey done by Pulse Asia from late August to early September as well as in a latest Social Weather Stations survey. He was behind announced and declared candidates Grace Poe, Mar Roxas and Jejomar Binay.[26] Duterte's long-time political rival and critic, former Speaker of the House of Representatives Prospero Nograles, also expressed his support for Duterte if ever the latter decided to run for the presidency.[27] On October 13, 2015, in a press conference held at a local hotel in Davao City, Duterte finalized his decision not to run for the presidency, with daughter Sara's objection being pointed out as one of the main contributors.[28]

On October 15, 2015, Duterte's authorized representative, Christopher "Bong" Go, filed Duterte's certificate of candidacy (COC) on his behalf at the Commission on Elections (Comelec) office in Manila, for a re-election bid for the Davao City mayoralty post.[29] A music video with a disclaimer being "non-paid" entitled "Takbo" (Run in English translation) was uploaded on the same day by rap artist Njel de Mesa, with a theme to urge Duterte to run for the presidency. The song was composed by singer Jimmy Bondoc and featured various artists including Bondoc and de Mesa, Luke Mejares, Paolo Santos, Pido Lalimarmo, Thor, Gail Blanco and other OPM artists.[30] Bondoc then stated that he would offer to write another song if the mayor finally decided to join the presidential race in 2016.[31]

Filing of COC by Martin Diño as PDP-Laban's presidential bet[edit]

On the afternoon of October 16, the last day for filing of COC and a day after her father's submission for the same position, Duterte's daughter, Sara, posted on her Instagram account a photo of her COC, while hinting that her father would seek a higher post and withdraw his COC for mayoral re-election.[32] However, in a radio interview with Bong Go, he stated that while Sara's COC was filled out, it was not received by the Comelec in Davao City.[33] Hundreds of supporters were reportedly rallying outside the Comelec office expecting Duterte to file his candidacy on the last day of submission before the cut-off at 5:00 pm. Duterte's possibility of substitution until December 10 was opened after Martin Diño, father of celebrity Liza Diño and chairman of the Volunteers Against Crime and Corruption (VACC) and former barangay captain of Brgy. San Antonio, Quezon City, filed his candidacy for president at the last minute. Diño is a member of PDP-Laban, the same party advocating the federalism system where Duterte belongs.[34] Diño clarified that there was a "clerical error" on his submitted COC (running for Pasay City mayor, instead of president). On their general meeting held in Pasay City on October 26, members of PDP-Laban had expressed their support to Diño in his presidential bid.[35] On October 21, Duterte told CNN Philippines' News.PH via phone patch interview that there was still a chance he would change his mind. The decision, however, would have to be made by the PDP-Laban.[36]

On October 26, 2015, Duterte said in an interview that his deadline for deciding whether to seek the presidency was December 10. He also warned the people to abide by the law if he wins.[37] On October 27, PDP-Laban has made it official that Duterte will substitute as the party's presidential bet if aspirant Martin Diño withdraws or is disqualified by the Commission of Elections (Comelec) from the 2016 race.[38] Two days later, PDP-Laban standard bearer Martin Diño withdrew his presidential bid and named Duterte as his substitute because there was a possibility that Diño might be declared a nuisance candidate by the COMELEC.[39] On October 30, an alleged campaign video of Duterte and Cayetano circulated on social media that put hopes on Duterte's candidacy as Cayetano's running mate. However, Duterte's aide Bong Go said in an interview that Duterte's mind had not changed yet but that he would continue soul-searching with his family to know if he would run in the upcoming elections.[40] On November 1, Duterte said that nothing had changed and he was not fit for national office. He also said that he was still waiting for a communication from his party about his possible candidacy; Duterte would also wait if his daughter would agree to substitute for him at the mayoral race of Davao and he would retire from public service if Sara agreed to do so.[41] On November 2, Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting (PPCRV) executive Arwin Serrano said that Diño was deemed to face an election sabotage complaint because of proposing Duterte as his substitute for him; however, Diño denied the allegations that his filing of candidacy was just a front to pave the way for Duterte's possible substitution.[42] In an interview with Comelec chairman Andres D. Bautista on November 3, he stated that although they have noted Diño's withdrawal, they would not move with any further action with regard to a possible substitution until they had Duterte's consent and unless it would be made official with a COC and a certificate of nomination and acceptance from PDP-Laban.[43] Duterte himself then further clarified that his decision of acceptance for the substitution offer would be on the deadline itself come December 10.[44]

Official acceptance for substitution[edit]

On November 21, in a gathering held in his alma mater San Beda College, Duterte announced his presidential bid and also finally accepted Alan Peter Cayetano's offer to be his running mate.[45] Duterte said he was disappointed over the decision made by the Senate Electoral Tribunal (SET) regarding Grace Poe's citizenship as well as the current administration's handling of the 'laglag-bala' issue.[46] Duterte further stated that he would file his candidacy immediately after he reached out to his party.[47]

On November 27, Duterte filed his certificate of candidacy for president through a representative in Metro Manila shortly after withdrawing his COC for Davao City mayoralty re-election. The document was filed along with a certificate of nomination and acceptance from PDP-Laban signed by Duterte and the party's vice president, Engr. Salvador Ty. In withdrawing his COC for Davao City mayor, Duterte named his daughter, Sara, as his substitute. Sara submitted the document for substitution at Comelec Davao and both COCs were received.[48]

Campaign[edit]

Duterte and allies campaigning in Pandacan, Manila

Duterte topped all other presidentiables including former front-runner Grace Poe in a survey published November 25 and held by Pulse Asia.[49] Poe said that the survey was "inconclusive" and "not reflective" and claimed it was made by Duterte's camp.[50]

On November 29, 2015, the supporters of Duterte and Cayetano held an event named "MAD for Change: Tunog ng Pagbabago" (lit. MAD for Change: Sound of Change) in Taguig.[51] It included free-head shaving, free T-shirt printing services, and the main concert. Several musicians performed, including Jimmy Bondoc, Thor, and Luke Mejares. Duterte arrived in the event together with his running mate Cayetano.[51] On November 30, the PDP-Laban declared Duterte and Cayetano as the party's standard bearers and launched their campaign in a gathering held in Century Park Hotel in Manila.[52]

Duterte and Cayetano kicked off their campaigns with a proclamation rally held in the suburb area of Tondo in Manila on February 9, 2016, the start of the 90-day campaign period for national candidates.[53] The rally was aired on national television through Sonshine Media Network International, the television network of Duterte's friend Pastor Apollo Quiboloy.[54]

Duterte and Cayetano went to different places across the country to court people and convince them to be their choices in the May 9 polls.

A week before the elections, the Iglesia ni Cristo, known for its bloc voting, announced that they endorsed Duterte's candidacy.[55]

Running mate[edit]

Alan Peter Cayetano

On September 29, 2015, incumbent Senator Alan Peter Cayetano declared his intention to run for the 2016 Vice-Presidential post in a press event held in Davao City and considered Duterte his first choice as running mate for the presidential post; this eventually led to a meeting between the two parties.[56] A day after meeting with Cayetano, Duterte met with another incumbent senator, Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr., who also went to Davao City to talk to Duterte. Marcos was reportedly considering running for the Vice-Presidential post as well; Marcos had not yet made any proclamation at that time. As in the Cayetano meeting, Duterte still declared that he was not running for president.[57]

On November 21, Duterte decided to join the presidential polls and proclaimed Cayetano as his running mate.[45]

Other groups such as Pwersa ng Bayaning Atleta party-list, are supporting the "AlDuB" tandem (Alyansang Duterte-Bongbong) between Duterte and Marcos.[58]

Political positions[edit]

After declaring himself a candidate, Duterte focused his rhetoric on fighting corruption, crime, and drug abuse. He has been described as a "populist" and "socialist", positioning himself not just against the ruling party but against the current political system as a whole.[59] His campaign has been heavily supported by older working class Filipinos.[60][61]

Federalism[edit]

Duterte advocates federalism as a better system of governance for the Philippines. He argues that regions outside Metro Manila receive unfairly small budgets from the Internal Revenue Allotment. For example, of the ₱5 billion Davao sends monthly to Metro Manila, only 2 or 3 billion ever returns. He also highlights that money remitted to national government is misused by corrupt politicians in the Philippine Congress.[62]

Social policies[edit]

Abortion and contraception issues[edit]

Duterte does not believe that contraception is inherently morally wrong and advocates for government-promoted efforts to expand access to contraceptive services. He wishes to maintain laws against abortion in the Philippines, arguing that abortion involves the taking of a sovereign human life.[63]

Conditional cash transfers[edit]

Duterte promised that the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, a conditional cash transfer program started during the administration of former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, would continue if he were elected.[64]

LGBT rights[edit]

Duterte criticized boxer Manny Pacquiao after the latter's controversial comments about LGBT couples being "worse than animals", stating that the boxer did not have the right to judge others in such a manner. Duterte has also advocated in support of anti-discrimination measures to protect LGBT individuals in his capacity as a mayor. He has remarked that, in his view, "The universe is ruled by the law of a God who is forgiving, merciful, compassionate and loving, the same God who created all of us equal".[65]

In terms of the legalization of same-sex marriage, Duterte stated in January 2016 that he feels sympathetic to LGBT people on the issue while still believing that he should not push against the current legal code of the Philippines. He noted that law depicts the matter in terms of religious doctrine and intermingles secular marriage with sacramental holy matrimony, which traditionally is only between one man and one woman. He stressed his feelings of affection for his LGBT friends and family members though indicating his agreement with traditions.[63]

Public order[edit]

Duterte stated that he believed that an efficient and effective military and police constituted the most important part of the nation's security. To aid in this goal, he announced that he planned to increase the salary of the military and police to give them dignity and dissuade them from bribe-taking.[66]

Economic policy[edit]

Labor[edit]

Duterte opposes "labor contractualization" and he said that ending it would be one of his priority measures aside from his anti-crime zeal if elected president.[67]

Industrialization[edit]

To create jobs, Duterte proposes to build/rebuild industries and their factories. In particular, he believes the most important step towards industrialization is to revive the Philippines' steel industry.[68]

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program[edit]

Duterte opposes any move to amend the Constitution of the Philippines to allow foreigners to own lands in the Philippines.[69]

Taxation[edit]

Duterte has said that a monthly income of ₱25,000 or less should be exempted from income taxes.[70] A simplified tax collection system and privatization of the Bureau of Internal Revenue and other government collection agencies are also among his proposals.[71] However, Duterte has also said he is against income tax reduction.[72]

Foreign investments[edit]

Duterte proposes the creation of designated "business islands" as economic zones to encourage foreign investment and create jobs. To aid in attracting investors, he wants to make economic policies and laws simple and believable. He stresses that travel overseas to find jobs should become a choice rather than continue as a necessity.[73]

Foreign policy[edit]

Chinese activities in the Spratly Islands[edit]

Duterte, contrary to current Philippine government policy, has said he is open to bilateral talks with China when it comes to the maritime dispute centered on the Chinese claim to the Spratly Islands. He is supportive of the Philippines' arbitration case against China at the Permanent Court of Arbitration,[74] but has said that a non-confrontational and less formal approach to China would be more effective in coming to an agreement.[75] He has also said that the Philippines should revert to the previous position to agree to explore jointly the disputed areas with other countries like China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and Taiwan for resources such as oil, gas and other minerals.[76]

Visiting Forces Agreement with the United States[edit]

Duterte has said that if Filipinos could not get their fair share in the justice system with the Visiting Forces Agreement and Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, signed between the governments of the Philippines and the United States in 2014, then these agreements should be revoked.[77]

Controversies[edit]

Disqualification cases[edit]

A few hours after the COC filing for president of Duterte, radio broadcaster Ruben Castor filed a disqualification petition before the COMELEC against Duterte.[78] On December 21, disqualified presidential candidate Rizalito David of Ang Kapatiran party filed a petition before the commission to declare Duterte's subsititution for Diño null and void.[79]

The legality of Duterte's substitution for Diño was questioned by some electoral lawyers because of an error made in Diño's certificate of candidacy that made him a Pasay mayoral bet despite being a resident of Quezon City. Because of the issue, rumors circulated that presidential aspirant Miriam Defensor-Santiago was willing to give way for Duterte by letting him substitute for her. However, Defensor-Santiago said that she would not back down from the race even though she has a high regard for Duterte.[80] Another presidential aspirant Roy Señeres also opened the possibility he would allow Rodrigo Duterte as his substitute candidate if he will abide in three conditions, particularly being a pro-life advocate.[81] However, Señeres later refused to substitute for him and slammed Duterte's decision to pursue the presidency and remarked Duterte should support and endorse him instead.[82]

The validity of Duterte's substitution was further assessed by Comelec and on December 7, Comelec rejected a petition to name Martin Diño a "nuisance" candidate[83] and while the Comelec legal department has assured Duterte that the first COC he filed through a representative was valid, he personally filed his COC at the Comelec national office in Intramuros, Manila on December 8 to formalize his bid for the presidency in the 2016 elections. An estimated 500 people showed up, including students from Duterte's alma mater Lyceum of the Philippines, to express their support.[84][85]

Voting 6–1, the COMELEC En Banc approved on December 17 the substitution of Duterte (from Diño) as the candidate of the PDP-Laban in the 2016 polls.[86] On December 22, JP Delas Nieves, chairman of the UP Diliman University Student Council, filed the third disqualification case against Duterte before the COMELEC.[87]

In a decision issued February 3, 2016, the COMELEC's first division unanimously denied all filed disqualification petitions against the presidential candidacy of Duterte due to lack of any merit. The first division also stated that Diño is not a nuisance candidate and his substitution to Duterte is valid.[88]

Controversial remarks[edit]

Pope Francis[edit]

On December 2, 2015, Duterte received criticism for cursing at Pope Francis because the Pope caused traffic congestion in Metro Manila during his visit in January 2015.[89] He claimed that his outburst was a result of a molestation incident against him by a priest during his childhood.[90] He immediately apologized through the media, saying he was not "cursing" the Pope but rather the government's way of preparing for the Pope's visit.[91][92] Duterte later apologized to the pontiff by writing a letter to Pope Francis dated January 21, 2016. During a campaign rally in Ubay, Bohol, Duterte's camp showed a letter coming from the Vatican's Secretariat of State, signed by Giovanni Angelo Becciu dated February 24, stating that Pope Francis has received his letter and that the Vatican appreciates Duterte's apology after cursing Pope Francis in public.[93]

Mexico[edit]

During a tourism forum that was attended by Duterte, Alan Peter Cayetano, and the Mexican Ambassador to the Philippines, Julio Camarena Villaseñor, Duterte described Mexico "as a place where kidnappings and killings are rife and therefore not fit for tourists."[94][95]

Rape of an Australian missionary[edit]

On April 17, 2016, Duterte was the subject of controversy after he made remarks about a rape incident during a campaign event about a hostage-taking incident in Davao City which occurred in 1989.[96] A group of 17 Australian missionaries were held captive by inmates in a jail where they were preaching.[97] The incident ended in fatalities with 16 inmates and 5 missionaries dead, including Jaqueline Hamill, 36, who was also raped.[98] Upon seeing Hamill's corpse, Duterte remarked:

"Was I mad because she was raped? Yes, that's one of the reasons. But she really was beautiful. The mayor should have been first."

— Duterte on Australian Rape Victim: "Napaka Ganda. Dapat Mayor ang Mauna", YouTube (2016), Beatboxer Ng Pinas (uploader)[99]

The crowd cheered with laughter. The video which recorded Duterte's remark went viral and he was immediately condemned by a wide array of individuals and the Australian Ambassador to the Philippines, Amanda Gorely.[100] Duterte received criticism from a wide variety of sectors, including netizens and the Christian missionary group victimized by the hostage-taking.[101] Presidential candidate Grace Poe called him "distasteful and unacceptable", while another candidate Mar Roxas said Duterte "should not hold power," and Jejomar Binay urged voters not to vote for him.[102] Miriam Santiago said Duterte "crossed the line" with the remark, but also recognized the freedom of expression of Duterte and critics of his remarks.[103] Feminist group GABRIELA Women's Party condemned the presidential candidate saying that "rape is a serious crime."[104]

Duterte later apologized for the incident and acknowledged the comment as a "bad remark" saying he regretted his "gutter language" but would not apologize for what he said. He insists though that the remark was not a "joke" as reported by some media outlets, saying that he stated it in a narrative. He further said that he was not apologizing for stating the remark reasoning that he made the remark out of "utter anger" when he recalled the events that followed prior to that hostage taking incident.[105][106]

In connection with the rape scandal experienced by her father, Sara Duterte on Monday took to her Instagram account to admit that she was also a rape victim.[107] However, Rodrigo Duterte dismissed his daughter's admission and referred to her as a "drama queen".[108]

Duterte also criticized back the remarks of women's groups.[109]

Duterte was also critical of the scathing comments made by American ambassador Philip Goldberg and Australian ambassador Amanda Gorely on his remark on the rape incident.[110][111][112] Duterte urged Australia and the United States to cut out ties with the Philippines if he was elected president in response to the ambassadors' critical comments.[113]

People with disabilities and senior citizens[edit]

In one of his campaign rallies, Duterte made a joke about a friend who is physically disabled and a senior citizen.[114] He implied that because of their condition, his friend should just commit suicide.[114] This was met with criticism from disabled rights advocates.[115]

Annulment psychological report[edit]

An alleged report states his annulment from Elizabeth Zimmerman was caused by his alleged narcissistic and anti-social personality disorder.[116] The report also alleges that his violent behavior and his womanizing attitude was the cause of the annulment.[117][118]

Alleged links to the Communist Party of the Philippines[edit]

The administration of Benigno Aquino III warned voters that they should be alarmed that Duterte may be involved with the Communist Party of the Philippines and its militant wing the New People's Army.[119] This was a day after captive police officers was released by the militants to the mayor.[119] Exiled NPA founder Joma Sison was a former teacher of Duterte and spoke kindly of his former student, having previously endorsed his candidacy.[120]

False Singapore Prime Minister endorsement[edit]

In April 2016, a picture of the Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Hsien Loong, captioned with the sentence that "Mayor Rodrigo Duterte is the only presidential candidate that could make Philippines like Singapore" was circulated on social media. This caused the embassy of Singapore in the Philippines to reject the supposed endorsement as "untrue" and 'mischievous'. The embassy elaborated: "Singapore does not endorse any candidate. The choice is for Filipinos alone to make".[121] Later, the embassy requested the "misleading" post be taken down, and was seeking "legal advice".[122]

On April 30, 2016, Duterte, speaking at a rally, recalled how he protested in 1995 against Singapore's execution of Flor Contemplacion, a Filipino, for a double homicide. Duterte admitted directing an expletive at Singapore and saying in 1995: "Find me a flag of Singapore. Let's burn it." Duterte did burn the Singapore flag in March 1995, joined by 1,000 employees of Davao City. Later, Duterte's spokesman, Peter Tiu Lavina, said that for "calling for investigation" of a "trivial matter", Singapore "has tasted its own dose of medicine when Duterte retorted jokingly that he will burn the Singaporean flag again. It's a tit-for-tat."[123]

Alleged hidden wealth[edit]

On April 27, 2016, vice presidential candidate Antonio Trillanes claimed that Duterte had a bank account worth ₱211 million that he did not declare on his legally mandated statements of assets and liabilities.[124] Duterte said that Trillanes was trying to get attention to improve his ratings in surveys, which were poor.[124] Alan Peter Cayetano, Duterte's running mate, said that it was just a smear campaign against Duterte and accused Trillanes of doing this under the orders of presidential candidate Grace Poe,[125] who denied any involvement.[126] Both Jejomar Binay and Mar Roxas criticized Duterte for failing to sign a waiver and reveal the contents of the accounts. [127][128] On April 29, Miriam Defensor Santiago joined in attacking Duterte about the alleged contents of bank accounts.[128]

On April 28, Duterte agreed that he had BPI accounts but said he would not issue a waiver because the bank said it could not certify something that did not exist in the first place. He also challenged Trillanes to name his source and file an affidavit to legalize his accusations.[129]

Documents from Antonio Trillanes claim that the Duterte political family owns properties around Davao City, elsewhere in Mindanao and also in Metro Manila, none of which were revealed by the mayor in his statement of assets and liabilities and net worth.[130]

However, Duterte assumed that all the documents provided were falsified. He also questioned the timing of the accusation because they came less than two weeks before the election. On April 30, the Bank of the Philippine Islands said that there were no such breach or any illegality found in the account.[131] They also confirmed that the account never had more than a million. Duterte showed a certificate showing his balance at P17,816.98 as of March 31, 2016. The date was just three days after the date of Trillanes' allegation.[132]

Authoritarian tendencies[edit]

Some allege that Duterte plans to establish a "revolutionary government" similar to a dictatorship.[133] Duterte has said that he will close the Congress of the Philippines if it tries to impeach him.[134] A religious leader, Apollo Quiboloy, supporting Duterte says that there will be a "revolution."[135] Duterte has said that he plans to pardon himself for mass murder, as well as issue additional pardons to policemen and soldiers accused of abusing human rights.[136][137]

Endorsements[edit]

Rodrigo Duterte
Current and former Philippine senators
Current and former Philippine representatives
Current and former governors and vice governors
Current and former cabinet officials
Current and former mayors and municipal officials
Other politicians
  • Martin Diño, former Volunteers Against Crime and Corruption chair and PDP-Laban standard bearer
  • Arleigh Sitoy, 6th district board member of the Province of Cebu
Religious leaders
Celebrities
Athletes and sports figures
Others
  • Angelo Acosta, video game developer and entrepreneur
  • Vitalliano Aguirre, businessman
  • Emeterio Barcelon, former Ateneo de Davao University president[188]
  • Hermegones Esperon, former Armed Forces of the Philippines chief
  • Antonio Floirendo, businessman
  • Benigno Gopez, businessman
  • Federico Moreno, son of late talent manager German Moreno[189]
  • Atty. Geraldine Tiu, host of Gikan sa Masa, Para sa Masa
  • Arthur Tugade, former president of Clark Development Corporation[190]
Organizations
Alan Peter Cayetano
Current and former Philippine Senators
Family members
Religious leaders
Celebrities
Athletes and sports figures

Senate slate[edit]

PDP-Laban announced on February 15, 2016 that the Duterte-Cayetano tandem would not have a Senatorial slate so that the party could concentrate on promoting the tandem to gain "portability." Previously, Senatorial candidates were free to claim that they were part of the tandem's senatorial slate and have appeared in the duo's campaign rallies. Senatorial candidates may still make an appearance in the campaign rallies of Duterte and Cayetano to speak depending on availability but PDP-Laban clarified that there won't be any endorsement to any person running for Senator.[199]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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