Rogan printing

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Rogan printing is an art of cloth printing practiced in the Kutch District of Gujarat. In this craft, paint made from boiled oil and vegetable dyes is laid down on fabric using either a metal block (printing) or a stylus (painting). The craft nearly died out in the late 20th century, with rogan painting begin practiced by only one family, but is now enjoying a resurgence.

History[edit]

The word rogan comes from Persian, meaning varnish or oil.[1] The process of applying this oil-based paint to fabric began among the Khatris, a Mulsim community who came to India from Sindh, Pakistan.[2] Although the name, rogan (and some of the traditional designs) suggests an origin in Iran, there are no reliable historic records to prove this.[3]

Rogan painting was initially practiced in several locations in the Kutch region. The painted fabric was mostly purchased by women of the lower castes who wanted to decorate clothing and bed coverings for their weddings.[4] Therefore, it was a seasonal art, with most of the work taking place during the several months when most weddings take place. During the rest of the year, the artisans would switch to other forms of work, such as agriculture.[5]

With the rise of cheaper, machine-made textiles in the late 20th century, rogan painted products became relatively more expensive, the many artists turned to other occupations. Ultimately, only one family, the Khatris of Nirona, Gujarat, continued the craft.[4]

Resurgence of the art[edit]

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, several factors have come together to bring about a renewed interest in rogan art, especially painting. First, since the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, when much of the region was devastated, there has been an improvement in water and electricity infrastructure, new roads have been built, and there is an increase in flights into the region.[4] Second, local cooperatives and non-profit groups have been helping local artisans, including rogan artists, to increase their market by selling in urban settings and online.[6] Third, many members of the Khatri family have won state and national awards for their art, thus increasing the prestige of their work.[3] Finally, in 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited the U.S. White House, and gave President Obama two rogan paintings including a tree of life. They were painted by Gafoorbhai Khatri, a national award winner.[7]

In Nirona, the Khatris have begun producing more contemporary products to appeal to tourists, such as bags, cushion covers, table cloths, wall hangings, and pillow covers. The tree of life continues to be a major motif.[8] The number of tourists to their workshop has increased steadily in the 2010s, to as many as 400 people per day, causing traffic jams in the village.[9] In an attempt to keep up with increased demand, in 2010, the Khatris began to train women for the first time.[8] (Previously, it was feared that women would spread the secrets of the craft when they married out of the family.) In 2015, twenty women were working with the family in Nirona.[6]

Process of rogan printing[edit]

Rogan paint is produced by boiling castor oil for about two days and then adding vegetable pigments and a binding agent; the resulting paint is thick and shiny.[10] The cloth that is painted or printed on is usually a dark color, which makes the intense colors stand out.

In rogan printing, the pattern is applied using metal blocks with patterns carved into them. In rogan painting, elaborate designs are produced freehand, by trailing thread-like strands of paint off of a stylus.[4] Frequently, half of a design is painted, then the cloth is folded in half, transferring a mirror image to the other half of the fabric. The designs include floral motifs, animals, and local folk art.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Maya; Clark, Henry Martyn (1895). The Panjábí Dictionary. Munshi Gulab Singh & sons. 
  2. ^ "Khatri community and development of handicraft industries in Kutch". www.worldwidejournals.com/paripex. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c Mahurkar, Uday (12 December 2005). "Kutch family that kept alive Rogan art form hopes to benefit from tourist attention". India Today. Archived from the original on 7 May 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d Spiegel, Claire (7 September 2012). "In Northwest Corner of India, the Work of Centuries". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2017. (Subscription required (help)). 
  5. ^ Pandey, Priya (September 1, 2002). "The Sunday Tribune - Spectrum - Heritage". The Sunday Tribune, India. Archived from the original on 6 November 2004. Retrieved 22 August 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Rogan painting revived at 'Dastkar Basant'". Zee News. 18 February 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017. 
  7. ^ Parashar, Sachin (3 October 2014). "PM Modi gives Obama rare Rogan paintings made by Gujarat-based Muslim family". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  8. ^ a b Tripathi, Shailaja (December 24, 2011). "Ready for Rogan". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017. 
  9. ^ "Rogan fame Nirona to get tourist centre - Times of India". The Times of India. January 6, 2016. Archived from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017. 
  10. ^ Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya (1976). The glory of Indian handicrafts. Indian Book Co. p. 34. 

External links[edit]