Roger Sandall (1933 - 11 August 2012) was an essayist and commentator on cultural relativism and is best known as the author of The Culture Cult. He was born in Christchurch, New Zealand, but spent most of his career in Australia. He became a film director at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies in 1965 and subsequently a lecturer in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Sydney in 1973, a post he held until he retired in 1993.
Sandall was a strong critic of romantic primitivism and the concept of the noble savage; he was an advocate of modern civilization. In Sandall's view, romantic primitivism places far too high a value on cultures that were often characterised by, among other aspects, limited human rights, religious intolerance, disease and poverty. Other negative aspects he discusses include domestic oppression (usually of women and children), violence, clan/tribal warfare, poor care of the environment and considerable restriction on artistic freedom of expression.
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Sandall coined the term designer tribalism to describe the attitudes of those western anthropologists (e.g. Margaret Mead) who constructed an idyllic but imaginary past for tribal cultures. Designer tribalism is the end result of a process where primitive ways of life (e.g. human sacrifice and clan warfare) become forgotten and such cultures end up being morally transfigured.
Designer tribalism praises primitive cultures as being deeply in touch with nature and living in harmony with animals and plants. Unfortunately for this point of view, Sandall points out that some cultures were far from friendly to the environment, e.g. the Māori in New Zealand were responsible for massive deforestation and the extinction of several indigenous species of birds (most notably the moa). Similarly, the religion, art and music of tribal cultures are held to be deeply meaningful and profound. The corresponding aspects of western civilization are usually denigrated and despised, as are western science and technology.
In an appendix in his book, Sandall describes the Disneyfication of the noble savage, a term that encapsulates many of his beliefs in just a few sentences:
- "Sentimentalism begets puerility. The ruthless scalpers of yesterday become Loving Persons. One-time ferocious fighters are discovered to be Artists at Heart. Hollywood becomes interested. ... Soon the primitive is elevated above the civilized. ... The moral transfiguration of real-life tribal culture into the imaginary landscape of romantic primitivism is now complete. The defining texts of this last stage are two: The Man-Eating Myth by William Arens, an influential book denying that cannibalism ever existed; and the 1995 Disney epic: Pocahontas".
- "Roger SANDALL Obituary: View Roger SANDALL's Obituary by The Sydney Morning Herald". Tributes.smh.com.au. 2012-08-11. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- Sandall, Roger. The Culture Cult: Designer Tribalism and Other Essays, Westview Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8133-3863-8
- Sandall, Roger. "www.RogerSandall.com", Roger Sandall's New Website, Sydney, September, 2009.
- Can Sudan be Saved?, Commentary, 118 (5): 38-44, (December 2004)
- Nihilism in the Middle East, Quadrant, 45 (12): 31-37, (December 2001)
- The Rise of the Anthropologue, Encounter, 70 (12): 66-71, (December 1986)
- The Culture Cult Revisited, Social Science and Modern Society 45 (3): 233-238, (June 2008)
- Sir Francis Galton and the Origin of Eugenics, Social Science and Modern Society 45 (2) 170-176, (April 2008)
- Science and Consensus, Quadrant, 50 (5) 55-59, (May 2006)
- What Native Peoples Deserve, Commentary, 119 (5) 54-59, (May 2005)
- Over there, then — John Gunther, The American Interest, III (1) 90-95, (September/October 2007)
- The Slave Girl and the Professor, Quadrant, 56 (3): 37-43, (March 2012)
- Harvard Meets the Man from Boggabilla, The New Criterion, 29 (8): 78-80, (April 2011)