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Roguelike is a subgenre of role-playing video games, characterized by procedural generation of game levels, turn-based gameplay, tile-based graphics, permanent death of the player-character, and typically based on a high fantasy narrative setting. Roguelikes descend from the 1980 game Rogue, particularly mirroring Rogue's character- or sprite-based graphics. From 2000 onwards, new variations of roguelikes incorporating other gameplay genres, thematic elements and graphical styles have become popular, and are sometimes called "roguelike-like", "rogue-lite", or "procedural death labyrinths" to reflect the variation from titles which mimic the gameplay of traditional roguelikes more faithfully.

Gameplay and design[edit]

Key features[edit]

The interface of the original Rogue as it looked on an ASCII computer terminal
An example of a more modern user-interface for a roguelike, showing the isometric "Vultures" sprite-based interface for the game Nethack.

The genre of roguelike broadly encompasses the gameplay that was introduced in the text-based game Rogue, which bore out many variations due to its popularity. Rogue's ruleset itself has influences from Dungeons & Dragons. Because of the expansion of numerous variations on the roguelike theme, the gameplay elements characterizing the roguelike genre were explicitly defined at the International Roguelike Development Conference 2008; these factors encompass what is known as the "Berlin Interpretation".[1][2] Some of the "high value factors" used in this definition include:

  • Roguelike games randomly generate tile-based dungeon levels,[3] though they may include static levels as well. Generated layouts typically incorporate rooms connected by corridors, some of which may be preset to some degree (e.g., monster lairs or treasuries). Open areas or natural features, such as rivers, may also occur.
  • The identity of magical items varies across games. Newly discovered objects only offer a vague physical description that is randomized between games, with purposes and capabilities left unstated. For example, a "bubbly" potion might heal wounds one game, then poison the player character in the next. Items are often subject to alteration, acquiring specific traits, such as a curse, or direct player modification.
  • The combat system is turn-based instead of real-time. Gameplay is usually step-based, where player actions are performed serially and take a variable measure of in-game time to complete. Game processes (e.g., monster movement and interaction, progressive effects such as poisoning or starvation) advance based on the passage of time dictated by these actions.
  • Most are single-player games. On multi-user systems, leaderboards are often shared between players. Some roguelikes allow traces of former player characters to appear in later game sessions in the form of ghosts or grave markings. Some games such as NetHack even have the player's former characters reappear as enemies within the dungeon. Multi-player derivatives such as TomeNET, MAngband, and Crossfire do exist and are playable online.
  • Roguelikes traditionally implement permadeath. Once a character dies, the player must begin a new game. A "save game" feature will only provide suspension of gameplay and not a limitlessly recoverable state; the stored session is deleted upon resumption or character death. Players can circumvent this by backing up stored game data ("save scumming"), an act that is usually considered cheating.

USGamer mentions "stamina decay" as another feature. It comes in the form of hunger and the player's character constantly needs to find food to survive. This can prevent an exploit where they repeatedly pass turns to regenerate their character health or try to gain experience points by continuously killing weak enemies by staying at low level dungeons.[4]

Early roguelikes[edit]

Early roguelikes used a large number of keyboard keys, each keypress representing a unique action.[5] The interface for many original roguelikes, played on UNIX-based terminals, would use ASCII or ANSI characters to represent the top-down view of the dungeon. For example, @ could be used to represent the player character. With more modern systems, these simple ASCII graphics were augmented with detailed tile set graphics. Isometric-based graphical front ends have also been developed.[6]

Roguelike-likes and procedural death labyrinths[edit]

Abyss Odyssey combines roguelike elements with beat 'em up gameplay.

With computers and video game consoles capable of more advanced graphics and gameplay, numerous games have emerged that are loosely based on the classic roguelike design but diverge in one or more features. Many of these games use the concepts of procedural-generated maps and permadeath, while moving away from tile-based movement and turn-based gameplay, often using another gameplay genre such as action games or platformers.[7] As such, the term "roguelike" has been used to describe games that possess one or more of the features of the Berlin Interpretation though not necessarily all of the features. The term "roguelike-like" or "rogue-lite" has been used to distinguish these games that possess some, but not all, of the Berlin Interpretation features from those that exactly meet the Berlin roguelike definition.[8] The phrase "procedural death labyrinth" has also been applied to such games, as they retain the notion of permadeath and random level generation but lack the other high-value factors normally associated with roguelike games.[9][10]

Roguelike-likes are generally much shorter games intended to be winnable within a single gaming session, in contrast to traditional roguelikes that are designed for multiple sessions of gameplay. Associated with their short length, many roguelike-likes feature a metagame, whereby achieving certain goals will unlock features such as the ability to select a new character at the start of the game or the addition of new items and monsters in the procedural generation of the game's levels.[11]

US Gamer also identified that there are games that are games considered edge cases of being roguelikes or roguelike-likes, as they are inspired by Rogue, and "that stray a bit further from the genre but still manage to scratch the same itch as a great roguelike".[4] These include games like the Diablo series, Dark Souls and its sequel, ToeJam and Earl, and Dwarf Fortress.[4]


Early popularity (1980–2000)[edit]

Roguelike concepts were present in games prior to Rogue, such as the dungeon crawling games like Adventure (1975), Dungeon (1975) and DND/Telengard (1976). Much of the development of the early roguelike games were based on these games as well as several dungeon crawlers written for the PLATO system, like the multi-user games dnd (1975) and Moria (1975).[12] The resulting games were developed independently of each other, many of the developers not learning about their respective projects until several years after the genre took off.[13]

Though the term "roguelike" derives from the 1980 game Rogue,[14] the first known game with the core roguelike gameplay elements was Beneath Apple Manor (1978), written by Don Worth for the Apple II. The game, inspired by Worth's enjoyment of Dungeons & Dragons roleplaying, included procedural generation (using a random maze generator from the game Dragon Maze, role-playing elements for the characters, tile-based movement and turn-based combat.[13] The game was not as popular as Rogue was, due to Rogue having a tougher gameplay challenge and leading to it becoming the namesake for the genre.[15]

Rogue was written by Glenn Wichman and Michael Toy while students at the University of California. The game was executed on a VAX-11/780 computer; its limited memory forced them to use a simple text-based interface for the game.[16] Rogue proved popular with college students at the time, and would inspire students later to recreate Rogue on other, more accessible computer systems. However, at the time's of Rogue‍ '​s release, the source code was not distributed, leading to these developers to build games from scratch similar to Rogue but with features that they wanted to see, primarily through Hack (1982) and Moria (1983).[17] Later, Rogue was included in BSD UNIX distributions, along with their source code. With the availability of source code from these titles, other developers were able to create software forks of the games, adding in new monsters, items, and gameplay features, creating several dozen variants. The expansion was also aided by the availability of the curses ("cursor optimization") programming API that helped users to create text-interface visuals.[5] Most variants of Rogue could be classified into two branches:

  • The Moria branch is based on the fantasy setting of J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle Earth, with Moria itself based on the complex underground maze featured within Tolkien's fiction. Levels were not persistent; when the player left the level and then tried to return, a new procedurally-generated level would be made; the goal would be to descend to the deepest depths and kill the most powerful monster in the game. Variations on Moria would lead to Angband (1990) (another Middle Earth location), which featured larger levels and more variation in player attributes, equipment, and monsters, and often featured a town level where the player could buy and sell equipment before returning to delve. At least fifty (50) known variations on Angband exist, but maintain the concept of non-persistent dungeon levels and lacking any deeper story.[18]
  • The Hack branch started closer to the original Dungeons and Dragons influences, and named so for being both a "hack and slash" game, as well as a programming hack to recreate Rogue without having access to its source code.[17] Hack continained dungeon levels with more specialized rooms, such as vaults and stores, and where the player was to seek out the "Amulet of Yendor". Levels would remain persistent once generated, allowing players to revisit these special rooms. Hack would eventually lead to Nethack (1987), an expansion of Hack but bringing together numerous influences from other cultural works, including those that would otherwise be anachronistic in the dungeon setting. Nethack and its variants would typically feature some fixed story and specific gameplay goals in order to fully complete the game, often necessitated by revisiting the previously explored levels.[18]

Mystery Dungeon games (1995–onward)[edit]

A variation of the roguelike genre came from Japan, primarily through the Mystery Dungeon series by Chunsoft, while applied roguelike concepts across several different game series for handheld gaming units;[4] such games included Torneko no Daibōken: Fushigi no Dungeon (lit tran. The Great Adventure of Torneko: Dungeon of Mystery) based on Dragon Quest, the Chocobo series based on Final Fantasy and Pokémon Mystery Dungeon based on Pokémon. The developers had developed ways to reduce the difficulty of the roguelike by using progressively more difficult dungeons that were randomly generated, and included the option of permadeath in more difficult modes.[4] Several titles in the Mystery Dungeon series were popular, and would become a staple of the Japanese video game market.[19][20][21][22][23][24] The games were not as successful in Western markets when published there, as some found the lack of a traditional role-playing game save system odd, even though this was a fundamental feature of roguelikes.[25][26][27][28]

Growth in Western markets (2002–onward)[edit]

Though new classical roguelike variants would continue to be developed within the Western market, the genre languished as more advanced personal computers capable of improved graphics capabilities and games that utilized these features became popular.[29] However, some of these new graphical games drew influence for roguelike concepts, notably action role-playing games like Blizzard Entertainment's Diablo (1996). Blizzard acknowledged that games like Nethack, Telengard and other roguelikes influenced the design of Diablo, including the nature of randomly generated dungeons and loot.[30] New roguelikes that adhere to core Berlin Interpretation rules are still being developed, including Dungeon Crawl Stone Soup (2006), Dungeons of Dredmor (2011), and Dwarf Fortress (2006), the latter also seen as a major contribution to Minecraft.[4][31]

Instead, roguelikes saw a resurgence in Western markets through independent developers after 2000. Efforts were made by indie developers to incorporate roguelike elements into non-traditional titles, with one of the earliest examples being Strange Adventures in Infinite Space (2002) and its sequel Weird Worlds: Return to Infinite Space (2005) by Digital Eel, both space exploration games that included randomly generated planets and encounters. Digital Eel based their work on rogulikes like Nethack but wanted to provide a shorter experience that would be easier to replay.[32]

Spelunky (2008) is also considered to be a major contribution to the growth of indie-developed roguelikes.[4] The game combined the procedural level generation and permadeath concepts of roguelikes with platformer game mechanics. The game was commented on by developers as being a means of creating "deep" gameplay in which the game could be replayed over and over again, with the randomly-generated situations driving the need for the player to develop novel, emergent strategies on the fly; developer Jason Rohrer stated that Spelunky "totally revamped my thinking about single-player videogame design".[33] Similar genre-combining games would follow, including The Binding of Isaac (2011), FTL: Faster Than Light (2012), and Rogue Legacy (2012) were all roguelike-based games that received critical praise, and their success has led to a more modern resurgence in roguelikes since.[34][35][4]

The newfound success in roguelikes is considered part of a larger trend in those that play both board and computer games, looking for "rich play experiences", as described by 100 Rogues developer Keith Burgun, that more popular titles may not always offer.[34] David Bamguart of Gaslight Games stated that there is a thrill of the risk inherent in roguelikes with random generation and permadeath, helping the player become more invested in the fate of their player-character: "The deadly precariousness inherent to the unknown environments of roguelikes gives that investment a great deal of meaning."[36] Additionally, many of these newer roguelikes strive to address the apparent high difficulty and ruthlessness that traditional roguelikes were known for, and newer players will be able to find more help through user-generated game guides and walkthroughs made possible through wide Internet accessibility.[36]

Particularly for smaller indie developers, the nature of the procedural-generated world allows teams to deliver many hours worth of game content without having to spend resources and development time on fleshing out detailed worlds.[34][35] This also allows developers to devote more time in building out complex gameplay features and their interacting systems that are part of the enjoyment of roguelike games.[36]

With the expansion of both classical roguelikes and modern roguelike-like titles, there has been more interest in developing roguelikes. The 7 Day Roguelike challenge (7DRL) was born out of a USENET newsgroup in 2005 for roguelike developers, informally challenging them to create the core of a novel roguelike within 7 days to be submitted for judging and play by the public. The competition has continued annually each year, since growing from 5-6 entries in 2005 to over 130 in 2014.[37][38]

See also[edit]


  • Craddock, David L (August 5, 2015). Magrath, Andrew, ed. Dungeon Hacks: How NetHack, Angband, and Other Roguelikes Changed the Course of Video Games. Press Start Press. ISBN 069250186X. 
  1. ^ Berlin Interpretation (definition of a "Roguelike") from RogueBasin, a Roguelike development wiki
  2. ^ Hatfield, Tom (2013-01-29). "Rise Of The Roguelikes: A Genre Evolves". Gamespy. Retrieved 2013-04-24. 
  3. ^ "'s Essential 50: Part 12. Rogue". Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Jeremy Parish (April 6, 2015). "The Gateway Guide to Roguelikes". USGamer. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Barton, Matt; Loguidice, Bill (2009-05-09). "The History of Rogue: Have @ You, You Deadly Zs". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  6. ^ Smith, Graham (2014-06-26). "Control Dwarf Fortress With Isometric Graphics And Mouse". Rock Paper Shotgun. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  7. ^ Nakamura, Darren (2013-11-14). "Cloudy with a chance of being eviscerated". Destructoid. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  8. ^ Kuchera, Ben; Groen, Andrew (2013-05-13). "What the hell is a roguelike? We try to hash out a definition". Penny Arcade Report. Archived from the original on 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  9. ^ Doucet, Lars (2013-12-03). "On Procedural Death Labyrinths". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2014-03-05. 
  10. ^ Nakamura, Darren (2014-03-03). "Procedural Death Jam cites Spelunky and FTL as influences". Destructoid. Retrieved 2014-03-05. 
  11. ^ Johnson, Mark (2015-07-22). "Before Spelunky and FTL, There Was Only ASCII". Paste. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  12. ^ "Fun with PLATO". Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  13. ^ a b Craddock, David L. (2015). Dungeon Hacks: How NetHack, Angband, and Other Roguelikes Changed the Course of Video Games. Press Start Press. ISBN 978-0692501863. 
  14. ^ Parish, Jeremy. "The Essential 50 Part 12 – Rogue". 1UP. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  15. ^ Musgrave, Shaun (2015-07-16). "RPG Reload File 047 - 'Rogue Touch'". Touch Arcade. Retrieved 2015-09-01. 
  16. ^ Carmichael, Stephanie (2015-08-12). "Interview: Author David Craddock on Dungeon Hacks and the fascinating history of roguelikes". Syfy Games. Retrieved 2015-08-31. 
  17. ^ a b Craddock, David (2015-08-10). "Dungeon Hacks, Chapter 5: When the Inmates Run the Asylum - Hack-ing at Lincoln-Sudbury High School". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2015-08-31. 
  18. ^ a b Olivetti, Justin (2014-01-18). "The Game Archaeologist: A brief history of roguelikes". Engadget. Retrieved 2015-05-07. 
  19. ^ "Permanece vigente Akira Toriyama gracias a 'Dragon Ball'" from
  20. ^ ドラクエVSファイナルファンタジー 売り上げ対決 from
  21. ^ "Japan Votes on All Time Top 100 – Edge Magazine". 2006-03-03. Retrieved 2011-06-24. 
  22. ^ Nix (2007-09-20). "Shiren Wanders Into America – Nintendo DS News at IGN". Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  23. ^ Casamassina, Matt (2007-07-25). "Nintendo Sales Update – Wii News at IGN". Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  24. ^ "Sony PS1 Japanese Ranking". Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  25. ^ "DS Roundup". 
  26. ^ "NDS Review – 'Mystery Dungeon: Shiren the Wanderer'". 
  27. ^ "Torneko- The Last Hope". 
  28. ^ "Three things to get you excited about Shiren 3". 
  29. ^ Parish, J (2004-02-11). "Nightmare of Druaga: Fushigino Dungeon (PS2)". Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  30. ^ "The best game ever – Linux". 2000-01-27. Retrieved 2012-05-28. 
  31. ^ Weiner, Johan (2011-07-24). "Where Do Dwarf-Eating Carp Come From?". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-08-30. 
  32. ^ Carlson, Rich (2005-05-02). "Making a Case for Short Games". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2014-08-31. 
  33. ^ Birch, Anthony (2009-07-07). "Infinite Caves, Infinite Stories". Escapist. Retrieved 2015-05-04. 
  34. ^ a b c Nutt, Christian (2014-05-21). "'Roguelikes': Getting to the heart of the it-genre". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2014-08-30. 
  35. ^ a b Mahardy, Mike (2014-07-04). "ROGUELIKES: THE REBIRTH OF THE COUNTERCULTURE". IGN. Retrieved 2014-08-30. 
  36. ^ a b c Pearson, Dan (2013-01-30). "Where I'm @: A Brief Look At The Resurgence of Roguelikes". Retrieved 2014-08-30. 
  37. ^ Smith, Adam (2012-03-20). "The Many Faces Of Roguelikes: Seven Days Of Rogue". Rock Paper Shotgun. Retrieved 2014-08-31. 
  38. ^ "The 7 Day Roguelike Challenge". Rogue Template. Retrieved 2014-08-31. 

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