From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the steamship, see SS Rohilla.
Rohila Hiwra
Total population
2 million
Regions with significant populations
 India Afghanistan Pakistan United States Canada Australia Burma Suriname Guyana
Khari BoliHindustaniPashtoEnglish
Related ethnic groups
PashtunsPathans of MaharastraPathans of Uttar PradeshPathans of BiharPathans of PunjabPathans of RajasthanPathans of Gujarat

The Rohilla Pathans (Pashto: روهیله‎, Urdu: روہیلہ‎, Hindi: रोहिला), or Rohilla Afghan, is a community of Urdu-speaking people of Pashtun ethnicity, historically found in Rohilkhand, a region in the state of Uttar Pradesh, North India. It forms the largest Pashtun diaspora community in India, and has given its name to the Rohilkhand region. Historically, Pashtun people were refereed to as Afghan, but present-day Indian constitution does not recognize Pathan as being synonymous with Afghan.[1]

The Rohilla Pathans are found all over Uttar Pradesh, but are more concentrated in the Rohilkhand regions of Bareilly, Shahjahanpur and Rampur district. Some members of the Rohilla migrated to Pakistan and settled in Karachi after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Today they make up 30-35% of the Muhajir community of Sindh. Smaller scattered populations of Rohillas of Afghan decent can be found in Burma and the South American countries of Suriname and Guyana.[2]


The term Rohilla is derived from the word Roh, meaning mountain, and literally means mountain wind. Roh was the name of the area around Peshawar city, in Pakistan. Yousafzai Pathans especially the Mandarr sub clan living in this valley were also known as Rohillas when they settled the area then known as Katehr. It later became known as Rohil Khand which means the land of the Rohillas. The great majority of Rohillas migrated here between 17th and 18th Century."[3][4] However, in Uttar Pradesh the term was used for Pashtuns who settled in the Rohilkhand region, or for men serving under Rohilla chiefs.

The Rohilla are descended from the Pashtun tribes that settled in the Rohilkhand region during the 17th and 18th centuries. They mainly belonged to the Yousafzai tribe of Pashtuns, particularly the Mandanh sub-section, although other Pashtuns also became part of the community. Rohilla's Sardars like Daud Khan, Ali Muhammad Khan, and Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech were from the Afghan tribe Barech , hailing from the Kandahar Province of Afghanistan.


The Rohillas were distinguished by their separate language and culture. They spoke Pashto among each other, but gradually lost their language over time and now converse in Urdu. After independence in 1947, some Rohillas moved to Karachi in Pakistan and as a result, a significant number (30–35%) of Urdu-speaking Muslims (the Muhajir people) in Sindh are of Pashtun heritage.


Early history[edit]

Patthargarh fort outside Najibabad, built by Najib-ud-Daula in 1755. 1814-15 painting.

The founders of the Pashtun state of Rohilkhand were Daud Khan and his adopted son Ali Mohammed Khan. Daud Khan arrived in South Asia in 1705. He brought along a band of his tribe, the Barech. Daud Khan was awarded the Katehr region in the then northern India by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir (ruled 1658-1707) to suppress Rajput uprisings, which had afflicted this region. Originally, some 20,000 soldiers from various Pashtun tribes such as (Yusafzai, Ghori, Ghilzai, Barech, Marwat, Durrani, Tareen, Kakar, Naghar, Afridi and Khattak) were hired by Mughals to provide mercenary soldier for the Mughal armies. This was appreciated by Aurangzeb Alamgirand since this force of 25,000 men was given respected positions in the Mughal Army.

Daud Khan was succeeded by Ali Mohammed Khan in 1721. He became so powerful that he refused to send tax revenues to the central government. Safdar Jang, the Nawab of Oudh,[5] warned the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah[6] of the growing power of the Rohillas. This caused Mohammed Shah to send an expedition against him as a result of which he surrendered to imperial forces. He was taken to Delhi as a prisoner, but was later pardoned and appointed governor of Sirhind. Most of his soldiers has already settled in the Katehar region during Nadir Shah's invasion of northern India in 1739 increasing the Rohilla population in the area to 100,000. Due to the large settlement of Rohilla Afghans, this part Katehar region came to be known as Rohilkhand. Bareilly was made the capital of this newly formed Rohilkhand state.[7]

When Ali Mohammed Khan died, leaving six sons. However, two of his elder sons were in Afghanistan at the time of his death while the other four were too young to assume the leadership of Rohilkhand. As a result, power transferred to other Rohilla Sardars, the most important being Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech, Najib-ud-Daula and Dundi Khan. According to the 1901 census of India, the total Pathan population of Bareilly District was 40,779, while the total population was 1,090,117.[8]

Following the Battle of Panipat in 1761[edit]

In the third battle of Panipat (1761) one of the Rohilla Sardars, Najib-ul-Daula, allied himself with Ahmad Shah Abdali[9] against the Marathas. He not only provided 40,000 Rohilla troops but also 70 guns to the allied. He also convinced Shuja-ul-Daula, the Nawab of Oudh, to join Ahmad Shah Abdali's forces against the Marathas. In this battle, the Marathas were defeated and as a consequence the Rohilla increased in power.

The Marathas invaded Rohilkhand to retaliate against the Rohillas' participation in the Panipat war. The Marathas under the leadership of the Maratha ruler Mahadji Shinde entered the land of Sardar Najib-ud-Daula which was held by his son Zabita Khan after the sardar's death. Zabita Khan initially resisted the attack but was eventually defeated by the Marathas and forced to flee to the camp of Shuja-ud-Daula and his country was ravaged by Marathas. The Maratha ruler Mahadji Shinde captured the family of Zabita Khan, desecrated the grave of Najib ad-Dawlah and looted his fort.[10] The principal remaining Rohilla Sardar was Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech and through him an agreement was formed with the Nawab of Oudh, Shuja-ud-Daula, by which the Rohillas agreed to pay four million rupees in return for military help against the Marathas. However, after Oudh attacked the Rohillas, they refused to pay.

Later Rohillas were attacked by the neighbouring kingdom of Oudh, who also received assistance from the British East India Company forces under Colonel Alexander Champion. This conflict is known as the Rohilla War. When Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech was killed, in April 1774, Rohilla resistance crumbled, and Rohilkhand was annexed by Oudh. Rohillas fled into the dense forests across the Ganges, and later began a guerilla war. In response, the Rohillas were hunted down by the British and subsequently scattered in the countryside. They settled in many small towns and cities. Charges of ethnic cleansing and genocide were brought against Warren Hastings of the East India Company, by Edmund Burke and were later taken up by Thomas Babington Macaulay.

From 1774 to 1799, the region was administered by Khwaja Almas Khan, a Muslim Jat from Haryana, as respresentative of the Awadh rulers. This period was particularly tough for the Rohillas, as Almas Khan made every effort to weaken the Rohillas. In 1799, the British took over direct control, and started to pay a pension to the family of Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech.[11]

Establishment of Rampur State[edit]

Princely flag of Rampur.

While most of Rohilkhand was annexed, the Rohilla State of Rampur was established by Nawab Faizullah Khan on 7 October 1774 in the presence of British Commander Colonel Champion, and remained a pliant state under British protection thereafter. The first stone of the new Fort at Rampur was laid in 1775 by Nawab Faizullah Khan. The first Nawab proposed to rename the city Faizabad, but many other places were known by that name so its name was changed to Mustafabad.

Nawab Faizullah Khan ruled for 20 years. He was a patron of education and began the collection of Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Hindustani manuscripts which are now housed in the Rampur Raza Library. After his death his son Muhammad Ali Khan took over. He was assassinated by Rohilla elders after reigning for 24 days, and Muhammad Ali Khan's brother, Ghulam Muhammad Khan, was proclaimed Nawab. The East India Company took exception to this, and after a reign of just 3 months and 22 days Ghulam Muhammad Khan was besieged and defeated by English forces. The Governor-General then made Muhammad Ali Khan's son, Ahmad Ali Khan, the new Nawab. He ruled for 44 years. He did not have any sons, so Muhammad Saeed Khan, son of Ghulam Muhammad Khan, took over as the new Nawab after his death. He established Courts and improved the economic conditions of farmers. His son Muhammad Yusuf Ali Khan took over after his death and his son, Kalb Ali Khan, became the new Nawab after his death in 1865.[12]

Nawab of Rampur Reign Began Reign Ended
1 Ali Muhammad Khan Bangash 1719 15 September 1748
2 Faizullah Khan Bangash 15 September 1748 24 July 1793
3 Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech - Regent 15 September 1748 23 April 1774
4 Muhammad Ali Khan Bahadur 24 July 1793 11 August 1793
5 Ghulam Muhammad Khan Bahadur 11 August 1793 24 October 1794
6 Ahmad Ali Khan Bahadur 24 October 1794 5 July 1840
7 Nasrullah Khan - Regent 24 October 1794 1811
8 Muhammad Said Khan Bahadur 5 July 1840 1 April 1855
9 Yusef Ali Khan Bahadur 1 April 1855 21 April 1865
10 Kalb Ali Khan Bahadur 21 April 1865 23 March 1887
11 Muhammad Mushtaq Ali Khan Bahadur 23 March 1887 25 February 1889
12 Hamid Ali Khan Bahadur 25 February 1889 20 June 1930
14 Gen.Azeemudin Khan - Regent 25 February 1889 4 April 1894
15 Raza Ali Khan Bahadur 20 June 1930 6 March 1966
16 Murtaza Ali Khan Bahadur - Nawabat abolished in 1971 6 March 1966 8 February 1982
17 Zulfikar Ali Khan Bahadur 8 February 1982 5 April 1992
18 Muhammad Kazim Ali Khan Bahadur 5 April 1992 Incumbent

The 1857 War of Independence[edit]

The Rohillas took an active part in War of Independence of 1857 against British imperial forces. The leader of the revolt in Rohilkhand was Khan Bahadur Khan Rohilla, the son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan. For a short period, British rule disappeared from Rohilkhand, and the Rohillas were left in charge. But the revolt was suppressed, and in its wake the British reorganized the government of South Asia, bringing an end to British East India Company's regime and leading to almost a century of direct rule by Britain Crown. this period is known as the British Raj. While the followers of Khan Bahadur Khan had participated in the revolt, the Rohillas of Rampur had remained loyal to the British. Significant groups of Rohillas also sought refuge in state of Tonk in Rajasthan, which was ruled by Rohillas Pashtun nawabs, and now forms the core of the Tonkia Pathans.[13]

When the rebellion failed, Bareilly was subjugated. Rohilla ruler Khan Bahadur Khan was sentenced to death and hanged in Kotwali on February 24, 1860. As many urban cities in Uttar Pradesh were experiencing economic stagnation and poverty after the failed rebellion, many Rohilla Pathans from Rampur and surrounding cities migrated to Dutch South American Colonies such as present day Surinam and Guyana.[14]

Between 1857 and 1947[edit]

The period between the revolt of 1857 and the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947 was a period of stability for the Rohilla community. In 1858, the British government issued a general pardon to all those who had taken part in the War of Independence and restored many lands. Some of the tribes were punished for aiding the rebels. Some tribes had to migrate to Delhi and Gurgaon, while others migrated to the Deccan region. Conditions improved after some years and migration from the North West Frontier Province and Afghanistan recommenced, adding to the Rohilla population. During this period, the Rohillas were also effected by the reformist movement of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, with many taking to modern education. The founder of the Barelvi sect of Sunni Islam, Ahmad Raza Khan, was also born among the Rohillas and the city of Bareilly became an important centre of Islamic learning in Northern India.

While a majority of Rohillas remained landowners and cultivators, a significant minority took to western education, and entered professions such as law and medicine. They also began to take an interest in the political debates during the last decade of the 19th Century. Some of them joined the newly formed Indian National Congress, while others were attracted to pan-Islamism. This period also saw a wholesale adoption of North Indian Muslim culture, with Urdu becoming the native language of the Rohilla. In fact the term of Rohilla was slowly replaced with the term "Pathan", which was a new self-identification. However a sense of distinct identity remained strong, with the Rohillas residing in distinct quarters of cities, such as, Kakar Tola, Pani Tola and Gali Nawaban in Bareilly, which was home to the descendents of Hafiz Rahmat Khan. There was little or intermarriage with neighbouring Muslim communities such as the Shaikh, Muslim Rajput and Kamboh. Thus at the dawn of independence, the Rohilla were still a distinct community.[15]

Present circumstances[edit]

The independence of Pakistan and India in 1947 had a profound effect on the Rohilla community. The vast majority of them emigrated to Pakistan in 1947. Those that were left in India, were affected by the abolishment of the zamindari system in 1949, as well as the ascension of the State of Rampur to India and many of them migrated to join their kinsmen in Karachi, Pakistan. The Rohilla now form two distinct communities with the majority in Pakistan and a small minority residing in India.

In India[edit]

The Rohilla now form one of the larger Muslim communities of Uttar Pradesh and are found throughout Uttar Pradesh, with settlements in Rampur, Bareilly, Shahjahanpur in Rohilkhand being the densest. They now speak Hindustani in towns, and Khari boli in their rural settlements.

The Pathan (Rohilla) community of UP has sixteen sub-groups, the Ghilzai, Afridi, Bakarzai, Barech, Daudzai, Marwat, Durrani, Naghar, Ghorghushti, Ghori, Kakar, Khalil, Mohmand, Mohammadzai, Orakzai, Yousafzai and Wazir, all of which are descended from well known Pashtun tribes. Some Rohilla Pathans reside in Maharashtra's Washim and Nanded district, Tehsil Kinwat Tribal Area. There is also a small population in Bendi and Kopra, two villages in Kinwat Taluka. In older parts of the Muslim areas of the towns in UP, the Pathans have maintained their own residential neighbourhoods. The Pathan are not an endogamous group, and arranged marriages do occur with other Sunni Muslim communities of similar social status, such as the Mughal tribe, Muslim Rajput and Shaikh although there is still a preference of marriage within the community.

The Rohia have historically been landowners and soldiers, therefore, some parts of the community are associated with agriculture in Rohilkhand, while many Rohilla officers who worked in the British Indian Army in the 1940s migrated to Pakistan and joined the Pakistani Army; famous among them are General Rahimuddin Khan and General Akhtar Abdur Rahman. They have also been prominent in the Muslim religious sphere in UP, having produced many alims and huffaz and have built and financed many mosques and madrassahs. In terms of formal education, they are seen as a community that has a favourable attitude towards western education, and many are professional doctors and lawyers.[16]

In Pakistan[edit]

In Pakistan, the Rohilla and other Urdu-speaking Pathans now form part of a larger migrant Urdu speaking community. The sense of corporate identity is much weaker than in India, and degree of intermarriage with other communities within the Muhajir umbrella is high. They are found mainly in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and other urban areas of Sindh.[17] Many have held high positions in the government, notably Sahibzada Yaqub Khan, a Rohilla immigrant, who was Pakistan's foreign minister during the 1980s.

The Pathans population of Rohilkhand[edit]

Regions of Uttar Pradesh

Rohilkhand, which literally means the "land of the Rohilla", comprises the present day districts of Bijnor, Moradabad, Rampur, Jyotiba Phule Nagar District, Bareilly, Badaun, Shahjahanpur and Pilibhit in Uttar Pradesh. The Rohilla Pathans are found all over the region, but are concentrated in Shahjahanpur, Bareilly and Rampur.

Western Rohilkhand[edit]

The Pathan population of Bijnor District in 1901 was 11,606. They were concentrated in Najibabad tehsil, particularly in and around Nagina. Many different Pathan tribes are found in the district, and according to the 1901 census of India the Yousafzai, who numbered 3,160 were the largest clan, Kakars, chiefly found in Najibabad, numbered 548, the Ghilzais numbered 414, Mohammadzai, Ghori and Bangash each numbered more than 200. The other clans were the Sherwani and Barukhel.[18]

The Pathan population of Moradabad District was 23,026 in 1901, and who for the most part represented descendants of the various Pashtun settlers who arrived when the Rohilla state was at the height of its power. This district is home to the jagirdar families of Hasanpur and Bachhroan, while the ethnic Pathan population is concentrated in Bilari and Sambhal. According to the 1901 census, the chief Pathan clans in the area were the Yousufzai, Ghori and Ghilzai numbering 5,851, 4,043 and 2,289 respectively. The Dilazak whose population was 1,036 were present in Sambhal, Bilari and Hasanpur, while the Mohammadzai who numbered 1,029 resided in Thakurdwara. Other clans like the Bangash, Tareen, Khattak and Ghilzais who lived in Sambhal, while the Farzandkhel, Bunerwal, Barech and Tareen resided in Bilari and Amroha (present day Jyotiba Phule Nagar District). This district is also home to a small number of Pathan Khanzada, who are Rajput converts to Islam.[19]

According to the 1901 Census of India the total Pathan population of Badaun District was 29,023. They are population was centered in Bisauli and Sahaswan tehsils. The main sub-divisions are the Ghoris, found mainly in Bisauli, who numbered 6,848 in 1901 and the Yousafzai of Badaun, who numbered 2,547. Others, whose numbers exceeded 500, are the Bangash, Mohammadzai, Dilazak and Khattak. The Khatak, who numbered 752 are found mainly in Dataganj alongside the Bangash, while the Dilazak are mostly confined to Sahaswan. The district is home to the Pathan jagirdars of Shabazpur, who used to be some of the largest landowners in the district.[20]

Eastern Rohilkhand[edit]

According to the 1901 Census of India, the Pathan in Rampur State numbered 49,280. They are for the most part descended from the Pashtun adventurers who settled in Rampur during the period of the Nawabs of Rampur. The most populous clans are the Yousafzai and BarakzaiDurani. There is also a large population of Khattak, Mohammadzai, Afridi, Shinwari, Bangash and Barech clans. A small number of the Rampur Pathan were Athna ashri Shia, while the majority follows the Sunni Hanafi Barelvi sect.[21]

The district of Bareilly in home to the largest number of Pathans in Rohilkhand. This district contains the two capitals of the old Rohilla kingdom, and many Pashtuns were settled in the region by Ali Mohammed Khan and Hafiz Rahmat Khan. In 1901, the total Pathan population was 40,779 which made up almost 10% of the total population of the district. Nearly half of this population resides in Bareilly tehsil, while the rest are found in Baheri, Aonla and Nawabganj. Their main clans are the Yousafzai who number 6,578, the Ghori numbering 3,285 and the Ghilzai whose population is 1,520. These are found throughout the district. While the Mohammadzai, numbering 1,576 and the Bangash, numbering 1,287 are mainly found in Nawabganj and Aonla. The Barech, who are the tribe of Hafiz Rahmat Khan make up a significant part of Bareilly's Pathan population. The other clans in the district include the Afridi, Baqarzai, Ghilzai, Dilazak, Kakar, Khattak, and Tareen.[22]

The district of Jyotiba Phule Nagar is home to the largest number of Pathans in Hiwra Rohila. This district also contains capitals of the old Rohilla kingdom, and the Pashtuns were settled in this region by Aziz Khan, Gafur Khan and Dou’s Mohammed Khan. In 1901, the total Pathan population was 4000 which made up almost 10% of the total population of the district. Nearly half the population resides in Jyotiba Phule Nagar tehsil, while the rest are found in Hiwra Rohila, Jyotiba Phule Nagar Uttar pradesh and Nawabganj. Their main clans are the Kakar Zai, numbering 1,576, the Yousafzai, whose population is 570 and the Ghilzai who number 1,520. The other clans in the district include the Ghilzai and Kakar.[23]

In Pilibhit District, the Pathan population numbered 13,165 in 1901. They are found throughout the district, with Puranpur, being a stronghold of the community. The larger clans are the Yousafzai, numbering 2,013 and the Ghori, numbering 1,242. They are found in Pilibhit, while Ghilzais and Mohammadzai reside in Puranpur, and Khattaks are centered in Bisalpur. Other clans include the Barakzai–Durani, Ghilzai, Afridis and Baqarzai-Durani. In Puranpur, there are is a fair number of Gawal Pathans, who are not found in any other district.[24]

According to the 1901 Census of India, the total Pashtun population in Shahjahanpur District, was 41,137. More than half of the Pathans reside in Shahjahanpur tehsil. The Ghori are the most numerous in Shahjahanpur and Pawayan, while the Yousafzai are present in Tilhar. The Dilazak reside in Tilhar and Shahjahanpur, while the Bangash live in Jalalabad, and the Mohammadzais in Shahjahanpur. The Tareen also live in Shahjahanpur, while the Barakzai–Durani in Shahjahanpur. Shahjahanpur District is also the principal settlement of the Mohmand tribe in Uttar Pradesh, and in 1901 they numbered 1,891. Other clans in the district included the Amazai-Jadoon, Khalil, Daudzai, Marwat and Baqarzai-Durani. The city of Shajahanpur is also home to a large community of Pathan-Khanzada, who are basically descendants of Rajputs of various clans, who accepted Islam.[25]

List of major tribes[edit]

Here is a list of the major Pathan clans in Rohilkhand, tabulated for the 1901 Census of India.[26]

Tribe Bareilly District Bijnor District Badaun District Moradabad District Shahjahanpur District Pilibhit District Rampur State Total
Afridi 41,138 9,054 24,668 21,032 39,394 13,489 1,255 150,030
Baqarzai1 517 19 1,070 281 1,887
Bangash 593 178 1,117 99 1,182 5,152
Barech 1,432 741 578 23 654 3,428
Bunerwal 2 31 206 943 6,198 7,378
Daudzai 9 36 524 569
Dilazak 172 65 607 755 2,668 297 4,564
Durrani 65 7 11 62 145
Ghilzai 1,774 764 1,196 1,560 675 1,061 403 7,433
Ghori 3,850 199 6,232 2,740 3,807 1,258 579 18,665
Kakar 71 502 5 262 486 445 1.771
Khalil 25 58 38 780 20 921
Khattak 335 75 692 710 182 355 2,616 4,965
Mohmand 21 358 3,460 88 436 4,363
Mohammadzai 980 1,086 716 645 842 756 2,141 7,166
Rohilla 546 527 264 490 1,601 444 3,872
Tareen 388 565 102 529 2,099 73 306 4,062
Urmuz 3 183 53 236
Ustarana 210 210
Warakzai 4 144 9 45 76 1,083 319 7,491 9,167
Wazir 20 247 267
Yaqubzai 43 9 78 18 23 171
Yousafzai 5,185 2,641 2,160 4,527 4,221 2,113 9,730 30,577


1 The Baqarzai are sub-clan of the Durrani tribe

2 The Bunerwal are Yousafzai, and originate in the Buner District, and the word Bunerwal literally means an inhabitant of Buner. Most Bunerwal are Mandanr Yousafzais

3 The Urmuz are a sub-tribe of the Bangash's

4 The Warakzai or Barakzai are largest sub-division of the Bangash's pashtoon tribe confederacy.

5 The Barech are also sub-clan of the Durrani tribe

Rohilla notables[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ People of India: Maharastra Volume XLII edited by Gulbaran pathan.
  2. ^ Afghan Muslims of Guyana and Suriname
  3. ^ Haleem, Safia (24 July 2007). "Study of the Pathan Communities in Four States of India". Khyber Gateway. Farrukhabad has a mixed population of Pathans dominated by the Bangash and Yousafzais. 
  4. ^ Haleem, Safia (24 July 2007). "Study of the Pathan Communities in Four States of India". Khyber Gateway. This is the area in U.P (Utter Pradesh) Province, in which Pashtoons were either given land by the emperors or they settled for Trade purposes. Roh was the name of the area around Peshawar city, in Pakistan. Yousafzai Pathans especially Mandarr sub clan, living in this valley were also known as Rohillas when they settled down the area was known as Katehr, which literally means soft well aerated loam which is extremely suitable for cultivation. It later became known as Rohil Khand (the land of the Rohillas). The great majority of Rohillas migrated between 17th and 18th Century. 
  5. ^ Nawab was the title of notables during the Mughal era in India, who helped the central authority govern different statelets within the South Asia. During the British period, new nawabs were created because of the allocation of arable land to the pro-British elite
  6. ^ Mohammad Shah (1702–1748) was a Mughal emperor of Mughal empire between 1719 and 1748
  7. ^ An Eighteenth Century History of North India: An Account Of The Rise And Fall Of The Rohilla Chiefs In Janbhasha by Rustam Ali Bijnori by Iqtidar Husain Siddiqui Manohar Publications
  8. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India by W M Hunter
  9. ^ Ahmad Shah Abdali (died 1772) adopted the title of Durr-i Dowran (pearl of pearls), which gave the name to the dynasty he established, the Durrani, which lasted in Afghanistan until 1973
  10. ^ The Great Maratha Mahadji Scindia by N. G. Rathod p.8-9
  11. ^ The Rise and Decline of the Ruhela by Iqbal Hussain Oxford India
  12. ^ Hastings and the Rohilla War by John Strachey
  13. ^ People of India: Rajasthan Volume XXXVIII Part Two edited by B.K Lavania, D. K Samanta, S K Mandal & N.N Vyas pages 747 to 749 Popular Prakashan
  14. ^ HISTORY OF MY PEOPLE: The Afghan Muslims of Guyana
  15. ^ The Rise and Decline of the Ruhela by Iqbal Hussain
  16. ^ People of India: Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Three Amir Hasaan, B R Rizvi and J C Das editors pages 1138-1141 Manohar publications
  17. ^ A People of Migrants: Ethnicity, State and Religion in Karachi by Oskar Verkaik
  18. ^ A Gazetteer of Bijnor District by H Neville page 104
  19. ^ A Gazetteer of Moradabad District by H Neville page 78
  20. ^ A Gazetteer of Badaun District by H Neville page 79
  21. ^ A Gazetteer of Rampur State edited by H. R Neville page 48 Government Press United Provinces
  22. ^ A Gazetteer of Bareilly District by H Neville page 92
  23. ^ A Gazetteer of Hiwra rohila District by H Neville page 92
  24. ^ A Gazetteer of Pilibhit District by H Neville page 95
  25. ^ Shahjahanpur District: A Gazetteer Volume XVII edited by H. R Neville United Provinces District Gazetteers page 81 Government Press United Provinces
  26. ^ Census of India 1891. Pt. 3, The North-western Provinces and Oudh. Imperial caste tables.Government of India Press

Further reading[edit]

  • Gulistán-I Rahmat of Nawáb Mustajáb Khán.
  • Hastings and the Rohilla War by John Strachey. Author(s) of Review: Sidney James Owen The English Historical Review, Vol. 8, No. 30 (Apr., 1893), pp. 373–380

External links[edit]

See also[edit]

Battle of Rohilla