|Regions with significant populations|
|Bangladesh, Myanmar (Rakhine State), Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia, India, United States, Indonesia, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates|
|Bangladesh||947,000+ (October 2017)|
|Saudi Arabia||500,000 (October 2017)|
|Myanmar||~400,000 (November 2017)|
|Pakistan||350,000 (October 2017)|
|Malaysia||150,000 (October 2017)|
|UAE||50,000 (December 2017)|
|India||40,000 (September 2017)|
|United States||12,000+ (September 2017)|
|Thailand||5,000 (October 2017)|
|Indonesia||1,000 (October 2017)|
|Nepal||200 (September 2017)|
|Canada||200 (September 2017)|
|Ireland||104 (December 2017)|
|Sri Lanka||36 (June 2017)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Ruáingga ရိုဟင်ဂျာ ﺭُﺍَࣺﻳﻨڠَ
|Conflict and Persecution|
The Rohingya people (/, - -, - /; historically also termed Arakanese Indians) are a stateless Indo-Aryan-speaking people from Rakhine State, Myanmar. There were an estimated 1 million Rohingya living in Myanmar before the 2016–17 crisis. On 22 Oct 2017, the UN reported that an estimated 603,000 refugees from Rakhine, Myanmar had crossed the border into Bangladesh since August 25, 2017. This number increased to 624,000 by November 2, 2017, and over 625,000 by December 6, 2017. The majority are Muslim while a minority are Hindu. Described by the United Nations in 2013 as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world, the Rohingya population is denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law. According to Human Rights Watch, the 1982 laws "effectively deny to the Rohingya the possibility of acquiring a nationality". Despite being able to trace Rohingya history to the 8th century, Myanmar law does not recognize the ethnic minority as one of the eight "national indigenous races". They are also restricted from freedom of movement, state education and civil service jobs. The legal conditions faced by the Rohingya in Myanmar have been widely compared to apartheid by many international academics, analysts and political figures, including Desmond Tutu, a famous South African anti-apartheid activist.
The Rohingya have faced military crackdowns in 1978, 1991–1992, 2012, 2015 and 2016–2017. UN officials and HRW have described Myanmar's persecution of the Rohingya as ethnic cleansing. The UN human rights envoy to Myanmar reported "the long history of discrimination and persecution against the Rohingya community... could amount to crimes against humanity," and there have been warnings of an unfolding genocide. Yanghee Lee, the UN special investigator on Myanmar, believes the country wants to expel its entire Rohingya population.
The Rohingya maintain they are indigenous to western Myanmar with a heritage of over a millennium and influence from the Arabs, Mughals and Portuguese. The community claims it is descended from people in precolonial Arakan and colonial Arakan; historically, the region was an independent kingdom between Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Rohingya legislators were elected to the Parliaments of Myanmar until persecution increased in the late-20th century. Despite accepting the term Rohingya in the past, the current official position of the Myanmar government is that Rohingyas are not a national "indigenous race", but are illegal immigrants from neighbouring Bangladesh. Myanmar's government has stopped recognizing the term "Rohingya" and prefers to refer to the community as "Bengalis". Rohingya campaign groups, notably the Arakan Rohingya National Organization, demand the right to "self-determination within Myanmar".
Probes by the UN have found evidence of increasing incitement of hatred and religious intolerance by "ultra-nationalist Buddhists" against Rohingyas while the Myanmar security forces have been conducting "summary executions, enforced disappearances, arbitrary arrests and detentions, torture and ill-treatment and forced labour" against the community. According to the UN, the human rights violations against the Rohingyas are "crimes against humanity".
Before the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis and the military crackdown in 2016 and 2017, the Rohingya population in Myanmar was around 1.0 to 1.3 million,. chiefly in the northern Rakhine townships, which were 80–98% Rohingya. Since 2015, over 900,000 Rohingya refugees have fled to southeastern Bangladesh alone, and more to other surrounding countries, and major Muslim nations. More than 100,000 Rohingyas in Myanmar are confined in camps for internally displaced persons. Shortly before a Rohingya rebel attack that killed 12 security forces, August 25, 2017, the Myanmar military had launched "clearance operations" against the Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine state that left over 3,000 dead, many more injured, tortured or raped, villages burned. Over 603,000 Rohingya from Myanmar, fled to Bangladesh alone, and more to other countries. According to Refugee Relief and Repatriation Commission, about 624,000 Rohingyas entered Bangladesh until November 7.
- 1 Nomenclature
- 2 History
- 2.1 Early history
- 2.2 Arrival of Islam (8th–9th century)
- 2.3 Settlers from Burma proper (9th–15th century)
- 2.4 Kingdom of Mrauk U
- 2.5 Burmese conquest
- 2.6 British colonial rule
- 2.7 Burmese independence
- 2.8 Mayu Frontier District
- 2.9 Expulsion of Burmese Indians
- 2.10 Refugee crisis of 1978
- 2.11 1982 Citizenship Law
- 2.12 Refugee crisis of 1991-92
- 2.13 Name change from Arakan to Rakhine State
- 2.14 Conflict in Arakan
- 2.15 After 1988 Burmese pro-democracy uprising
- 2.16 Burmese juntas (1990–2011)
- 2.17 Rakhine State conflicts and refugees (2012–present)
- 2.18 Genocide accusations
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Language
- 5 Religion
- 6 Health
- 7 Human rights and refugee status
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The modern term Rohingya emerged from colonial and pre-colonial terms Rooinga and Rwangya. The Rohingya refer to themselves as Ruáingga /ɾuájŋɡa/. In the dominant languages of the region, they are known as rui hang gya (following the MLCTS) in Burmese: ရိုဟင်ဂျာ /ɹòhɪ̀ɴd͡ʑà/ and Rohingga in Bengali: রোহিঙ্গা /ɹohiŋɡa/. The term "Rohingya" may come from Rakhanga or Roshanga, the words for the state of Arakan. The word Rohingya would then mean "inhabitant of Rohang", which was the early Muslim name for Arakan. Andrew Tan argues it comes from the Arabic word Raham (God's blessing) and speculates that early Muslims in Arakan referred to themselves as "God's blessed people".
The usage of the term Rohingya has been historically documented prior to the British Raj. In 1799, Francis Buchanan-Hamilton wrote an article called "A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire". Among the native groups of Arakan, he wrote are the: "Mohammedans, who have long settled in Arakan, and who call themselves Rooinga, or natives of Arakan." The Classical Journal of 1811 identified "Rooinga" as one of the languages spoken in the "Burmah Empire". In 1815, Johann Severin Vater listed "Ruinga" as an ethnic group with a distinct language in a compendium of languages published in German.
According to Jacques Leider, the Rohingya were referred to as "Chittagonians" during the British colonial period, and it was not controversial to refer to them as "Bengalis" until 1990s. Leider also states that "there is no international consensus" on the use of the term Rohingya, as they are often called "Rohingya Muslims", "Muslim Arakanese" and "Burmese Muslims".[note 2] Others such as anthropologist Christina Fink uses Rohingya not as an ethnic identifier but as a political one. Leider believes the Rohingya is a political movement that started in the 1950s to create "an autonomous Muslim zone" in Rakhine.
The government of Myanmar Prime Minister U Nu, when Myanmar was a democracy from 1948–1962, used the term "Rohingya". When the Mayu Frontier District was created covering Rohingya-majority areas, the term "Rohingya" was recognized by the Burmese government. The term was broadcast on Burmese radio and was used in the speeches of Burmese rulers. A UNHCR report on refugees caused by Operation King Dragon referred to the victims as "Bengali Muslims (called Rohingyas)". Nevertheless, the term Rohingya wasn't widely used until the 1990s.
Today the use of the name "Rohingya" is polarized. The government of Myanmar refuses to use the name. In the 2014 census, the Myanmar government forced the Rohingya to identify themselves as "Bengali". Many Rohingya see the denial of their name similar to denying their basic rights, and the U.N. Special Rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar has agreed. Jacques Leider writes that many Muslims in Rakhine simply prefer to call themselves "Muslim Arakanese" or "Muslims coming from Rakhine" instead of "Rohingya". The United States embassy in Yangon continues to use the name "Rohingya".
|Islam by country|
The Rohingya population is concentrated in the historical region of Arakan, an old coastal country of Southeast Asia. It is not clear who the original settlers of Arakan were. Burmese nationalist claims that the Rakhine inhabited Arakan since 3000 BCE are not supported by any archaeological evidence. By the 4th century, Arakan became one of the earliest Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia. The first Arakanese state flourished in Dhanyawadi. Power then shifted to the city of Waithali. Sanskrit inscriptions in the region indicate that the founders of the first Arakanese states were Indian. Arakan was ruled by the Chandra dynasty. The British historian Daniel George Edward Hall stated that "The Burmese do not seem to have settled in Arakan until possibly as late as the tenth century AD. Hence earlier dynasties are thought to have been Indian, ruling over a population similar to that of Bengal. All the capitals known to history have been in the north near modern Akyab".
Arrival of Islam (8th–9th century)
Due to its coastline on the Bay of Bengal, Arakan was a key center of maritime trade and cultural exchange between Burma and the outside world, since the time of the Indian Mauryan Empire. Arab merchants had been in contact with Arakan since the third century, using the Bay of Bengal to reach Arakan. Some researchers have speculated that Muslims used trade routes in the region to travel to India and China. A southern branch of the Silk Road connected India, Burma and China since the neolithic period. Arab traders are recorded in the coastal areas of southeast Bengal, bordering Arakan, since the 9th century. The Rohingya population trace their history to this period.
Besides locals converting to Islam, Arab merchants married local women and later settled in Arakan. As a result of intermarriage and conversion, the Muslim population in Arakan grew. Modern day Rohingya believe they descended from these early Muslim communities.
Settlers from Burma proper (9th–15th century)
The Rakhines were one of the tribes of the Burmese Pyu city-states. The Rakhines began migrating to Arakan through the Arakan Mountains in the 9th century. The Rakhines established numerous cities in the valley of the Lemro River. These included Sambawak I, Pyinsa, Parein, Hkrit, Sambawak II, Myohaung, Toungoo and Launggret. Burmese forces invaded the Rakhine cities in 1406. The Burmese invasion forced Rakhine rulers to seek help and refuge from neighboring Bengal in the north.
Kingdom of Mrauk U
Early evidence of Bengali Muslim settlements in Arakan date back to the time of Min Saw Mon (1430–34) of the Kingdom of Mrauk U. After 24 years of exile in Bengal, he regained control of the Arakanese throne in 1430 with military assistance from the Bengal Sultanate. The Bengalis who came with him formed their own settlements in the region. The Santikan Mosque built in the 1430s, features a court which "measures 65 ft from north to south and 82 ft from east to west; the shrine is a rectangular structure measuring 33 ft by 47 ft."
King Min Saw Mon ceded some territory to the Sultan of Bengal and recognised his sovereignty over the areas. In recognition of his kingdom's vassal status, the Buddhist kings of Arakan received Islamic titles and used the Bengali gold dinar within the kingdom. Min Saw Mon minted his own coins with the Burmese alphabet on one side and the Persian alphabet on the other.
Arakan's vassalage to Bengal was brief. After Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah's death in 1433, Narameikhla's successors invaded Bengal and occupied Ramu in 1437 and Chittagong in 1459. Arakan would hold Chittagong until 1666.
Even after independence from the Sultans of Bengal, the Arakanese kings continued the custom of maintaining Muslim titles. The Buddhist kings compared themselves to Sultans and fashioned themselves after Mughal rulers. They also continued to employ Muslims in prestigious positions within the royal administration. Some of them worked as Bengali, Persian and Arabic scribes in the Arakanese courts, which, despite remaining Buddhist, adopted Islamic fashions from the neighbouring Bengal Sultanate.
The population increased in the 17th century, as slaves were brought in by Arakanese raiders and Portuguese settlers following raids into Bengal. Slaves included members of the Mughal nobility. A notable royal slave was Alaol, a renowned poet in the Arakanese court. The slave population were employed in a variety of workforces, including in the king's army, commerce and agriculture.
In 1660, Prince Shah Shuja, the governor of Mughal Bengal and a claimant of the Peacock Throne, fled to Arakan with his family after being defeated by his brother Emperor Aurangzeb during the Battle of Khajwa. Shuja and his entourage arrived in Arakan on 26 August 1660. He was granted asylum by King Sanda Thudhamma. In December 1660, the Arakanese king confiscated Shuja's gold and jewelry, leading to an insurrection by the royal Mughal refugees. According to varying accounts, Shuja's family was killed by the Arakanese, while Shuja himself may have fled to a kingdom in Manipur. However, members of Shuja's entourage remained in Arakan and were recruited by the royal army, including as archers and court guards. They were king makers in Arakan until the Burmese conquest. The Arakanese continued their raids of Mughal Bengal. Dhaka was raided in 1625.
Emperor Aurangzeb gave orders to his governor in Mughal Bengal, Shaista Khan, to end what the Mughals saw as Arakanese-Portuguese piracy. In 1666, Shaista Khan led a 6000 man army and 288 warships to seize Chittagong from the Kingdom of Mrauk U. The Mughal expedition continued up till the Kaladan River. The Mughals placed the northern part of Arakan under its administration and vassalage. The Muslim population became concentrated in northern Arakan. In 1960, Burmese cabinet minister Sultan Mahmud cited the Kaladan River as the boundary between Rohingya and Rakhine areas.
Following the Konbaung Dynasty's conquest of Arakan in 1785, as many as 35,000 people of the Rakhine State fled to the neighbouring Chittagong region of British Bengal in 1799 to escape persecution by the Bamar and to seek protection under the British Raj. The Bamar executed thousands of men and deported a considerable portion of people from Rakhine population to central Burma, leaving Arakan a scarcely populated area by the time the British occupied it.
According to an article on the "Burma Empire" published by the British Francis Buchanan-Hamilton in 1799, "the Mohammedans, who have long settled in Arakan", "call themselves Rooinga, or natives of Arakan". However, according to Derek Tokin, Hamilton no longer used the term to refer to the Muslims in Arakan in his later publications. Sir Henry Yule saw many Muslims serving as eunuchs in Konbaung while on a diplomatic mission to the Burmese capital, Ava.
British colonial rule
British policy encouraged Bengali inhabitants from adjacent regions to migrate into the then lightly populated and fertile valleys of Arakan as farm laborers. The East India Company extended the Bengal Presidency to Arakan. There was no international boundary between Bengal and Arakan and no restrictions on migration between the regions. In the early 19th century, thousands of Bengalis from the Chittagong region settled in Arakan seeking work. It is hard to know whether these new Bengal migrants were the same population that was deported by force to Bengal's Chittagong during the Burmese conquest in the 18th century and later returned to Arakan as a result of British policy or they were a new migrant population with no ancestral roots to Arakan.
The British census of 1872 reported 58,255 Muslims in Akyab District. By 1911, the Muslim population had increased to 178,647. The waves of migration were primarily due to the requirement of cheap labour from British India to work in the paddy fields. Immigrants from Bengal, mainly from the Chittagong region, "moved en masse into western townships of Arakan". Albeit Indian immigration to Burma was a nationwide phenomenon, not just restricted to Arakan. For these reasons historians believed that most Rohingyas arrived with the British colonialists in the 19th and 20th centuries with some tracing their ancestry much further.
According to Thant Myint-U, historian and adviser to President Thein Sein, "At the beginning of the 20th century, Indians were arriving in Burma at the rate of no less than a quarter million per year. The numbers rose steadily until the peak year of 1927, immigration reached 480,000 people, with Rangoon exceeding New York City as the greatest immigration port in the world. This was out of a total population of only 13 million; it was equivalent to the United Kingdom today taking 2 million people a year." By then, in most of the largest cities in Burma, Yangon, Sittwe, Pathein and Mawlamyine, the Indian immigrants formed a majority of the population. The Burmese under the British rule felt helpless, and reacted with a "racism that combined feelings of superiority and fear". Professor Andrew Selth of Griffith University writes that although a few Rohingya trace their ancestry to Muslims who lived in Arakan in the 15th and 16h centuries, most Rohingyas arrived with the British colonialists in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The impact of British immigration was particularly acute in Arakan. Although it boosted the colonial economy, local Arakanese bitterly resented it. According to historian Clive J. Christie, "The issue became a focus for grass-roots Burmese nationalism, and in the years 1930–31 there were serious anti-Indian disturbances in Lower Burma, while 1938 saw riots specifically directed against the Indian Muslim community. As Burmese nationalism increasingly asserted itself before the Second World War, the 'alien' Indian presence inevitably came under attack, along with the religion that the Indian Muslims imported. The Muslims of northern Arakan were to be caught in the crossfire of this conflict."
In the 1931 census, the Muslim population of Burma was 584,839, 4% of the total population of 14,647,470 at the time. 396,504 were Indian Muslims and 1,474 Chinese Muslims, while 186,861 were Burmese Muslims. The census found a growth in the number of Indian Muslims born in Burma, primarily due to their permanent settlement in Akyab. 41% of Muslims of Burma lived in Arakan at that time.
Due to the terrain of the Arakan Mountains, the Arakan region was mostly accessible by sea. In British Arakan Division, the port of Akyab had ferry services and a thriving trade with the ports of Chittagong, Narayanganj, Dacca and Calcutta in British India; as well as with Rangoon. Akyab was one of the leading rice ports in the world, hosting ship fleets from Europe and China. Many Indians settled in Akyab and dominated its seaport and hinterland. The 1931 census found 500,000 Indians living in Akyab.
Several Arakanese Indians were elected to Burmese native seats in the Legislative Council of Burma and Legislature of Burma. During the 1936 Burmese general election, Advocate U Pho Khaine was elected from Akyab West and Gani Markan was elected from Maungdaw-Buthidaung. In 1939, U Tanvy Markan was elected from Maungdaw-Buthidaung. Their elections in the Burmese native category set them apart from immigrant Indian legislators.
World War II
During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) invaded British-controlled Burma. The British forces retreated and in the power vacuum left behind, considerable inter-communal violence erupted between Arakanese and Muslim villagers. The British armed Muslims in northern Arakan in order to create a buffer zone that would protect the region from a Japanese invasion when they retreated and to counteract the largely pro-Japanese ethnic Rakhines. The period also witnessed violence between groups loyal to the British and the Burmese nationalists. The Arakan massacres in 1942 involved communal violence between British-armed V Force Rohingya recruits and pro-Japanese Rakhines, polarizing the region along ethnic lines.
Tensions boiling in Arakan before the war erupted during the Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia and Arakan became the frontline in the conflict. The war resulted in a complete breakdown of civil administration and consequent development of habits of lawlessness exacerbated by the availability of modern arms. The Japanese advance triggered an inter-communal conflict between Muslims and Buddhists. The Muslims fled towards British-controlled Muslim-dominated northern Arakan from Japanese-controlled Buddhist-majority areas. This stimulated a "reverse ethnic cleansing" in British-controlled areas, particularly around Maungdaw. Failure of British counter-offensive attempted from December 1942 to April 1943 resulted in abandonment of even more of the Muslim population as well as increase in inter-communal violence.
Moshe Yegar, a research fellow at Truman Institute, Hebrew University of Jerusalem noted that hostility had developed between the Muslims and the Buddhists who had brought about a similar hostility in other parts of Burma. This tension was let loose with the retreat of the British. With the approach of Japanese into Arakan, the Buddhists instigated cruel measures against the Muslims. Thousands, though the exact number is unknown, fled from Buddhist-majority regions to eastern Bengal and northern Arakan with many being killed or dying of starvation. The Muslims in response conducted retaliatory raids from British-controlled areas, causing Buddhists to flee to southern Arakan.
Aye Chan, a historian at Kanda University in Japan, has written that as a consequence of acquiring arms from the British during World War II, Rohingyas[note 3] tried to destroy the Arakanese villages instead of resisting the Japanese. Chan agrees that hundreds of Muslims fled to northern Arakan though states that the accounts of atrocities on them were exaggerated. In March 1942, Rohingyas from northern Arakan killed around 20,000 Arakanese. In return, around 5,000 Muslims in the Minbya and Mrauk-U Townships were killed by Rakhines and Red Karens.
As in the rest of Burma, the IJA committed acts of rape, murder and torture against Muslims in Arakan. During this period, some 22,000 Muslims in Arakan were believed to have crossed the border into Bengal, then part of British India, to escape the violence. The exodus was not restricted to Muslims in Arakan. Thousands of Burmese Indians, Anglo-Burmese and British who settled during colonial period emigrated en masse to India.
To facilitate their reentry into Burma, British formed Volunteer Forces with Rohingya. Over the three years during which the Allies and Japanese fought over the Mayu peninsula, the Rohingya recruits of the V-Force, engaged in a campaign against Arakanese communities, using weapons provided by V-Force. According to the secretary of British governor, the V Force, instead of fighting the Japanese, destroyed Buddhist monasteries, pagodas, and houses, and committed atrocities in northern Arakan. The British Army's liaison officer Anthony Irwin on the other hand praised the role of the V Force.
During the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s, Rohingya Muslims in western Burma organized a separatist movement to merge the region into East Pakistan. The commitments of the British regarding the status of Muslims after the war are not clear. V Force officers like Andrew Irwin felt that Muslims along with other minorities must be rewarded for their loyalty. Muslim leaders believed that the British had promised them a "Muslim National Area" in Maungdaw region. They were also apprehensive of a future Buddhist-dominated government. In 1946, calls were made for annexation of the territory by Pakistan as well as of an independent state. Before the independence of Burma in January 1948, Muslim leaders from Arakan addressed themselves to Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and asked his assistance in incorporating the Mayu region to Pakistan considering their religious affinity and geographical proximity with East Pakistan.The North Arakan Muslim League was founded in Akyab (modern Sittwe) two months later. The proposal never materialized since it was reportedly turned down by Jinnah, saying that he was not in a position to interfere in Burmese matters.
The numbers and the extent of post-independence immigration from Bangladesh are subject to controversy and debate. In a 1955 study published by Stanford University, the authors Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff write, "The post-war (World War II) illegal immigration of Chittagonians into that area was on a vast scale, and in the Maungdaw and Buthidaung areas they replaced the Arakanese." The authors further argue that the term Rohingya, in the form of Rwangya, first appeared to distinguish settled population from newcomers: "The newcomers were called Mujahids (crusaders), in contrast to the Rwangya or settled Chittagonian population." According to the International Crisis Group (ICG), these immigrants were actually the Rohingyas who were displaced by World War II and began to return to Arakan after the independence of Burma but were rendered as illegal immigrants, while many were not allowed to return. ICG adds that there were "some 17,000" refugees from the Bangladesh liberation war who "subsequently returned home".
The Rohingya community was recognized as an indigenous ethnic nationality of Burma, with members of the group serving as representatives in the Burmese parliament, as well as ministers, parliamentary secretaries, and other high-ranking government positions. But since Burma's military junta took control of the country in 1962, the Rohingya have been systematically deprived of their political rights.
Rohingya political participation in Burma
In the prelude to independence, two Arakanese Indians were elected to the Constituent Assembly of Burma in 1947, M. A. Gaffar and Sultan Ahmed. After Burma became independent in 1948, M. A. Gaffar presented a memorandum of appeal to the Government of the Union of Burma calling for the recognition of the term "Rohingya", based on local Indian names of Arakan (Rohan and Rohang), as the official ethnicity of Arakanese Indians. Sultan Ahmed, who served as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Minorities, was a member of the Justice Sir Ba Oo Commission charged with exploring whether Arakan Division should be granted statehood. During the Burmese general election, 1951, five Rohingyas were elected to the Parliament of Burma, including one of the country's first two female MPs, Zura Begum. Six MPs were elected during the Burmese general election, 1956 and subsequent by-elections. Sultan Mahmud, a former politician in British India, became Minister of Health in the cabinet of Prime Minister of Burma U Nu. In 1960, Mahmud suggested that either Rohingya-majority northern Arakan remain under the central government or be made a separate province. However, during the Burmese general election, 1960, Prime Minister U Nu's pledges included making all of Arakan into one province. The 1962 Burmese coup d'état ended the country's Westminster-style political system. The 1982 Burmese citizenship law stripped most of the Rohingyas of their stake in citizenship.
Rohingya community leaders were supportive of the 8888 uprising for democracy. During the Burmese general election, 1990, the Rohingya-led National Democratic Party for Human Rights won four seats in the Burmese parliament. The four Rohingya MPs included Shamsul Anwarul Huq, Chit Lwin Ebrahim, Fazal Ahmed and Nur Ahmed. The election was won by the National League for Democracy led by Aung San Suu Kyi, who was placed under house arrest and not permitted to become prime minister. The Burmese military junta banned the National Democratic Party for Human Rights in 1992. Its leaders were arrested, jailed and tortured.
Rohingya politicians have been jailed to disbar them from contesting elections. In 2005, Shamsul Anwarul Huq was charged under Section 18 of the controversial 1982 Burmese citizenship law and sentenced to 47 years in prison. In 2015, a ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party MP Shwe Maung was disbarred from the Burmese general election, 2015, on grounds that his parents were not Burmese citizens under the 1982 citizenship law.
Mayu Frontier District
A separate administrative zone for the Rohingya-majority northern areas of Arakan existed between 1961 and 1964. Known as the Mayu Frontier District, the zone was set up by Prime Minister U Nu after the 1960 Burmese general election, on the advice of his health minister Sultan Mahmud. The zone was administered directly from Rangoon by the national government. After the Burmese military coup in 1962, the zone was administered by the Burmese army. It was transferred to the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1964 by the Union Revolutionary Council. The socialist military government inducted the zone into Arakan State in 1974.
Expulsion of Burmese Indians
Racism towards people with links to the Indian subcontinent increased after 1962 Burmese coup. The socialist military government nationalized all property, including many enterprises of the white collar Burmese Indian community. Between 1962 and 1964, 320,000 Burmese Indians were forced to leave the country.
Refugee crisis of 1978
As a result of Operation King Dragon by the Burmese junta, the first wave of Rohingya refugees entered Bangladesh in 1978. An estimated 200,000 Rohingyas took shelter in Cox's Bazaar. Diplomatic initiatives over 16 months resulted in a repatriation agreement, which allowed the return of most refugees under a process facilitated by UNHCR. The return of refugees to Burma has been the second largest repatriation process in Asia after the return of Cambodian refugees from Thailand.
1982 Citizenship Law
In 1982, the citizenship law enacted by the Burmese military junta did not list the Rohingya as one of the 135 “national races” of Burma. This made much of the Rohingya population in Burma stateless in their historical homeland of Arakan.
Refugee crisis of 1991-92
After Burmese military junta began persecuting the political opposition following Aung San Suu Kyi's victory in the 1990 election and the earlier 8888 Uprising, military operations targeting Muslims (who strongly favored the pro-democracy movement) began in Arakan State. The Rohingya-led NDPHR political party was banned and its leaders were jailed. Suu Kyi herself was placed under house arrest by the junta led by General Than Shwe. As the Burmese military increased its operations across the country, the Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung townships in northern Arakan became centers of persecution. The 23rd and 24th regiments of the Tatmadaw (Myanmar Army) were responsible for promoting forced labour, rape, the confiscation of houses, land and farm animals, the destruction of mosques, a ban on religious activities and the harassment of the religious priests. An estimated 250,000 refugees crossed over into Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, the refugee influx was a challenge for the newly elected government of the country's first female prime minister Khaleda Zia (who headed the first parliamentary government since 1975). Both Bangladesh and Burma mobilized thousands of troops along the border during the crisis. The government of Bangladesh emphasized a peaceful resolution of the crisis.
Name change from Arakan to Rakhine State
In 1989, the junta officially changed the name of Burma to Myanmar. In the 1990s, the junta changed the name of the province of Arakan to Rakhine State, which showed a bias towards the Rakhine community, even though the Rohingya formed a substantial part of the population. The name of the region was historically known as Arakan for centuries.
Denial of the "Rohingya" term
The colloquial term Rohingya can be traced back to the pre-colonial period. The Rohingya community have also been known as Arakanese Indians and Arakanese Muslims. Since the 1982 citizenship law, Burmese juntas and governments have strongly objected to the usage of the term of Rohingya, preferring to label the community as "illegal immigrants". The derogatory slur Kalar is widely used in Myanmar against the Rohingya. Myanmar's government has often pressured diplomats and foreign delegates from uttering the term Rohingya.
Conflict in Arakan
The Rakhine for their part felt discriminated against by the governments in Rangoon dominated by the ethnic Burmese with one Rakhine politician saying, "we are therefore the victims of Muslimisation and Burmese chauvinism." The Economist wrote in 2015 that from the 1940s on and right to this day, the Burmens have seen and see themselves as victims of the British Empire while the Rakhine see themselves as victims of the British and the Burmens; both groups were and are so intent upon seeing themselves as victims that neither has much sympathy for the Rohingyas.
After Jinnah's refusal to accept northern Arakan into the Dominion of Pakistan, some Rohingya elders who supported a jihad movement, founded the Mujahid party in northern Arakan in 1947. The aim of the Mujahid party was to create an autonomous Islamic State in Arakan. By the 1950s, they began to use the term "Rohingya" which may be a continuation of the term Rooinga to establish a distinct identity and identify themselves as indigenous. They were much more active before the 1962 Burmese coup d'état by General Ne Win, a Burmese general who began his military career fighting for the Japanese in World War II. Ne Win carried out military operations against them over a period of two decades. The prominent one was Operation King Dragon, which took place in 1978; as a result, many Muslims in the region fled to neighboring Bangladesh as refugees. In addition to Bangladesh, a large number of Rohingyas also migrated to Karachi, Pakistan. Rohingya mujahideen are still active within the remote areas of Arakan.
From 1971 to 1978, a number of Rakhine monks and Buddhists staged hunger strikes in Sittwe to force the government to tackle immigration issues which they believed to be causing a demographic shift in the region. Ne Win's government requested UN to repatriate the war refugees and launched military operations which drove off around 200,000 people to Bangladesh. In 1978, the Bangladesh government protested against the Burmese government concerning "the expulsion by force of thousands of Burmese Muslim citizens to Bangladesh". The Burmese government responded that those expelled were Bangladesh citizens who had resided illegally in Burma. In July 1978, after intensive negotiations mediated by UN, Ne Win's government agreed to take back 200,000 refugees who settled in Arakan. In the same year as well as in 1992, a joint statement by governments of Myanmar and Bangladesh "acknowledged that the Rohingya were lawful Burmese residents". In 1982, the Burmese government enacted the citizenship law and declared the "Bengalis" are foreigners.
There are widespread beliefs among Rakhine people that significant number of immigrants arrived even after the 1980s when the border was relatively unguarded. However, there is no documentation proof for these claims as the last census was conducted in 1983. Successive Burmese governments have fortified the border and built up border guard forces.
After 1988 Burmese pro-democracy uprising
Since the 1990s, a new 'Rohingya' movement which is distinct from the 1950s armed rebellion has emerged. The new movement is characterized by lobbying internationally by overseas diaspora, establishing indigenous claims by Rohingya scholars, publicizing the term "Rohingya" and denying Bengali origins by Rohingya politicians.
Rohingya scholars[who?] have claimed that Rakhine was previously an Islamic State for a millennium, or that Muslims were king-makers of Rakhine kings for 350 years. They often traced the origin of Rohingyas to Arab seafarers. These claims have been rejected as "newly invented myths" in academic circles. Some Rohingya politicians have labelled Burmese and international historians as "Rakhine sympathizers" for rejecting the purported historical origins.
The movement has garnered sharp criticisms from ethnic Rakhines and Kamans, the latter of whom are a recognized Muslim ethnic group in Rakhine. Kaman leaders support citizenship for Muslims in northern Rakhine but believe that the new movement is aimed at achieving a self-administered area or Rohang State as a separate Islamic State carved out of Rakhine, and condemn the movement.
Rakhines' views are more critical. Citing Bangladesh's overpopulation and density, Rakhines perceive the Rohingyas as "the vanguard of an unstoppable wave of people that will inevitably engulf Rakhine". However, for moderate Rohingyas, the aim may have been no more than to gain citizenship status. Moderate Rohingya politicians agree to compromise on the term Rohingya if citizenship is provided under an alternative identity that is neither "Bengali" nor "Rohingya". Various alternatives including "Rakhine Muslims", "Myanmar Muslims" or simply "Myanmar" have been proposed.
Burmese juntas (1990–2011)
The military junta that ruled Myanmar for half a century relied heavily on mixing Burmese nationalism and Theravada Buddhism to bolster its rule, and, in the view of the US government, heavily discriminated against minorities like the Rohingyas. Some pro-democracy dissidents from Myanmar's ethnic Bamar majority do not consider the Rohingyas compatriots.
Successive Burmese governments have been accused of provoking riots led by Buddhist monks against ethnic minorities like the Rohingyas In the 1990s, more than 250,000 Rohingya fled to refugee camps in Bangladesh. In the early 2000s, all but 20,000 of them were repatriated to Myanmar, some against their will. In 2009, a senior Burmese envoy to Hong Kong branded the Rohingyas "ugly as ogres" and a people that are alien to Myanmar.
Under the 2008 constitution, the Myanmar military still control much of the country's government, including the ministries of home, defense and border affairs, 25% of seats in parliament and one vice president.
Rakhine State conflicts and refugees (2012–present)
2012 Rakhine State riots
The 2012 Rakhine State riots were a series of conflicts between Rohingya Muslims who form the majority in the northern Rakhine and ethnic Rakhines who form the majority in the south. Before the riots, there were widespread fears among the Buddhist Rakhines that they would soon become a minority in their ancestral state. The riots occurred after weeks of sectarian disputes, including a gang rape and murder of a Rakhine woman by Rohingyas and killing of ten Burmese Muslims by Rakhines. There is evidence that the pogroms in 2012 were incited by the government asking the Rakhine men to defend their "race and religion". The Rakhine men were said to have been given knives and free food, and bused in from Sittwe. The Burmese government denied having organized the pogroms, but has never prosecuted anyone for the attacks against the Rohingyas. The Economist argued that since the transition to democracy in Burma in 2011, the military has been seeking to retain its privileged position, forming the motivation for it to encourage the riots in 2012 and allowing it to pose as the defender of Buddhism against Muslim Rohingya.
On both sides, entire villages were "decimated". According to the Burmese authorities, the violence between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims left 78 people dead, 87 injured, and up to 140,000 people displaced. The government has responded by imposing curfews and deploying troops in the region. On 10 June 2012, a state of emergency was declared in Rakhine, allowing the military to participate in the administration of the region. Rohingya NGOs abroad have accused the Burmese army and police of targeting Rohingya Muslims through arrests and participating in violence.
A field observation conducted by the International Crisis Group concluded that both communities were grateful for the protection provided by the military. A number of monks' organisations have taken measures to boycott NGOs which they believe helped only Rohingyas in the past decades even though Rakhines were equally poor. In July 2012, the Burmese Government did not include the Rohingya minority group in the census—classified as stateless Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh since 1982. About 140,000 Rohingya in Myanmar remain confined in IDP camps.
2015 refugee crisis
In 2015, the Simon-Skjodt Centre of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum stated in a press statement the Rohingyas are "at grave risk of additional mass atrocities and even genocide". In 2015, to escape violence and persecution, thousands of Rohingyas migrated from Myanmar and Bangladesh, collectively dubbed as 'boat people' by international media, to Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand by rickety boats via the waters of the Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimates about 25,000 people have been taken to boats from January to March in 2015. There are claims that around 100 people died in Indonesia, 200 in Malaysia, and 10 in Thailand during the journey. An estimated 3,000 refugees from Myanmar and Bangladesh have been rescued or swum to shore and several thousand more are believed to remain trapped on boats at sea with little food or water. A Malaysian newspaper claimed crisis has been sparked by smugglers. However, the Economist in an article in June 2015 wrote the only reason why the Rohingyas were willing to pay to be taken out of Burma in squalid, overcrowded, fetid boats as "... it is the terrible conditions at home in Rakhine that force the Rohingyas out to sea in the first place."
Autumn 2016–summer 2017
On 9 October 2016, jihadist insurgents commenced terrorist attacks three Burmese border posts along Myanmar's border with Bangladesh. According to government officials in the mainly Rohingya border town of Maungdaw, the attackers brandished knives, machetes and homemade slingshots that fired metal bolts. Several dozen firearms and boxes of ammunition were looted by the attackers from the border posts. The attack resulted in the deaths of nine border officers. On 11 October 2016, four soldiers were killed on the third day of fighting. Following the attacks, reports emerged of several human rights violations allegedly perpetrated by Burmese security forces in their crackdown on suspected Rohingya insurgents.
Shortly after, the Myanmar military forces and extremist Buddhists started a major crackdown on the Rohingya Muslims in the country's western region of Rakhine State in response to attacks on border police camps by unidentified insurgents. The crackdown resulted in wide-scale human rights violations at the hands of security forces, including extrajudicial killings, gang rapes, arsons, and other brutalities. The military crackdown on Rohingyas drew criticism from various quarters including the United Nations, human rights group Amnesty International, the US Department of State, and the government of Malaysia, for the exact same kinds of human rights violations and massacres committed by islamic extremist groups that these governments and organisations have backed and supported politically and militarily in the past
Government officials in Rakhine State originally blamed the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO), an Islamist insurgent group mainly active in the 1980s and 1990s, for the attacks; however, on 17 October 2016, a group calling itself the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) claimed responsibility. In the following days, six other groups released statements, all citing the same leader. The Myanmar Army announced on 15 November 2016 that 69 Rohingya insurgents and 17 security forces (10 policemen, 7 soldiers) had been killed in recent clashes in northern Rakhine State, bringing the death toll to 134 (102 insurgents and 32 security forces). It was also announced that 234 people suspected of being connected to the attack were arrested.
A police document obtained by Reuters in March 2017 listed 423 Rohingyas detained by the police since 9 October 2016, 13 of whom were children, the youngest being ten years old. Two police captains in Maungdaw verified the document and justified the arrests, with one of them saying, "We the police have to arrest those who collaborated with the attackers, children or not, but the court will decide if they are guilty; we are not the ones who decide." Myanmar police also claimed that the children had confessed to their alleged crimes during interrogations, and that they were not beaten or pressured during questioning. The average age of those detained is 34, the youngest is 10, and the oldest is 75.
The Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) stated on 1 September that the death toll had risen to 370 insurgents, 13 security personnel, two government officials and 14 civilians. The United Nations believes over 1,000 people have been killed since October 2016, which contradicts the death toll provided by the Myanmar government.
Autumn 2017 crisis
Starting in early August, 2017, the Myanmar security forces began "clearance operations" against the Rohingya in northern Rakhine state. Following an attack by Rohingya militants of Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) against several security forces' outposts, August 25, the operations escalated radically—killing thousands of Rohingya, brutalizing thousands more, and driving hundreds of thousands out of the country into neighboring Bangladesh while their villages burned—with the Myanmar military claiming that their actions were solely attacks on rebels in response to the ARSA attack. However, subsequent reports from various international organizations have indicated that the military operations were widespread indiscriminate attacks on the Rohingya population, already underway before the ARSA attacks, to purge northern Rakhine state of Rohingya, through "ethnic cleansing" and/or "genocide."
According to BBC reporters, during the summer of 2017, the Myanmar military began arming and training Rakhine Buddhist natives in northern Rakhine state, and in late summer advised that any ethnic Rakhines "wishing to protect their state" would be given the opportunity to join "the local armed police." Matthew Smith, chief executive of human rights organization Fortify Rights says that arming the Rakhines "was a decision made to effectively perpetrate atrocity crimes against the civilian population." At the same time, northern Rakhine state faced food shortages, and, starting in mid-August, the government cut off all food supply to the area. On August 10, the military flew in a battalion of reinforcements to the area, triggering a public warning from the resident United Nations human rights representative to Myanmar, who urged Myanmar authorities to restrain themselves.
A few weeks later, on August 24, 2017, the Rakhine Commission (chaired by former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan)—established by the new civilian Myanmar government to recommend solutions to the ethnic conflict and related issues in Rakhine state—released its recommendations for alleviating the suffering of minorities (especially the Rohingya), calling for measures that would improve security in Myanmar for the Rohingya, but not calling for all measures sought by various Rohingya factions.
The following morning, according to Myanmar military officials, a Rohingya rebel group—ARSA (Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army) -- led multiple coordinated attacks on 30 police outposts and border guards, killing a dozen government forces, at the cost of over 50 dead among the rebels.
Almost immediately, the Myanmar military—apparently teaming with local authorities and mobs of Rakhine Buddhist civilians—launched massive reprisals that it described as its anti-terrorist "clearance operations" (which, UN investigators and BBC reporters later determined, had actually begun earlier) -- attacking Rohingya villages throughout northern Rakhine state. Within the first three weeks, the military reported over 400 dead (whom it described as mostly "militants" and "terrorists") -- the U.N. estimated over 1,000 dead (mostly civilians), and other sources initially suggested as many as 3,000—in the first four weeks of the reprisals.
However, in December 2017, following a detailed survey of Rohingya refugees, a humanitarian organization serving refugees, Médecins Sans Frontières International, (MSF or Doctors Without Borders) calculated that at least 6,700 Rohingya men, women and children were killed in the first month of the major attacks, including at least 750 children (that number later revised to "over 1,000"). MSF estimated that 69% were killed by gunshots, 9% were burnt to death (including 15% of children killed), and 5% beaten to death. However, MSF cautioned "The numbers of deaths are likely to be an underestimation, as we have not surveyed all refugee settlements in Bangladesh and because the surveys don't account for the families who never made it out of Myanmar."
Refugees reported numerous civilians—including women and children—being indiscriminantly beaten, raped, tortured, shot, hacked to death or burned alive. and whole villages being burnt down by authorities and Buddhist mobs. Human Rights Watch released satellite photos showing the villages burning, but the Myanmar government insisted the fires were lit by Rohingya, themselves, or specifically Rohingya militants—though the authorities offered no proof of the allegation, and refused or tightly controlled all media and foreign access to the area.
Myanmar's presidential spokesman reported that 176 ethnic Rohingya villages—out of the original a total of 471 Rohingya villages in three townships—had become empty. In addition to the 176 "abandoned" villages, some residents reportedly fled from at least 34 other villages.
In the first four weeks of he conflict, over 400,000 Rohingya refuees (approximately 40% of the remaining Rohingya in Myanmar) fled the country on foot or by boat (chiefy to Bangladesh—the only other country bordering the Rakhine state area under attack) -- creating a major humanitarian crisis. In addition, 12,000 Rakhine Buddhists, and other non-Muslim Rakhine state residents were displaced within the country.
On 10 September 2017, ARSA declared a temporary unilateral ceasefire to allow aid groups to work in the region. Its statement read that "ARSA strongly encourages all concerned humanitarian actors resume their humanitarian assistance to all victims of the humanitarian crisis, irrespective of ethnic or religious background during the ceasefire period." However, the Myanmar government dismissed the gesture, saying "we don't negotiate with terrorists."
September 13, Myanmar's presidential spokesman announced Myanmar would establish a new commission to implement some recommendations of Annan's Rakhine Commission, in their August 2017 report.
The United Nations initially reported in early September 2017 that more than 120,000 Rohingya people had fled Myanmar for Bangladesh due to a recent rise in violence against them. The UNHCR, on September 4, estimated 123,000 refugees have escaped western Myanmar since 25 August 2017. (By September 15, that number had surpassed 400,000) The situation was expected to exacerbate the current refugee crisis as more than 400,000 Rohingya without citizenship were trapped in overcrowded camps and in conflict regions in Western Myanmar.
Myanmar's de facto civilian leader and Nobel laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, criticized the media's reporting on the crisis, saying that her government is protecting everyone in Rakhine state, and argued that the reporting was misinformation that benefitted the aims of terrorists.
Some reports suggest that the Myanmar military has ceded some border outposts to rebels armed with wooden clubs as part of encouraging Rohingyas to leave the country.
The U.N. Secretary General issued a statement, September 13, 2017, implying that the situation facing the Rohingya in Rakhine state was "ethnic cleansing." He urged Myanmar authorities to suspend military action and stop the violence—insisting that Myanmar's government uphold the rule of law, and (noting that "380,000" Rohingya had recently fled to Bangladesh) recognize the refugees' right to return to their homes.
The same day, the U.N. Security Council issued a separate, unanimous statement, on the crisis following a closed-door meeting about Myanmar. In a semi-official press statement (its first statement on the situation in Myanmar in nine years) -- the Council expressed "concern" about reported excessive violence in Myanmar's security operations, called for de-escalating the situation, reestablishing law and order, protecting civilians, and resolution of the refugee problem.
On September 19, 2017, Myanmar's civilian leader, State Councillor Aung San Suu Kyi, made a major televised speech on the crisis—in English—stating "We condemn all human rights violations and unlawful violence," and indicated a desire to know why the Rohingya were fleeing. But largely defended her prior position supporting the Myanmar military and its actions, and deflected international criticism by saying most Rohingya villages remained intact, and conflict had not broken out everywhere. Expressing no criticism of the Myanmar military, and denying that it had engaged in any "armed clashes or clearance operations" since September 5, she added, "We are committed to the restoration of peace and stability and rule of law throughout the state," and that the country was "committed to a sustainable solution… for all communities in this state", but was vague as to how that would be achieved.
By the end of September, conflicts between Rohingya Muslims and outnumbered Hindus, became apparent—including the killing of around 100 Hindu villagers in Rakhine state, around late August—according to the Myanmar military who claimed to have found the bodies of 20 women and eight boys in mass graves, September 24, after a search near Ye Baw Kya village, in northern Rakhine state. The search was reportedly in response to a refugee in Bangladesh who contacted a local Hindu leader in Myanmar. Authorities quoted the refugee as saying about 300 ARSA militants, on August 25, marched about 100 people out of the Hindu village and killed them. ARSA denied involvement, saying it was committed to not killing civilians. International news media were not immediately allowed free access to the area to verify the reports.
In other cases, in Myanmar and in Bangladeshi refugee camps—according to some media accounts—Hindu Rohingyas (particularly women) faced kidnapping, religious abuse and "forced conversions" at the hands of Muslim Rohingyas.
By the end of September, 2017, UN, Bangladesh and other entities were reporting that—in addition to 200,000-300,000 Rohingya refugees already in Bangladesh after fleeing prior attacks in Myanmar —the current conflict, since late August, 2017, had driven 500,000 more Rohingya from Myanmar into Bangladesh, creating what U.N. Secretary General António Guterres described as "the world's fastest-developing refugee emergency... a humanitarian nightmare."
In November 2017 Myanmar and Bangladesh signed a memorandum of understanding for the return home of Rohingya refugees.
Refugee relocation to Thengar Char island (2016–present)
In January 2016, the government of Bangladesh initiated a plan to relocate tens of thousands of Rohingya refugees, who had fled to the country following persecution in Myanmar. The refugees are to be relocated to the island of Thengar Char. The move has received substantial opposition. Human rights groups have seen the plan as a forced relocation. Additionally, concerns have been raised about living conditions on the island, which is low-lying and prone to flooding. The island has been described as "only accessible during winter and a haven for pirates". It is nine hours away from the camps in which the Rohingya currently live. 65,000 refugees have been estimated to have entered Bangladesh since October 2016: more than 200,000 are estimated to have been there already.
In 2015, an assessment by the Yale Law School concluded that there was a concerted campaign against the Rohingya, which could be classified as genocide under international law. An investigation by the media channel Al Jazeera English, along with the group Fortify Rights, found that the Myanmar military was systematically targeting the Rohingya population because of its ethnicity and religion. The International State Crime Initiative of the University of London issued a report stating that a genocide is taking place against the Rohingya.
The United Nations High Commission for Refugees has used the term ethnic cleansing to describe the exodus of Rohingya from Myanmar. In December 2017, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, dismissed Myamar claims that their operations were merely a response to rebel attacks, and indicated that "for us, it was clear... that these operations were organised and planned," and could amount to "genocide."
Those who identify as Rohingyas typically reside in the northernmost townships of Arakan bordering Bangladesh where they form 80–98% of the population. A typical Rohingya family has four or five surviving children but numbers up to twenty eight have been recorded in rare cases. Rohingyas have 46% more children than Myanmar's national average. As of 2014, about 1.3 million Rohingyas live in Myanmar and an estimated 1 million overseas. They form 40% of Rakhine State's population or 60% if overseas population is included. As of December 2016, 1 in 7 stateless persons worldwide are Rohingya per United Nations figures, and the Rohingya are the world’s largest stateless community.
Prior to the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis and the military crackdown in 2016 and 2017, the Rohingya population in Myanmar was around 1.1 to 1.3 million They reside mainly in the northern Rakhine townships, where they form 80–98% of the population. Many Rohingyas have fled to southeastern Bangladesh, where there are over 900,000 refugees, as well as to India, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. More than 100,000 Rohingyas in Myanmar live in camps for internally displaced persons, and the authorities do not allow them to leave.
The following table shows the statistics of Muslim population in Arakan. The data is for all Muslims in Arakan (Rakhine), regardless of ethnicity. The data for Burmese 1802 census is taken from a book by J. S. Furnivall. The British censuses classified immigrants from Chittagong as Bengalis. There were a small number of immigrants from other parts of India. The 1941 census was lost during the war. The 1983 census conducted under the Ne Win's government omitted people in volatile regions. It is unclear how many were missed. British era censuses can be found at Digital Library of India.
|Indians in Akyab district||Akyab's
of Muslims in Akyub
|Indians in Arakan||Indians born
|Percentage of Muslims
The Rohingya language is part of the Indo-Aryan sub-branch of the greater Indo-European language family and is related to the Chittagonian language spoken in the southernmost part of Bangladesh bordering Myanmar. While both Rohingya and Chittagonian are related to Bengali, they are not mutually intelligible with the latter. Rohingyas do not speak Burmese, the lingua franca of Myanmar, and face problems in integration. Rohingya scholars have written the Rohingya language in various scripts including the Arabic, Hanifi, Urdu, Roman, and Burmese alphabets, where Hanifi is a newly developed alphabet derived from Arabic with the addition of four characters from Latin and Burmese.
More recently, a Latin alphabet has been developed using all 26 English letters A to Z and two additional Latin letters Ç (for retroflex R) and Ñ (for nasal sound). To accurately represent Rohingya phonology, this alphabet also uses five accented vowels (áéíóú). It has been recognised by ISO with ISO 639-3 "rhg" code.
Due to the fact that members of the Rohingya Muslim population are not considered citizens in Burma, they are not protected by the government against issues of discrimination. Therefore, there exist concerns about the community’s religious freedom, especially in the legal and political sphere.
The predominant majority of Rohingya people practice Islam, including a blend of Sunni Islam and Sufism. A minority are Hindu. The government restricts their educational opportunities; many pursue fundamental Islamic studies as their only option. Mosques and madrasas are present in most villages. Traditionally, men pray in congregations and women pray at home.
Muslims have often faced obstacles and struggled to practice their religion in the same way as other individuals in Burma. These struggles have manifested in the form of difficulty in receiving approval for the construction of places of worship, whether it be informal or formal. They have, in the past, also been arrested for teaching and practising their religious beliefs.
The Rohingya face discrimination and barriers to health care. According to a 2016 study published in the medical journal The Lancet, Rohingya children in Myanmar face low birth weight, malnutrition, diarrhea, and barriers to reproduction on reaching adulthood. Rohingya have a child mortality rate of up to 224 deaths per 1,000 live births, more than 4 times the rate for the rest of Myanmar (52 per 1,000 live births), and 3 times rate of rest non-Rohingya areas of Rakhine state (77 per 1,000 live births). The paper also found that 40% of Rohingya children suffer from diarrhea in internally displaced persons camp within Myanmar at a rate five times that of diarrheal illness among children in the rest of Rakhine.
Human rights and refugee status
The Rohingya people have been described as "one of the world's least wanted minorities" and "some of the world's most persecuted people". Médecins Sans Frontières claimed that the discrimination and human rights challenges the Rohingya people have faced at the hands of the country’s government and military are "among the world's top ten most under-reported stories of 2007.” In February 1992, Myanmar's Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated in a press release, “In actual fact, although there are (135) national races living in Myanmar today, the so-called Rohingya people is not one of them. Historically, there has never been a 'Rohingya' race in Myanmar."
The Rohingya are deprived of the right to free movement and the right to higher education. They have been denied Burmese citizenship since the 1982 nationality law was enacted. Post the 1982 law, Burma has had different types of citizenship. Citizens were possessed red identity cards; Rohingyas were given white cards, essentially labeling them as foreigners in Burma. Limitations and restrictions imposed on Rohingya are facilitated by this difference in citizenship. For example, Rohingyas cannot enlist in the army or participate in the government, and are potentially faced with the issue of illegal immigration. The citizenship law also significantly underlies the human rights violations against the Rohingya by the military. 
They are not allowed to travel without official permission and they were previously required to sign a commitment not to have more than two children, though the law was not strictly enforced. They are subjected to routine forced labour. (Typically, a Rohingya man will have to give up one day a week to work on military or government projects, and one night a week for sentry duty.) The Rohingya have also lost a lot of arable land, which has been confiscated by the military and given to Buddhist settlers from elsewhere in Myanmar.
The military is partially responsible for the humans rights violations suffered by the Rohingya. These include the destruction of property, and forced relocation to a different country. An example of this is when the military forced Rohingyas in Rakhine to move to Bangladesh. Other violations against Rohingya Muslims include physical violence and sexual violence. These violations were rationalised by the country's military officials by stating they were requirements for a census that was going to be conducted by Burma and the military needed to do these acts to find out the Rohingya Muslims's nationality. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya have suffered from human rights violations under the military dictatorship since 1978, and many of them have fled to neighbouring Bangladesh as a result. The dislocation of the Rohingya Muslims from their homes to other areas can be attributed to factors such as how isolated and undeveloped Rakhine is, the conflict between the Rohingya Muslims and the Buddhists, and discrimination by the government.
Members of the Rohingya community were displaced to Bangladesh where the government of the country, non-governmental organisations and UNHCR gave aid to the refugees in terms of homes and food. These external organisations (other than the government) were important because the immigration of the Rohingyas was massive in terms of the number of people requiring help as well as the political change. In 2005, even though the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees had assisted with the repatriation of Rohingyas from Bangladesh, allegations of human rights abuses in the refugee camps threatened this effort. In 2015, 140,000 Rohingyas remain in IDP camps after communal riots in 2012. Despite earlier efforts by the UN, the vast majority of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh are unable to return to Myanmar due to the 2012 communal violence and fear of persecution. The Bangladeshi government has reduced the amount of support it allocates to the Rohingyas in order to prevent an outflow of Rohingya refugees into Bangladesh. In February 2009, many Rohingya refugees were rescued by Acehnese sailors in the Strait of Malacca, after 21 days at sea.
Thousands of Rohingyas have also fled to Thailand. There have been charges that Rohingyas were shipped and towed out to open sea from Thailand. In February 2009, evidence of the Thai army towing a boatload of 190 Rohingya refugees out to sea has surfaced. A group of refugees rescued by Indonesian authorities told that they were captured and beaten by the Thai military, and then abandoned at sea.
Steps to repatriate Rohingya refugees began in 2005. In 2009, the government of Bangladesh announced that it will repatriate around 9,000 Rohingyas living in refugee camps inside the country back to Myanmar, after a meeting with Burmese diplomats. On 16 October 2011, the new government of Myanmar agreed to take back registered Rohingya refugees. However, the Rakhine riots in 2012 hampered the repatriation efforts.
On 29 March 2014, the Burmese government banned the word "Rohingya" and asked for registration of the minority as "Bengalis" in the 2014 Myanmar Census, the first in three decades. On 7 May 2014, the United States House of Representatives passed the United States House resolution on persecution of the Rohingya people in Burma that called on the government of Myanmar to end the discrimination and persecution. Researchers from the International State Crime Initiative at Queen Mary University of London suggest that the Myanmar government is in the final stages of an organised process of genocide against the Rohingya. In November 2016, a senior UN official in Bangladesh accused Myanmar of ethnic cleansing of Rohingyas. However, Charles Petrie, a former top UN official in Myanmar, said that "Today using the term, aside from being divisive and potentially incorrect, will only ensure that opportunities and options to try to resolve the issue to be addressed will not be available."
- Internal conflict in Myanmar
- Arakan Rohingya National Organization
- Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army
- International reaction to the 2016–17 Rohingya exodus
- Islam in Myanmar
- List of ethnic groups in Myanmar
- Min Aung Hlaing
- Rakhine people
- Rohingya language
- Rohingya language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
- In a subsequent article, the same author notes the creation of an association of Muslim teachers in 1936 called "JamiyatRohingyaUlema" or "Jamiyat Rohingya Ulema". This may be a different translation for the name of the same organization.
- See (Leider 2013) for a comprehensive survey of the academic opinion on the historical usage of the term.
(Leider 2013: 216) citing Christina Fink: "small armed group of Muslims generally known as Rohingya".
(Leider 2013: 215–216): Lewa in 2002 wrote that "the Rohingya Muslims are ethnically and religiously related to the Chittagonians of southern Bangladesh."
Selth in 2003: "These are Bengali Muslims who live in Arakan State... Most Rohingyas arrived with the British colonialists in the 19th and 20th centuries."
- The term was not used during this period.
- Mahmood; Wroe; Fuller; Leaning (2016). "The Rohingya people of Myanmar: health, human rights, and identity". Lancet: 1–10. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00646-2. PMID 27916235.
- David Mathieson (2009). Perilous Plight: Burma's Rohingya Take to the Seas. Human Rights Watch. p. 3. ISBN 9781564324856.
- "Myanmar Rohingya: What you need to know about the crisis". BBC News. 19 October 2017.
- "Why do some Rohingya men return to Rakhine at the dead of night?". Dhaka Tribune. 9 November 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "India in talks with Myanmar, Bangladesh to deport 40,000 Rohingya". Reuters. 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "India plans to deport thousands of Rohingya refugees". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- Mclaughlin, Timothy (20 September 2016). "Myanmar refugees, including Muslim Rohingya, outpace Syrian arrivals in U.S." Reuters. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- "200 Rohingya Refugees are not being accepted as Refugees and the Nepali Government considers them illegal migrants". Archived from the original on 4 June 2016.
An estimated 36,000 Rohingya Refugess living in India
- "200 'We have the right to exist': Rohingya refugees call for intervention in Myanmar".
- Pollak, Sorcha (15 February 2015). "I'm really excited to see my girls growing up in Ireland". The Stateless Rohinga. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Sri Lanka Navy detains Rohingya – majority children". The Stateless Rohinga. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Colin Clarke; Ceri Peach; Steven Vertovec (26 October 1990). South Asians Overseas: Migration and Ethnicity. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-521-37543-6.
- British Foreign Office (December 1952). "On The Mujahid Revolt in Arakan" (PDF). National Archives.
- "Will anyone help the Rohingya people?". BBC News. 10 June 2015.
- "Myanmar Buddhists seek tougher action against Rohingya". The Washington Post.
- "Weekly ISCG situation update" (PDF). humanitarianresponse.info. 22 October 2017.
- "PressTV-Over 600,000 Rohingya have fled Myanmar: UN". Presstv.com. 2017-10-22. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "Over 600,000 Rohingya have fled to Bangladesh, UN says". Daily Mail Online. AFP. 2017-10-22. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "UN group says over 600,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled to Bangladesh". Worldnews.com. Press TV. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "Rohingya widows find safe haven in Bangladesh camp". Reuters. 7 December 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "There were at least a million members of the Rohingya ethnic group living in Myanmar, most of them Muslim, though some are Hindu." http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-41260767
- Judah, Jacob (2 September 2017). "Thousands of Rohingya flee Myanmar amid tales of ethnic cleansing". The Observer.
- "Hindus too fleeing persecution in Myanmar". Daily Star. 31 August 2017.
- "Hindus From Myanmar Join Muslim Rohingyas in Seeking Refuge in Bangladesh". The Wire.
- Simpson, Andrew (2007). Language and National Identity in Asia. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-0199226481.
- "Nobel Peace Prize winner accused of overlooking 'ethnic cleansing' in her own country". The Independent. 9 December 2016.
- Hofman, Lennart (25 February 2016). "Meet the most persecuted people in the world". The Correspondent.
- "Rohingya Muslims Are the Most Persecuted Minority in the World: Who Are They?". Global Citizen.
- Nitta, Yuichi (25 August 2017). "Myanmar urged to grant Rohingya citizenship". Nikkei Asian Review.
- "Annan report calls for review of 1982 Citizenship Law". The Stateless. 24 August 2017.
- "Discrimination in Arakan". Human Rights Watch. 12 (3). May 2000.
- "Kofi Annan-led commission calls on Myanmar to end Rohingya restrictions". SBS.
- Ibrahim, Azeem (fellow at Mansfield College, Oxford University, and 2009 Yale World Fellow),"War of Words: What's in the Name 'Rohingya'?," June 16, 2016 Yale Online, Yale University, September 21, 2017
- "Aung San Suu Kyi’s Ultimate Test," Sullivan, Dan, January 19, 2017, Harvard International Review, Harvard University, retrieved September 21, 2017
- Stoakes, Emanuel. "Myanmar's Rohingya Apartheid". The Diplomat.
- Kristof, Nicholas (28 May 2014). "Myanmar's Appalling Apartheid". The New York Times.
- Tutu, Desmond, former Archbishop of Cape Town, South Africa, Nobel Peace Prize (anti-apartheid and national-reconciliation leader), "Tutu: The Slow Genocide Against the Rohingya," January 19, 2017, Newsweek, citing "Burmese apartheid" reference in 1978 Far Eastern Economic Review at Oslo Conference on Rohingyas; also online at: Desmond Tutu Foundation USA, retrieved September 21, 2017
- "Myanmar/Bangladesh: Rohingyas - the Search for Safety" (PDF). Amnesty International. September 1997.
- "Myanmar wants ethnic cleansing of Rohingya - UN official". BBC News. 24 November 2016.
- "Crimes Against Humanity and Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya Muslims in Burma's Arakan State". Human Rights Watch. April 22, 2013.
- "UN expert alarmed at worsening human rights situation in Myanmar’s Rakhine state," April 7, 2014, United Nations News Centre, retrieved September 18, 2017
- Ibrahim, Azeem (11 October 2016). "The Rohingya Are At The Brink Of Mass Genocide". The Huffington Post.
- "Burmese government accused of trying to 'expel' all Rohingya Muslims". The Independent. 14 March 2017.
- "Secret 1978 Document Indicates Burma Recognized Rohingya Legal Residence". Forbes.com. 2016-12-29. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Ghosh, Partha S. (23 May 2016). Migrants, Refugees and the Stateless in South Asia. SAGE Publications. p. 161. ISBN 978-93-5150-855-7.
- "Why Myanmar's Rohingya are forced to say they are Bengali". Christian Science Monitor. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Who we are?". Arakan Rohingya National Org.
- "Conclusions on the substance of the case, (item 528, p.140)" in Forced labour in Myanmar (Burma): Report of the Commission of Inquiry..., July 19, 1998, in Official Bulletin, vol.LXXXI, 1998, Series B, International Labour Office, retrieved September 21, 2017
- "UN: Rohingya may be victims of crimes against humanity". Al Jazeera.
- Fisher, Jonah (2017-03-10). "Myanmar Muslim minority subject to horrific torture, UN says". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- "Will anyone help the Rohingya people?". BBC News.
- Dapice, David (June 2015). "Fatal Distraction from Federalism: Religious Conflict in Rakhine" (PDF). Harvard Ash Center.
- "Who Are the Rohingya?". About Education. 2014. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- Leider, Jacques P. ""Rohingya": Rakhaing and Recent Outbreak of Violence: A Note" (PDF). Network Myanmar. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Myanmar violence may have killed more than 1,000: UN rapporteur". The daily star. 8 September 2017.
- "India plans to deport thousands of Rohingya refugees". www.aljazeera.com.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Over 168,000 Rohingya likely fled Myanmar since 2012 - UNHCR report". UNHCR.
- "Rohingya Refugees Emergency Response, Indonesia". Kopernik.
- "190,000 Myanmar nationals' get residency relief in Saudi Arabia". Al Arabiya English. 25 January 2017.
- Rehman, Zia Ur (23 Feb 2015). "Identity issue haunts Karachi's Rohingya population". Dawn. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
Their large-scale migration had made Karachi one of the largest Rohingya population centres outside Myanmar but afterwards the situation started turning against them.
- "Trapped inside Burma's refugee camps, the Rohingya people call for recognition". The Guardian. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "US Holocaust Museum highlights plight of Myanmar's downtrodden Rohingya Muslims". Fox News. Associated Press. 6 November 2013.
- Mission report of OHCHR rapid response mission to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, 13-24 September 2017, released 11 October 2017, U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, retrieved October 12, 2017; quote="The “clearance operations” started before 25 August 2017, and as early as the beginning of August. The apparently well-organised, coordinated and systematic nature of the attacks carried out by the Myanmar security forces against the entire Rohingya population across northern Rakhine State has led to a mass exodus of more than 500,000 people fleeing to Bangladesh. The testimonies gathered by OHCHR indicate that the attacks against Rohingya villages constitute serious human rights violations. As recalled by many victims, the security forces and the Rakhine Buddhist individuals incited hatred, violence and killings against the Rohingya population within northern Rakhine State through extremely derogatory abuse based on their religion, language and culture and ethnic identity. There are indications that violence is still ongoing at the time of writing this report."
- "UN report details brutal Myanmar effort to drive out half a million Rohingya," October 11, 2017, Reuters at the United Nations, in The Guardian (newspaper), retrieved October 12, 2017
- Lone, Wa and Andrew R.C. Marshall, "Exclusive - 'We will kill you all' - Rohingya villagers in Myanmar beg for safe passage," September 17, 2017, Reuters, retrieved September 17, 2017
- "‘Textbook example of ethnic cleansing,’ 370,000 Rohingyas flood Bangladesh as crisis worsens," September 12, 2017, Washington Post retrieved September 12, 2017
- "18,000 minorities flee deadly ethnic violence in Myanmar", Aug. 30, 2017, CBS News, retrieved September 12, 2017
- "270,000 Rohingya Have Fled Myanmar, U.N. Says," September 8, 2017, New York Times, retrieved September 12, 2017
- "UNHCR reports surge in Rohingya refugees, now 270,000," September 8, 2017, Associated Press on Fox News, retrieved September 12, 2017
- "Who will help Myanmar's Rohingya?". BBC. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Myanmar found guilty of genocide". The Daily Star. 23 September 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- "People's Tribunal on Myanmar – This is the official site for the International Tribunal on Myanmar's Crimes against Rohingya and Kachin Peoples". tribunalonmyanmar.org. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- "The most persecuted people on Earth?". The Economist. 13 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Rohingya etymology at Oxford Dictionary". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Leider, Jacques P. (August 26, 2012). "Rohingya: A historical and linguistic note" (PDF). Network Myanmar. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- Tan, Andrew T. H. (2009). A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 327.
- Buchanan-Hamilton, Francis (1799). "A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire" (PDF). Asiatic Researches. The Asiatic Society. 5: 219–240. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Leider, Jacques P. (9 July 2012). "Interview: History Behind Arakan State Conflict". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Ibrahim, Azeem. The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar's Hidden Genocide. Oxford University Press. pp. 24–25.
- Leider, Jacques P. (26 August 2012). "" Rohingya " A historical and linguistic note" (PDF). Network Myanmar. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2016.
- Leider, Jacques P. (18 October 2012). ""The Muslims in Rakhine and the political project of the Rohingyas": Historical background of an unresolved communal conflict in contemporary Myanmar" (PDF). Online Burma/Myanmar Library (Presentation slides). Yangon. slide 23. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- Leider, Jacques P. (June 2013). "Rohingya: the name, the movement and the quest for identity" (PDF). Nation Building in Myanmar. Myanmar Egress and the Myanmar Peace Center. p. 234. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- Leider, Jacques P. (28 January 2014). "Rohingya: The name. The movement. The quest for identity." (PDF). Nation Building in Myanmar. Myanmar Egress and the Myanmar Peace Center; Network Myanmar. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- Leider, Jacques (2013). Rohingya: the name, the movement and the quest for identity. Myanmar Egress and the Myanmar Peace Center. pp. 210–211.
- Leider 2013: 218
- "About Rohingya Ethnic". Flotilla 2 Arakan. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Leider 2013: 208
- Taylor, Adam. "The battle over the word 'Rohingya'". Washington Post.
- Leider 2013: 212–213
- Leider 2013: 216
- "Why Burma Is Trying to Stop People From Using the Name of Its Persecuted Muslim Minority". Time. 2016-05-09.
- Leider 2013: 211
- Tonkin, Derek. "The 'Rohingya' Identity – British experience in Arakan 1826–1948". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- William J. Topich; Keith A. Leitich (9 January 2013). The History of Myanmar. ABC-CLIO. pp. 17–22. ISBN 978-0-313-35725-1.
- D. G. E Hall, A History of South East Asia, New York, 1968, P. 389.
- British Academy (4 December 2003). Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 121, 2002 Lectures. OUP/British Academy. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-726303-7.
- "The thoroughfare of Islam - Dhaka Tribune". www.dhakatribune.com.
- Stockwell, Foster (30 December 2002). Westerners in China: A History of Exploration and Trade, Ancient Times through the Present. McFarland. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7864-8189-7.
- Gan, Fuxi (2009). Ancient Glass Research Along the Silk Road. World Scientific. p. 70. ISBN 978-981-283-357-0.
- "Arabs, The - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
- "Malaysia/Burma: Living In Limbo - Background". www.hrw.org.
- Aye Chan 2005, p. 398.
- Yegar 2002, p. 23.
- "Lost Myanmar Empire Is Stage for Modern Violence". National Geographic. June 26, 2015.
- Tun Shwe Khine (1993). A Guide to Mrauk-U, an Ancient City of Rakhine, Myanmar (1st ed.). U Tun Shwe, Pagan Book House.
- Phayre 1883: 78
- Harvey 1925: 140–141
- Yegar 2002, pp. 23–24.
- Yegar 2002, p. 24.
- Francesca Orsini; Katherine Butler Schofield (5 October 2015). Tellings and Texts: Music, Literature and Performance in North India. Open Book Publishers. p. 424. ISBN 978-1-78374-102-1.
- Rizvi, S.N.H. (1965). "East Pakistan District Gazetteers" (PDF). Government of East Pakistan Services and General Administration Department (1): 84. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- Manucci, Niccolò (1907). Storia Do Mogor: Or, Mogul India, 1653-1708. J. Murray.
- Osman, Mohamed Nawab Mohamed (19 June 2017). Islam and Peacebuilding in the Asia-Pacific. World Scientific. p. 24. ISBN 978-981-4749-83-1.
- Smith, Stefan Halikowski (23 September 2011). Creolization and Diaspora in the Portuguese Indies: The Social World of Ayutthaya, 1640-1720. BRILL. p. 225. ISBN 90-04-19048-1.
- Wheeler, James Talboys (1874). The History of India from the Earliest Ages: pt. I. Mussulman rule. pt.II. Mogul empire. Aurangzeb. N. Trübner. pp. 456–457.
- Farooqui, Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 261–264. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.
- Trudy, Ring; M. Salkin, Robert; La Boda, Sharon; Edited by Trudy Ring (1996). International dictionary of historic places. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Pusalker, A. D.; Majumdar, A. K., eds. (2007) [First published 1974]. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume VII: The Mughal Empire. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
- "Mr Sultan Mahmud and Statehood of Arakan". The Stateless Rohingya. 2016-08-30. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Aye Chan 2005, pp. 398–9.
- Aye Chan 2005, p. 399.
- Thant Myint-U (2007), p. 126 The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, p. 126, at Google Books
- Yegar 1972, p. 10.
- Aye Chan 2005, p. 403.
- "Rohingya and national identities in Burma". New Mandala. 2014-09-22. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Aye Chan 2005, p. 401.
- Myint-U 2006: 185–187
- Leider 2013, p. 7.
- Selth, Andrew (2003). Burma's Muslims: Terrorists or Terrorised?. Australia: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University. p. 7. ISBN 073155437X.
- "The most persecuted people on Earth?". The Economist. 13 June 2015. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
- Christie, Clive J. (15 February 1998). A Modern History of Southeast Asia: Decolonization, Nationalism and Separatism. I.B. Tauris. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-86064-354-5. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Christie1998" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. p. 385.
- Minahan, James (30 May 2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z [4 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-313-07696-1.
- Suhrawardi, Ghulam M. (6 November 2015). Bangladesh Maritime History. FriesenPress. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-4602-7278-7.
- Munro, J. Forbes (2003). Maritime Enterprise and Empire: Sir William Mackinnon and His Business Network, 1823-93. Boydell Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-85115-935-5.
- Hartwig, Georg (1863). The Tropical World: a Popular Scientific Account of the Natural History of the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms in the Equatorial Regions. Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green. p. 159.
- Christopher Alan Bayly; Timothy Norman Harper (2005). Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945. Harvard University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-674-01748-1.
- Slim, Field-Marshal Viscount William (2009). Defeat Into Victory: Battling Japan in Burma and India, 1942–1945. London: Pan. ISBN 0330509977.
- Bayly, Christopher; Harper, Tim (2005). Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945. Harvard University Press. pp. 383–384. ISBN 0-14-029331-0.
- Christie, Clive J. (1998). A Modern History of Southeast Asia: Decolonization, Nationalism and Separatism. I.B. Tauris. pp. 164, 165–167.
- Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 33–35.
- Kyaw Zan Tha, MA (July 2008). "Background of Rohingya Problem". Scribd. p. 1.
- Chan (Kanda University of International Studies), Aye (Autumn 2005). "The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)" (PDF). SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research. 3 (2): 396–420. ISSN 1479-8484. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- Jonassohn, Kurt (1999). Genocide and gross human rights violations: in comparative perspective. Transaction Publishers. p. 263. ISBN 0765804174.
- Adelman, Howard (2008). Protracted displacement in Asia: no place to call home. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 86. ISBN 0754672387.
- Human Rights Watch (Organization) (2000). Burma/Bangladesh: Burmese refugees in Bangladesh: still no durable solution. Human Rights Watch. p. 6.
- Asian profile, Volume 21. Asian Research Service. 1993. p. 312.
- Irwin, Anthony (1945). Burmese Outpost (Memoirs of a British Officer who fought in Arakan with the Arakanese V Forces during the Second World War). London: Collins. p. 21.
- Aye Chan 2005, pp. 406–407.
- Adloff, Richard; Thompson, Virginia (1955). Minority Problems in Southeast Asia. United States: Stanford University Press. p. 154.
- Crisis Group 2014, p. i.
- "Who are the Rohingya?". Radio Free Asia.
- Mclaughlin, Timothy (August 24, 2015). "Sitting Rohingya MP in Myanmar plans to appeal election ban". Reuters.
- McPherson, Poppy (2 November 2015). "No vote, no candidates: Myanmar's Muslims barred from their own election". The Guardian.
- Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian Skoggard (30 November 2004). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9.
- Daniyal, Shoaib (2017-09-12). "Why India should intervene in Myanmar crisis: Like Rohingyas, Indians were once driven out of Burma". Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Colin Clarke; Ceri Peach; Steven Vertovec (26 October 1990). South Asians Overseas: Migration and Ethnicity. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-521-37543-6.
- Singh, Bilveer (2007). The Talibanization of Southeast Asia: Losing the War on Terror to Islamist Extremists. p. 42. ISBN 0275999955.
- Flood, Derek Henry (12 May 2008). "From South to South: Refugees as Migrants: The Rohingya in Pakistan". Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Global Muslim News (Issue 14) July–Sept 1996, Nida'ul Islam magazine.
- Aung, Thit (1988). Civil Insurgency in Burma. Yangon: Ministry of Information. p. 30.
- Yegar 2002, p. 56.
- Lardner, Cynthia (6 February 2017). "Burma: Where Hypocrisy Clashes with Morality". International Policy Digest.
- Yegar 2002, p. 59.
- McLaughlin, Tim (13 February 2015). "UN under fire over resident coordinator's advisor on Rakhine". Mizzima.com. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Crisis Group 2014, p. 23.
- Crisis Group 2014, p. 14.
- Crisis Group 2014, p. 32.
- "Violence Throws Spotlight on Rohingya". Rfa.org. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Ritu, Moshahida Sultana (12 July 2012). "Ethnic Cleansing in Myanmar". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- Hindström, Hanna (25 July 2012). "Burma's monks call for Muslim community to be shunned". The Independent.
- Hindström, Hanna (14 June 2012). "The Freedom to Hate". Foreign Policy.
- DeRouen, Karl R.; Heo, Uk (2007). Civil Wars of the World: Major Conflicts Since World War II. ABC-CLIO. p. 530. ISBN 978-1-85109-919-1. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- Thompson, Larry (2005), "Bangladesh: Burmese Rohingya refugees virtual hostages," https://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/bangladesh-burmese-rohingya-refugees-virtual-hostages, accessed 6 Oct 2017
- "Myanmar envoy brands boatpeople 'ugly as ogres': report". AFP. 10 February 2009. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Fuller, Thomas (15 June 2012). "New Freedom Lets Burmese Air Venom Toward Rohingya Muslims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "Why does military still keep 25% of the seats Myanmar parliament?". BBC News. 2016-02-01. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "Managing the defence and security council". Myanmar Times. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Four killed as Rohingya Muslims riot in Myanmar: government". Reuters. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Lauras, Didier (15 September 2012). "Myanmar stung by global censure over unrest". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- Ritu, Moshahida Sultana (2012-07-12). "Ethnic Cleansing of Myanmar's Rohingyas". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR - One year on: Displacement in Rakhine state, Myanmar". UNHCR.
- Hindstorm, Hanna (28 June 2012). "Burmese authorities targeting Rohingyas, UK parliament told". Democratic Voice of Burma. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "UN refugee agency redeploys staff to address humanitarian needs in Myanmar". UN News. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Htet, Linn (11 June 2012). "အေရးေပၚအေျခအေန ေၾကညာခ်က္ ႏုိင္ငံေရးသမားမ်ား ေထာက္ခံ". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- Keane, Fergal (11 June 2012). "Old tensions bubble in Burma". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "UN focuses on Myanmar amid Muslim plight". PressTV. 13 July 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- "Myanmar's Military: Back to the Barracks?" (PDF). The International Crisis Group. 22 April 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Hindstorm, Hanna (25 July 2012). "Burma's monks call for Muslim community to be shunned". The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- "Rohingyas are not citizens: Myanmar minister". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 1 August 2012.
- "The Rohingya boat crisis: why refugees are fleeing Burma". Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Hookway, James (22 May 2015). "Rohingya Refugee Crisis Likely to Ease During Monsoon, but Only Temporarily". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- "South-east Asia migrant crisis: Gambia offers to resettle all Rohingya refugees". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Al-Zaquan Amer Hamzah; Aubrey Belford (17 May 2015). "Pressure mounts on Myanmar over Asia 'boat people' crisis". Reuters. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- "Malaysia tells thousands of Rohingya refugees to 'go back to your country'". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Bay of Bengal people-smuggling doubles in 2015: UNHCR". Reuters. 8 May 2015.
- "Rohingya migrants 'died in fight for food' on boat". The Pakistan Today. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Lamb, Kate (17 May 2015). "'They hit us, with hammers, by knife': Rohingya migrants tell of horror at sea". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- "SE Asia migrants 'killed in fight for food' on boat". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- "Migrant crisis — the boats and the numbers". Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- "Eight dead in clashes between Myanmar army and militants in Rakhine". Reuters. 13 November 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Myanmar policemen killed in Rakhine border attack". BBC News. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Rakhine unrest leaves four Myanmar soldiers dead". BBC News. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- Griffiths, James (25 November 2016). "Is The Lady listening? Aung San Suu Kyi accused of ignoring Myanmar's Muslims". CNN. Cable News Network.
- "Myanmar says nine police killed by insurgents on Bangladesh border". The Guardian. 10 October 2016.
- Griffiths, James (25 November 2016). "Is The Lady listening? Aung San Suu Kyi accused of ignoring Myanmar's Muslims". CNN. Cable News Network.
- "Myanmar seeking ethnic cleansing, says UN official as Rohingya flee persecution". The Guardian. 24 November 2016.
- "New wave of destruction sees 1,250 houses destroyed in Myanmar's Rohingya villages". International Business Times. 21 November 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- "Rohingya abuse may be crimes against humanity: Amnesty". Al Jazeera. 19 December 2016.
- Holmes, Oliver (19 December 2016). "Myanmar's Rohingya campaign 'may be crime against humanity'". The Guardian.
- Cumming-Bruce, Nick (16 December 2016). "Myanmar 'Callous' Toward Anti-Rohingya Violence, U.N. Says". The New York Times.
- "UN condemns Myanmar over plight of Rohingya". BBC News. 16 December 2016.
- "'Enough is enough': Malaysian PM Najib Razak asks Aung San Suu Kyi to prevent Rohingya violence". Firstpost. Associated Press. 4 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Will Sabah Become Malaysia's Waterloo? | Sharnoff's Global Views". Sharnoff's Global Views. "After news of the Jabidah massacre circulated, Malaysia began to fund, equip, support and provide training camps to Muslim rebels from Sulu and Mindanao. Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) leader Nur Misuari admitted that he, along with other comrades, received training from Malaysia.". 4 April 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- "Outrage in multi-ethnic Malaysia as government backs Islamic law". Reuters. "Prime Minister Najib Razak’s government threw its support in parliament this week behind an Islamic penal code that includes amputations and stoning, shocking some of his allies and stoking fears of further strains in the multi-ethnic country.". 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Krishnamoorthy, Nandini (17 August 2016). "Former Amnesty International staff accuses group of supporting Kashmiri terror outfits". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Hughes, Michael (22 May 2016). "U.S. Support for Al Qaeda-Linked Rebels Undermines Syrian Ceasefire". Huffington Post.
- "Robert Fisk: America dealing with terrorists like al-Nusra? It's not a conspiracy theory". The Independent. 14 June 2015.
- Macaulay, Scott. "The Act of Killing Wins Documentary BAFTA; Director Oppenheimer's Speech Edited Online | Filmmaker Magazine". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801439655.
- Schmitz, David F. (2006). The United States and Right-Wing Dictatorships, 1965-1989. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139455121.
- Times, Michael Wines and Special To the New York. "C.I.A. Tie Asserted in Indonesia Purge". "[Kathy Kadane quoted] Robert J. Martens, who from 1963 to 1966 was a political officer at the United States Embassy in Jakarta, as saying that he had headed an embassy group of State Department and Central Intelligence Agency officers who for two years compiled lists of as many as 5,000 Communist Party members and sympathizers.". Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Kadane, Kathy (21 May 1990). "U.S. OFFICIALS' LISTS AIDED INDONESIAN BLOODBATH IN '60S". Washington Post. "U.S. officials 25 years ago supplied the names of thousands of members of the Indonesian Communist Party to the army in Jakarta, which at the time was hunting down the leftists and killing them in a crackdown branded as one of the century's worst massacres, former U.S. diplomats and CIA officials say.". Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- "Terror 'blowback' burns CIA". The Independent. 1 November 1998. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Vulliamy, Ed; Beaumont, Peter (11 March 2001). "'CIA's bastard army ran riot in Balkans' backed extremists'". the Guardian. "The CIA encouraged former Kosovo Liberation Army fighters to launch a rebellion in southern Serbia in an effort to undermine the then Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic, according to senior European officers who served with the international peace-keeping force in Kosovo (K-For), as well as leading Macedonian and US sources. They accuse American forces with K-For of deliberately ignoring the massive smuggling of men and arms across Kosovo's borders.". Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Ponniah, Kevin (5 December 2016). "Who will help Myanmar's Rohingya?". BBC News.
- "Myanmar: Fears of violence after deadly border attack". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- "Islamist fears rise in Rohingya-linked violence". Bangkok Post. Post Publishing PCL. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- McPherson, Poppy (17 November 2016). "'It will blow up': fears Myanmar's deadly crackdown on Muslims will spiral out of control". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Slodkowski, Antoni (15 November 2016). "Myanmar army says 86 killed in fighting in northwest". Reuters India. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Myanmar: 28 killed in new violence in Rakhine state". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Lone, Wa; Lewis, Simon; Das, Krishna N. (17 March 2017). "Exclusive: Children among hundreds of Rohingya detained in Myanmar crackdown". Reuters. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
- "Hundreds of Rohingya held for consorting with insurgents in Bangladesh". The Star. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
- "Nearly 400 die as Myanmar army steps up crackdown on Rohingya militants". Reuters. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- "Exclusive: More than 1,000 feared killed in Myanmar army crackdown on". Reuters. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "More than 1,000 Rohingya feared killed in Myanmar crackdown, say UN officials". The Guardian. Reuters. 2017-02-09. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Rowlatt, Justin "Could Aung San Suu Kyi face Rohingya genocide charges?", December 18, 2017, BBC Panorama, BBC, retrieved December 22, 2017
- "The Latest: UN Security Council condemns Rohingya violence," September 13, 2017, ABC News, retrieved September 17, 2017
- Associated Press report, "Bleak Future for Myanmar’s Rohingya," September 8, 2017, U.S. News, retrieved September 17, 2017
- "The Rohingya in Myanmar: How Years of Strife Grew Into a Crisis," September 13, 2017, New York Times, retrieved September 17, 2017 (also at Bangkok Post under same title')
- "U.N. chief, Security Council call on Myanmar to end violence," September 12, 2017, Reuters, retrieved September 17, 2017
- "Indian Prime Minister blames Rohingya violence on extremists," September 7, 2017, Cable News Network (CNN), retrieved September 17, 2017
- Associated Press report, "Myanmar's Rohingya beat a perilous path in search of safety," September 5, 2017, Fox News, retrieved September 17, 2017
- "Food aid suspended as Myanmar state sinks deeper into violence". Retrieved 2017-09-05.
- "MSF estimates more than 6,700 Rohingya killed in Myanmar," December 14, 2017, BBC News, retrieved December 20, 2017
- "At Least 6,700 Myanmar Rohingya Killed In Single Month, Aid Group Says," December 14, 2017, The Two-Way, National Public Radio
- "Myanmar/Bangladesh: MSF surveys estimate that at least 6,700 Rohingya were killed during the attacks in Myanmar," December 12, 2017, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International, retrieved December 22, 2017
- [ "Militant Rohingya Group Declares Month-Long Cease-Fire in Myanmar,"] September 10, 2017, Wall Street Journal, retrieved September 17, 2017
- "Myanmar Rohingya refugee crisis: Rohingya insurgents declare temporary ceasefire in Myanmar". The Daily Star. 2017-09-10. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Judah, Jacob (2017-09-09). "Myanmar: Rohingya insurgents declare month-long ceasefire | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Safi, Michael (2017-09-05). "More than 120,000 Rohingya flee Myanmar violence, UN says". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
- "UNHCR: 123,000 Rohingya refugees have fled Myanmar". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
- "Aung San Suu Kyi breaks silence on Rohingya, sparks storm of criticism," September 19, 2017, Cable News Network (CNN), retrieved September 20, 2017
- "The Rohingya crisis: Why won't Aung San Suu Kyi act?", September 8, 2017, BBC News, September 14, 2017
- "Rohingya crisis: Suu Kyi says 'all in Rakhine defended'". BBC News. 2017-09-06. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- "Dhaka claims 3,000 Rohingyas have been killed by Myanmar security forces". Dhaka Tribune. 2017-09-10. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Associated Press, "The Latest: UN Security Council condemns Rohingya violence," September 13, 2017, ABC News, retrieved September 19, 2017
- "Rohingya crisis: Suu Kyi does not fear global 'scrutiny'," September 19, 2017, BBC News, retrieved September 19, 2017
- "Aung San Suu Kyi, a Much-Changed Icon, Evades Rohingya Accusations," September 18, 2017, New York Times, retrieved September 19, 2017
- "5 dubious claims Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyi made in her speech," September 19, 2017, Cable News Network (CNN), retrieved September 19, 2017
- "Myanmar: bodies of 28 Hindu villagers found in Rakhine, army claims," September 24, 2017, Reuters in The Guardian retrieved September 25, 2017
- "Grave of 28 Hindus Killed by Rohingya Militants Found, Says Myanmar Army," September 25, 2017, Agence France-Presse (unedited) in NDTV (India), retrieved September 25, 2017
- "Myanmar searches for more Hindu corpses as mass grave unearthed," September 25, 2017, Agence France-Presse, retrieved September 26, 2017
- Loiwal, Manogya, (Posted by Ashna Kumar), "Exclusive: Forced to remove sindoor, read namaz: Horror engulfs Hindu Rohingya women in camps," in "Mail Today," September 26, 2017, India Today retrieved September 26, 2017
- "Rohingya refugees have 'absolutely nothing'; A perilous journey for Rohingya refugees," Sept. 28, 2017 BBC News, retrieved September 29, 2017
- "Rohingya crisis: UN chief warns of 'humanitarian nightmare'," Sept. 28, 2017 BBC News, retrieved September 29, 2017
- Pitman, Todd, Associated Press, "Myanmar refugee exodus tops 500,000 as more Rohingya flee," Sept. 29, 2017 Fox News, retrieved September 30, 2017
- "Asia's largest refugee crisis: Myanmar tops as 500,000 Rohingya flee,", September 30, 2017, The Economic Times (India) retrieved September 30, 2017 (Same topic at: Fox News / Associated Press)
- "Myanmar, Bangladesh 'sign Rohingya deal'". News.com.au. Retrieved 2017-11-24.
- "Bangladesh pushes on with Rohingya island plan". Al Jazeera. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh face relocation to island". BBC News. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- "Exclusive: 'Strong evidence' of genocide in Myanmar". Al Jazeera. 2015-10-28. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "Burma Is Pursuing 'Ethnic Cleansing' of Rohingya, U.N. Says". Time. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Myanmar 'planned' Rohingya attacks, possibly 'genocide': UN rights chief". Channel NewsAsia. Agence France-Presse. December 19, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
- "'Mass graves' for Myanmar's Rohingya - Features". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "An army crackdown sends thousands fleeing in Myanmar". The Economist. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Census of India, 1931: Vol. XI, Burma - Part I. p. 194.
- "Who are the Rohingya?". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "ISO 639 code tables". Sil.org. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Abdelkader, Engy (1 July 2014). "The Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar: Past, Present, and Future". Social Science Research Network. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- "Why No One Wants The Rohingyas". NPR.org. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- Judah, Jacob (2 September 2017). "Thousands of Rohingya flee Myanmar amid tales of ethnic cleansing". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Bangladesh to restrict Rohingya movement". BBC News. 16 September 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Bangladeshis should remember their own history when it comes to the fleeing Rohingya Muslims". The Independent. 13 September 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Rohingya Hindu women share horror tales". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Rohingya Hindus now face uncertainty in Myanmar". AlJazeera.com. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Rohingya Muslims - India Needs to Show Compassion". Tiny Man. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- "Rohingya Face Health Care Bias in Parts of Asia, Study Finds". The New York Times. 5 December 2016.
- name="Mahmood, Wroe, Fuller, Leaning 2016">Mahmood; Wroe; Fuller; Leaning (2016). "The Rohingya people of Myanmar: health, human rights, and identity" (fee required). Lancet: 1–10. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00646-2. PMID 27916235.
- Amnesty International (2004). "Myanmar – The Rohingya Minority: Fundamental Rights Denied". Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Dummett, Mark (18 February 2010). "Bangladesh accused of 'crackdown' on Rohingya refugees". BBC News. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Myanmar, Bangladesh leaders 'to discuss Rohingya'". Agence France-Presse. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Kyaw, Nyi Nyi (6 February 2008). "Rohingya Muslims: Myanmar's Forgotten People" (PDF). Nanyang Technological University Library. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- ""The world's most persecuted people" Katja Dombrowski interviews Johannes Kaltenbach (Malteser International)". In: D+C, Vol.42.2015:5.
- Head, Jonathan (5 February 2009). "What drive the Rohingya to sea?". BBC News. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Grundy-Warr, Wong, Carl, Elaine (Autumn 1997). "Sanctuary Under a Plastic Sheet–The Unresolved Problem of Rohingya Refugees" (PDF). IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin: 79–91 – via MCRG.
- Crisis Group 2014, p. 19.
- Abrar, C.R. "Repatriation of Rohingya Refugees" (PDF). Burma Library. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- "UNHCR threatens to wind up Bangladesh operations". New Age BDNEWS, Dhaka. 21 May 2005. Archived from the original on 25 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
- Head, Jonathan (1 July 2013). "The unending plight of Burma's unwanted Rohingyas". Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Dummett, Mark (29 September 2007). "Asia-Pacific | Burmese exiles in desperate conditions". BBC News. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Kompas - VirtualNEWSPAPER". Epaper.kompas.com. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Rivers, Dan (12 February 2009). Thai PM admits boat people pushed out to sea. CNN.
- Press Trust of India (29 December 2009). "Myanmar to repatriate 9,000 Muslim refugees from B'desh". Zee News.
- Staff Correspondent (30 December 2009). "Myanmar to take back 9,000 Rohingyas soon". The Daily Star.
- "Myanmar to 'take back' Rohingya refugees". The Daily Star. 16 October 2011.
- Ahmed, Akbar; Akins, Harrison (1 December 2011). "Little help for the persecuted Rohingya of Burma". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "No registration for 'Rohingya' in Myanmar census". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 March 2014.
- "Burma census bans people registering as Rohingya". BBC News. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- Marcos, Cristina (7 May 2014). "House passes resolution pressuring Burmese government to end genocide". The Hill. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- "H.Res. 418 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Campaigns of violence towards Rohingya are highly organised and genocidal in intent". Queen Mary University of London. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Mandel, Seth. "The Cautionary Tale of Samantha Power". Commentary Magazine. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
Rohingya, an ethnic Muslim minority currently being subjected to an unmistakable genocide
- Ghosh, Nirma l. "Genocide 'not the issue' in Myanmar". The Strait Times. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Leider, Jacques (2013). Rohingya: the name, the movement and the quest for identity. Myanmar Egress and the Myanmar Peace Center. pp. 204–255.
- Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between integration and secession: The Muslim communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma / Myanmar. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 0739103563.
- Yegar, Moshe (1972). Muslims of Burma (PDF). Wiesbaden: Verlag Otto Harrassowitz.
- "Myanmar:The Politics of Rakhine State" (PDF). International Crisis Group. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Khin Maung Saw (May 1993). "Khin Maung Saw on Rohingya" (PDF).
- Aye Chan (2005). "The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)" (PDF). SOAS. SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "Myanmar, The Rohingya Minority: Fundamental Rights Denied". Amnesty International. Retrieved 13 August 2005.
- Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
- Myint-U, Thant (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps—Histories of Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-16342-6.
- Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta.
- "Burma's Western Border as Reported by the Diplomatic Correspondence (1947 - 1975)" by Aye Chan
- International Center for Transitional Justice, Myanmar
- Media related to Rohingya people at Wikimedia Commons