Rohingya insurgency in Western Myanmar

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Rohingya insurgency in Western Myanmar
Part of the Internal conflict in Myanmar
Rakhine02 rohingya people.png
Rohingya population in Rakhine State (Arakan)
Date 1947 – present
Location Northern Rakhine State (Arakan);
Myanmar-Bangladesh border
Status Ongoing minor insurgency

Myanmar Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Former combatants:
Myanmar Union of Burma (1948–1962)
Myanmar Military governments (1962–2011)

Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (disputed) Supported by:
al-Qaeda (allegedly since 1988)[1]
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (allegedly since 1988)[2]
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (since 1980s)
Hezbi Islami.svg Hezbi Islami (since 1980s)

Commanders and leaders

Myanmar Htin Kyaw
(President of Myanmar)
Myanmar Aung Lin Dwe
(Commander of the WRMC)[3]
Former commanders:
Myanmar Aung Gyi (until 1963)
Myanmar Tin Oo (until 1976)
Myanmar Than Shwe (1992–2011)

Myanmar Thein Sein (2011–16)

Muhammad Yunus
Former commanders:
Abdul Kassem (1947–1952)
Annul Jauli (1961–1970)
Ahmad Zafar (1961–1974)
Abdul Latif (1961–1974)
Muhammad Jafar Habib (1974–1980s)

Nurul Islam (1974–2001)
Units involved

Myanmar Myanmar Army

Rohingya National Army

33 infantry battalions[3]
Previous totals:

1,100 (1947–1950)[4]

~300 (2016)[5]
Previous totals:
2,000–5,000 (1947–1950)[4]

2,000 (1952)[4]
Casualties and losses
9 border officers and 4 soldiers killed[5]

40–48 killed (military and civilian)[6][7]

20,000 internally displaced[8]

250,000–270,000 fled to Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Thailand[8]

The Rohingya insurgency in Western Myanmar is an ongoing minor insurgency in northern Rakhine State (also known as Arakan), Myanmar (Burma), waged by insurgents belonging to the Rohingya ethnic minority. Most clashes have occurred in the Maungdaw District, which borders Bangladesh.

From 1947 to 1961, local mujahideen fought government forces in an attempt to have the mostly Rohingya populated Mayu peninsula in northern Rakhine State secede from Myanmar, and have it be annexed by East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh).[9] During the late 1950s and early 1960s, the mujahideen lost most of its momentum and support, resulting in most insurgents surrendering to government forces.[10][11]

The existence of a modern Rohingya insurgency in northern Rakhine State after 2001 has been disputed by several regional security experts. In 2013, Shwe Maung, the then MP of the Rohingya-majority Maungdaw Township, rejected claims that new Islamist insurgent groups had begun operating in northern Rakhine State and along the Bangladeshi border, saying, "There is not a square meter without Nasaka [border guard] forces in northern Rakhine."[12]

In October 2016, clashes erupted on the Myanmar-Bangladesh border, with Rohingya insurgents and foreign Islamists suspected of being the perpetrators.[5]

Mujahideen separatist movements (1947–1970s)[edit]

Mujahideen insurgency (1947–1961)[edit]

In May 1946, Muslim leaders from Rakhine State (Arakan) met with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and asked for the formal annexation of two townships in the Mayu region, Buthidaung and Maungdaw, by East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh). Two months later, the North Arakan Muslim League was founded in Akyab (present-day Sittwe, capital of Rakhine State), which also asked that the region be annexed.[13]

The newly formed government of the Union of Burma (Myanmar) however, refused to grant autonomy or independence to a separate Muslim state, and refused to concede the area to East Pakistan. Local mujahideen fighters subsequently declared jihad on Myanmar,[14] and began targeting local authorities and soldiers stationed in the area. The newly formed mujahideen movement was led by Abdul Kassem.[15]

Following the initial attacks, mujahideen forces began gaining control over large areas in northern Rakhine State, and drove out local native Rakhine people from their villages. Some of the displaced Rakhines moved to neighbouring Bangladesh, where presently, they are a small community. By June 1949, the Burmese government's control over the region was reduced to the city of Akyab (Sittwe), while the mujahideen gained possession of nearly all of northern Rakhine State. The government had claimed that the mujahideen encouraged the illegal immigration of thousands of Bengali people from East Pakistan into Rakhine State during their rule of the area, a claim that has been highly disputed over the decades, as it also brings into question the legitimacy of the Rohingya people in Myanmar.[10]

Military operations against the Mujahideen[edit]

Martial law was declared in the region in November 1948, as the insurgency greatly intensified, with the mujahideen surrounding the remaining Burmese controlled towns and villages. The 5th Battalion of the Burma Rifles and the 2nd Chin Battalion were immediately sent to the surrounded area, and after several weeks of combat, the mujahideen were successfully driven back into the jungles of Northern Rakhine State.

Afterwards, the Tatmadaw (Myanmar Armed Forces) launched major military operations against the remaining mujahideen fighters in Northern Rakhine State, between 1950 and 1954.[16] The first military operation was launched in March 1950, followed by a second named the Mayu Operation in October 1952. Several mujahideen leaders agreed to disarm and surrender to government forces following the successful operations.[13]

In the latter half of 1954, mujahideen insurgents again began to carry out attacks on local authorities and military units stationed around Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung. In protest, hundreds of Rakhine Buddhist monks began hunger strikes in Rangoon (present-day Yangon).[10] As a result of this pressure, the government launched Operation Monsoon in October 1954.[13] The main strongholds of the mujahideen were captured, and several of their leaders were killed. The operation successfully reduced the mujahideen's influence in the region, and greatly lowered their local support.[4] In 1957, 150 mujahideen fighters, led by Shore Maluk and Zurah, surrendered to government forces. On 7 November 1957, 214 additional mujahideen fighters under the leadership of al-Rashid disarmed and surrendered to government forces.[11]

Decline and fall of the Mujahideen[edit]

A Rohingya mujahideen fighter surrenders his weapon to Brigadier-General Aung Gyi, 4 July 1961.

On 4 July 1961, 290 mujahideen fighters in the southern region of Maungdaw surrendered their arms in front of Brigadier-General Aung Gyi, the then Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Myanmar Army.[17] In the beginning of the 1960s, the mujahideen began to lose momentum when the governments of Myanmar and Pakistan began negotiating on how to deal with the insurgents at their border. On 15 November 1961, the few remaining mujahideen fighters surrendered to Aung Gyi in the eastern region of Buthidaung.[10]

A few dozen insurgents remained under the command of Ahmad Zafar, another group of 40 insurgents were led by Abdul Latif, and a mujahideen faction of 80 insurgents were led by Annul Jauli. All these groups lost momentum and a unifying ideology, and ended up becoming rice smugglers around the end of the 1960s.[11]

Rohingya Islamist Movements (1972–present)[edit]

Radical Movements (1972–1988)[edit]

On 15 July 1972, the mujahideen leader Ahmad Zafar founded the Rohingya Liberation Party (RLP), after mobilising various mujahideen factions under his command. Zafar appointed himself Chairman of the party, Abdul Latif as Vice Chairman and Minister of Military Affairs, and Muhammad Jafar Habib as the Secretary General, a graduate from Rangoon University. Their strength increased from 200 fighters in the beginning to 500 by 1974. The RLP was largely based in the jungles of Buthidaung, and were armed with weapons smuggled from Bangladesh. After a massive military operation by the Tatmadaw (Myanmar Armed Forces) in July 1974, Zafar and most of his men fled across the border into Bangladesh.[11][18]

In 1974, Muhammad Jafar Habib, the former Secretary of the RLP, founded the Rohingya Patriotic Front (RPF), after the failure and dissolution of the RLP. The RPF had around 70 fighters,[11][19] and had Habib as self-appointed Chairman, Nurul Islam, a Yangon-educated lawyer, as Vice-Chairman, and Muhammad Yunus, a medical doctor, as Secretary General.[11]

In March 1978, government forces launched a military operation named Operation King Dragon in northern Rakhine State, with the focus of expelling Rohingya insurgents in the area.[20] As the operation extended farther into Rakhine State, hundreds of thousands of Rohingyas crossed the border, resulting in a large number of them seeking refuge around the border with Bangladesh.[19][21][22]

In the early 1980s, more radical elements broke away from the Rohingya Patriotic Front, and formed the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO). It was led by Muhammad Yunus, the former Secretary General of RPF. It soon became the main and most militant faction among the Rohingyas on the Burma-Bangladesh border. RSO based itself on religious ground; and as a result, it obtained various support from the groups of the Muslim world. These included JeI in Bangladesh and Pakistan, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar’s Hizb-e-Islami (HeI) in Afghanistan, Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HM) in the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and the Angkatan Belia Islam sa-Malaysia (ABIM), and the Islamic Youth Organisation of Malaysia.[19][22]

Another Rohingya militant group, the Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front (ARIF) was founded in 1986 by Nurul Islam, the former Vice-Chairman of Rohingya Patriotic Front (RPF), after uniting the remnants of the old RPF and a handful of defectors from the RSO.[19]

Military expansions and alleged ties to al-Qaeda (1988–2011)[edit]

In the early 1990s, the military camps of the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO) were located in the Cox's Bazaar district in southern Bangladesh. RSO possessed a significant arsenal of light machine-guns, AK-47 assault rifles, RPG-2 rocket launchers, claymore mines and explosives, according to a field report conducted by correspondent Bertil Lintner in 1991.[23] The Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front (ARIF) was mostly armed with British manufactured 9mm Sterling L2A3 sub-machine guns, M-16 assault rifles and point-303 rifles.[23] It has been alleged that Taliban instructors from Afghanistan were seen in some RSO camps along the Bangladesh-Myanmar border, while nearly 100 RSO insurgents reported to be undergoing training with the terrorist organisation Hizbul Mujahideen.[19][22]

One of the several dozen videotapes obtained by CNN from Al-Qaeda's archives in Afghanistan in August 2002 showed that "Muslim brothers from Burma" (Myanmar) received training in Afghanistan. Some video tapes were allegedly shot in RSO camps in Bangladesh in the 1990s.[19][22][24] According to intelligence sources in Asia, Rohingya recruits in the RSO were paid a 30,000 Bangladeshi taka ($525 USD) enlistment reward, and a salary of 10,000 taka ($175) per month. Families of fighters who were killed in action were offered 100,000 taka ($1,750) in compensation, a promise which lured many young Rohingya men, who were mostly very poor, to travel to Pakistan, where they would train and then perform suicide attacks in Afghanistan.[19][22]

The expansion of the RSO in the late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in the government of Myanmar launching a massive counter-offensive to expel RSO insurgents along the Bangladesh-Myanmar border. In December 1991, Tatmadaw soldiers crossed the border and accidentally attacked a Bangladeshi military outpost, an incident which developed into a major strain in Bangladesh-Myanmar relations. By April 1992, more than 250,000 Rohingya civilians had been forced out of northern Rakhine State as a result of the increased military operations in the area.[19]

During the military operations, the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia and commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia visited the Bangladeshi capital, Dhaka, and suggested military action by Bangladesh against Myanmar, similar to Operation Desert Storm in Iraq.[19][25]

In April 1994, around 120 members of the RSO entered Maungdaw Township in Myanmar by crossing the Naf River which marks the border between Bangladesh and Myanmar. On 28 April 1994, nine out of twelve timed bombs planted in different areas in Maungdaw by RSO insurgents exploded, damaging a fire engine and a few buildings, and seriously wounding four civilians.[26]

On 28 October 1998, the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO) and the Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front (ARIF), led by Nurul Islam, merged and founded the Rohingya National Army (RNA), with the Arakan Rohingya National Organisation (ARNO) organising Rohingya insurgents of different factions into a single army.[27]

According to US Embassy Cables revealed by Wikileaks, the alleged meeting of ARNO members and Al-Qaeda representatives was reported. The cable also commented that the Tatmadaw allegedly provided the report with the "hope of bolstering relations with the United States, by getting credit for cooperation on the CT front in the War on Terror." [27]

As Wikileaks noted, there was also a connection between= Taliban factions and ARNO insurgents:[27]

ARNO has strongly denied these allegations through several press releases, including a joint press release issued with the National United Party of Arakan, which is largely made up of Buddhist Rakhine members.[28]

In March 2011, between 80 and 100 Rohingya men in Maungdaw Township were arrested by Myanmar border police, and were accused of belonging to a terrorist ring linked to the Taliban.[30][31] According to the source, a Taliban militant known as Moulivi Harun had given the group training in combat and bomb making, deep in the jungle of northern Maungdaw on the Bangladeshi border in February 2011.[30] Among the suspected people allegedly linked to the Taliban, 19 people were brought before court in March and April 2011.[32] 12 of the 19 suspects in associating with the Taliban and other Islamic militant groups were sentenced to various jail terms on 6 September 2011.[33]

2016 border attacks[edit]

On 9 October 2016, an estimated 300 unidentified insurgents attacked three Burmese border posts along Myanmar's border with Bangladesh. According to government officials in the border town of Maungdaw, the attackers looted several dozen firearms and ammunition from the border posts, and brandished knives and homemade slingshots that fired metal bolts. The attacks left nine border officers and "several insurgents" dead.[5] On 11 October 2016, four Tatmadaw soldiers were killed on the third day of fighting.[34] Though it is not known who the perpetrators were, government officials in Rakhine State have blamed the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO), an insurgent group that was mainly active in the 1980s and 1990s, whilst others pointed to terrorist groups from Bangladesh.[35]

Commentary on the conflict[edit]

Demographic factors[edit]

Around 800,000 Rohingyas live in Myanmar, around 80% of whom live in Rakhine State. Nearly all of them have been denied citizenship by the government, as the government does not recognise the Rohingya people as a distinct ethnic group originating from Myanmar, but rather as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh.[36] The United Nations consider the Rohingya people one of the world's most persecuted minorities.[36][37]

During the Bangladesh Liberation War and after its independence in 1971, there was a period of increased illegal immigration into Arakan due to political turmoil in Bangladesh. There is good evidence to indicate that Muslim people from Arakan have been migrating to today`s Bangladesh since 1940. In 1974, Arakan State was formed according to the new constitution of Burma. In the same year, the "Emergency Immigration Act" was endorsed, and strategies to combat illegal immigration were carried out by the Burmese government. By 1975, several thousand Muslims had fled to Bangladesh to escape the mounting government pressure.[4]

It is difficult to know if they were recent immigrants from Bangladesh, or ethnic Muslims who have lived in Arakan prior to the independence of Burma. In 1978, Operation King Dragon was launched to "scrutinize each individual living in the State and taking action against foreigners who have filtered into the country illegally". Arrests of illegal migrants during this Burmese Army Operation created unrest in Arakan; a mass exodus of Muslims (around 252,000 refugees) to Bangladesh occurred as a result. Between August 1978 and December 1979, repatriation was led by the UNHCR with most resettled in western Burma.[19][22][38] On 15 October 1982, Burmese Citizenship Law was introduced; with the exception of the Kaman Muslims, most of the Muslims in Burma were denied an ethnic minority classification, and thus were denied Burmese citizenship.[39]

On 18 September 1988, the Burmese military seized power by crushing the pro-democracy uprisings in Burma and formed a military regime by the name of SLORC - State Law and Order Restoration Council. In 1991-92, a few years of the introduction of military rule, the forced relocation of Muslims and creation of new Buddhist settlements in Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships by SLORC provoke another mass exodus of Rohingya Muslims(around 270,000) to Bangladesh. In 1993, most of them were repatriated due to UNHCR intervention; however, around 20,000 registered refugees still remained in some camps along the Bangladesh-Burma border.[8]

Academic discussion of the Mujahideen insurgency[edit]

Moshe Yegar, an Israeli historian, argues that Mujahideen separatist movement in Arakan occurred because of the government's discrimination and oppression on Rohingya Muslims. Yegar argues the roots for the appearance of Mujahideen insurgency as follows:[10]

Mari Lall argues that one of the reasons of the Mujahideen Muslim uprisings in Arakan was due to the government's declaration of Buddhism as the official religion of Burma. This declaration questioned the rights of the Muslim Rohingya, Christian Karen, Chin, Kachin and led the secessionist movements of those minority groups.[40] Her argument was supported by Syed Serajul Islam. Syed writes:[41]

However, above arguments contradicted the authentic events that happened within the historical time-line of Burma. Moshe Yegar's arguments on the possible causes of Mujahideen insurgency was criticised by a reviewer on Yegar's book: "Muslims of Burma".[42]

Second argument on the Mudjahideen insurgency in relationship to the declaration of Buddhism as the State Religion of Burma also does not match with the historical authenticity. Buddhism was declared as the official religion of Burma on 26 July 1961, more than a decade after the start of Mujahideen insurgency in 1947.[43]

Aye Chan, a historian at the Kanda University, suggests that the roots of Mujahideen movements in Arakan (1947) originated from the communal violence between Arakanese and Rohingya Muslims during World War II in 1942.[44] On 28 March 1942, Rohingya Muslims from Northern Arakan massacred around 20,000 Buddhists in Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships. At the same period, around 5,000 Muslims in Minbya and Mrauk-U Townships were also killed by the Arakanese Buddhists .[45] Such violence happened because the British armed Muslim groups in northern Arakan to create a buffer zone from the Japanese invasion when they retreated [46] and Muslims were promised by the British that if they supported the Allies they would be given their own "national area".[47]

Perceptions of the conflict[edit]

Burmese Military Regime's policy on Rohingyas as seen by the Amnesty International:[48]

The interpretation of the Burmese junta's attitude by the Rohingyas:[49]

Jane's World Insurgency and Terrorism subscription service's remark on the causes of Rohingya militant movements:[50]

"A Hand Book of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia" assumes that human rights violations on Rohingyas by the Burmese junta such as restriction on mobility, Rohingyas' and evictions, settlement of non-Rohingya model villages near the Muslim areas, registration of births and deaths, and restriction of more than two child bearing marriage are the causes of the Rohingya insurgency.[41]

But, in the early 1970s, it is found that the Rohingya militant movements re-appeared during the Bangladesh Liberation War along with the formation of a new country of Bangladesh like the emergence of Mujahideen movements in 1947-1950s along with the formation of East Pakistan. In the beginning of the 1970s during Bangladesh Liberation War, there was an extent of illegal immigration from Bangladesh to Western Burma and reaction against illegal immigration were carried out by the Burmese government. Such kind of initial reactions later led the Ne Win government towards the oppression against infiltrators in western Burma not only illegal immigrants but also on local radicalised Rohingyas in the late 1970s campaign on Rohingyas in 1978). After 1988, new military regime which took power in Burma allegedly committed various kinds of human rights abuses and violations against different ethnic groups of Burma; and, as a bitter result, Rohingyas also became victims like many other Burmese ethnic groups.[51]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Arakan Rohingya National Organization Contacts With Al Qaeda And With Burmese Insurgent Groups On The Thai Border". 
  2. ^ "Pak Taliban jihadi force of Rohingya Muslims, Bangladeshi, Indonesian nationals training in Burma". 
  3. ^ a b Defence Services Historical Museum and Research Institute (DSHMRI) Archives (Myanmar)
  4. ^ a b c d e Yegar, Moshe (2002). "Between integration and secession: The Muslim communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar". Lanham. Lexington Books. p. 37,38,44. ISBN 0739103563. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Myanmar policemen killed in Rakhine border attack". BBC News. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016. 
  6. ^ "Myanmar Army Evacuates Villagers, Teachers From Hostilities in Maungdaw". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 16 October 2016. 
  7. ^ "Rakhine: Myanmar urged to allow aid into restive state". BBC News. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c "Rohingyas and the Right to have Rights". Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012. [dead link]
  9. ^ Yegar, Moshe (1972). Muslims of Burma. Wiesbaden: Verlag Otto Harrassowitz. p. 96. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Yegar, Moshe (1972). Muslims of Burma. pp. 98–101. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Pho Kan Kaung (May 1992). The Danger of Rohingya. Myet Khin Thit Magazine No. 25. pp. 87–103. 
  12. ^ "Experts Reject Claims of 'Rohingya Mujahideen' Insurgency". 15 July 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  13. ^ a b c Thit Maung, Yebaw (1989). Civil Insurgency in Burma. Yangon: Ministry of Information. p. 30. 
  14. ^ Aye Chan (2–3 June 2011). On the Mujahid Rebellion in Arakan read in the International Conference of Southeast Asian Studies at Pusan University of Foreign Studies, Republic of Korea. 
  15. ^ Thit Maung, Yebaw (1989). Civil Insurgency in Burma. Yangon: Ministry of Information. p. 28. 
  16. ^ Yegar, Moshe (2002). "Between integration and secession: The Muslim communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar". Lanham. Lexington Books. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0739103563. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  17. ^ Khit Yay Tatmaw Journal. Yangon: Burma Army. 18 July 1961. p. 5. 
  18. ^ "Rohingya the easy prey". The Daily Star. 9 May 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2016. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Bangladesh Extremist Islamist Consolidation". by Bertil Lintner. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  20. ^ Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb' by Pepe Escobar, Oct 2001, Asia Times.
  21. ^ Lintner, Bertil (1999). Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency Since 1948,. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. pp. 317–8. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f "Bangladesh: Breeding ground for Muslim terror". by Bertil Lintner. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  23. ^ a b Lintner, Bertil (19 October 1991). Tension Mounts in Arakan State,. This news-story was based on interview with Rohingyas and others in the Cox’s Bazaar area and at the Rohingya military camps in 1991: Jane’s Defence Weekly. 
  24. ^ "Rohingyas trained in different Al-Qaeda and Taliban camps in Afghanistan". By William Gomes. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  25. ^ Selth, Andrew (Nov–Dec 2003). Burma and International Terrorism,. Australian Quarterly, vol. 75, no. 6,. pp. 23–28. 
  26. ^ "Rohingya Terrorists Plant Bombs, Burn Houses in Maungdaw". Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  28. ^ Press Release: Arakan Independence Alliance
  29. ^ Press Release: Concerning implicating Rohingya groups to have connection with terrorist organisation
  30. ^ a b "Nearly 80 Suspected Taliban Members Arrested in Burma". Narinjara News. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  31. ^ "Muslims Arrested in Arakan State Accused of Taliban Ties". Irrawaddy News. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  32. ^ "19 Alleged Members of Taliban Group Brought to Trial". Narinjara News. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  33. ^ "Twelve Suspected Taliban Sentenced to Jail". Narinjara News. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  34. ^ "Rakhine unrest leaves four Myanmar soldiers dead". BBC News. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  35. ^ "Myanmar: Fears of violence after deadly border attack". Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  36. ^ a b "The Rohingya: A humanitarian crisis". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  37. ^ "These migrants left their homes to save their lives". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  38. ^ Lintner, Bertil (1972). Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency Since 1948. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. pp. 317–8. 
  39. ^ "Burmese Citizenship Law". Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  40. ^ Lall, Marie (23 November 2009). Ethnic Conflict and the 2010 Elections in Burma[dead link]. Chatham House.
  41. ^ a b Syed, Serajul Islam (2007). "State Terrorism in Arakan" in A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia (edited by: Andrew Tan). Cheltenham Glos, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. p. 328. ISBN 9781845425432. Retrieved 6 November 2012. 
  42. ^ "Book Review: Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar". Good Reads. Retrieved 6 November 2012. 
  43. ^ Burmese Encyclopedia. Yangon: Burma Translation Society. 1963. p. 167. 
  44. ^ Aye Chan (2005). "The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)" (PDF). SOAS. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  45. ^ Kyaw Zan Tha, MA (July 2008). "Background of Rohingya Problem": 1. 
  46. ^ Field-Marshal Viscount William Slim (2009). Defeat Into Victory: Battling Japan in Burma and India, 1942-1945. London: Pan. ISBN 0330509977. 
  47. ^ Howard Adelman (2008). Protracted displacement in Asia: no place to call home. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 86. ISBN 0754672387. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  48. ^ "Myanmar - The Rohingya Minority: Fundamental Rights Denied". Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012. [dead link]
  49. ^ "Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO)". Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  50. ^ "Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO) (Bangladesh), GROUPS - ASIA - ACTIVE". Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  51. ^ "Facts on Human Rights Violation in Burma". Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 

Further reading[edit]