Rohan (Middle-earth)

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J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium location
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Rohan.svg
Artist's impression of the Coat of Arms[T 1]
First appearanceThe Two Towers
TypeAdopted home of the Rohirrim
RulerKings of Rohan
Notable locationsEdoras, Dunharrow, Helm's Deep
Other name(s)the Riddermark, Calenardhon, the Mark
Locationnorth-west Middle-earth
LifespanFounded T.A. 2510
FounderEorl the Young
CapitalAldburg to T.A. 2569, then Edoras

Rohan (from Sindarin Rochand; the people of the land called it the Riddermark or the Mark[1] ) is a kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy setting of Middle-earth. It is mainly a grassland, and lies north-west of its ally Gondor, and further north-west of Mordor, the realm of Sauron, their enemy (see maps of Middle-earth). It is inhabited by the Rohirrim, a people of herders and farmers known for their horses and cavalry. The realm is important in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Rohan is grounded in Anglo-Saxon tradition.

Conceptualized as the "Horse Lords of Rohan" allied with Gondor in early drafts of 1939, the Rohirrim took their final form in 1942 when about one third of The Lord of the Rings was completed.

Rohan in Tolkien's works[edit]


Marguerite de Rohan (c. 1330-1406) and her husband the Constable of Clisson

Tolkien's own account, given in The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, No. 297 (never sent), gives both the fictional and the actual etymologies of Rohan:

Rohan is stated (III 391, 394) to be a later softened form of Rochand. It is derived from Elvish *rokkō ‘swift horse for riding’ (Q. rokko, S. roch) + a suffix frequent in names of lands [e.g. Beleriand, Ossiriand]. ...

Rohan is a famous name, from Brittany, borne by an ancient proud and powerful family. I was aware of this, and liked its shape; but I had also (long before) invented the Elvish horse-word, and saw how Rohan could be accommodated to the linguistic situation as a late Sindarin name of the Mark (previously called Calenarðon 'the (great) green region') after its occupation by horsemen. Nothing in the history of Brittany will throw any light on the Eorlingas. ...[2]


Rohan is an inland realm. Its countryside is described as a land of pastures and lush tall grassland which is frequently windswept. The meadows contain "many hidden pools, and broad acres of sedge waving above wet and treacherous bogs"[T 2] that water the grasses. The lands of Rohan are frequently described as appearing like "seas of grass", and are therefore perfect for horses.

Sketch map of Rohan, Gondor, and Mordor in the Third Age

Karen Wynn Fonstad calculated Rohan to be 52,763 square miles[3] (136,656 km²) in area (slightly larger than England). At the time of the War of the Ring, Rohan was roughly a third the size of Gondor,[4] whose borders had slowly been shrinking for centuries.

Its warm continental climate generally brought hot summers and brisk but short winters, marking a midpoint between the harsh winters of Wilderland to the north and the long, Mediterranean summers of Gondor to the south. The winds can come from almost any direction and the weather is highly variable in any season.


The borders of Rohan are:

  • north: the eaves of Fangorn forest; the rivers Limlight and Anduin; and the walls of Emyn Muil. After the War of the Ring, the kingdom is extended northwards over the Limlight to the borders of Lothlórien.[T 3]
  • east: the mouths of Entwash; and the Mering Stream (which separated Rohan from the Gondorian province of Anórien, known to the Rohirrim as Sunlending)
  • south: the White Mountains
  • west: the rivers Adorn and Isen, where Rohan borders Isengard and the land of the Dunlendings. The area of the western border is known as the Gap of Rohan; here the Misty Mountains and the White Mountains drew near to each other. However, following the conclusion of the Third Age, "...the realm was extended west beyond the Gap of Rohan as far as the Greyflood and the sea-shores between that river and the Isen..."[T 3]


The capital of Rohan is the fortified town of Edoras, on a hill in a valley of the White Mountains.[T 4] "Edoras" is Old English for "enclosures".[5] The town of Edoras was built by Rohan's second King, Brego son of Eorl the Young. The hill on which Edoras is built stands in the mouth of the valley of Harrowdale. The river Snowbourn flows past the town on its way east towards the Entwash. The town is protected by a high wall of timber, and a one-way road allows access to the town.

Meduseld, the Golden Hall of the Kings of Rohan, is in the centre of the town at the top of the hill. "Meduseld", a modernized form of the Old English Maeduselde, "mead hall",[6] is meant to be a translation of an unknown Rohirric word with the same meaning. Meduseld is based on the mead hall Heorot in Beowulf;[7] it is a large hall with a thatched roof that appears golden from far off. The walls are richly decorated with tapestries depicting the history and legends of the Rohirrim, and it serves as a house for the King and his kin, a meeting hall for the King and his advisors, and a gathering hall for ceremonies and festivities. It is at Meduseld that Aragorn, Gimli, Legolas, and Gandalf meet with King Théoden in The Two Towers. Legolas describes Meduseld in a line that directly translates a line of Beowulf, "The light of it shines far over the land", representing líxte se léoma ofer landa fela.[8]

Other settlements[edit]

Upstream from Edoras, deeper into Harrowdale, lies the hamlets of Upbourn and Underharrow. At the head of Dunharrow is a refuge in the White Mountains under the great mountain. Aldburg, capital of the Eastfold, is the original settlement of Eorl the Young. The settlement Snowbourne, similar in appearance to the hill-fort of Edoras, is named after the river of the same name which runs nearby. The Hornburg, a major fortress guarding the western region, is located in Helm's Deep, a valley in the White Mountains.


The kingdom of Rohan, also called the Mark, is primarily divided into the East-mark and the West-mark: respectively east and west of the Folde. The East-mark and West-mark are each led by a marshal of the kingdom, and each includs smaller regions. North of the Folde, the boundary between the two is "the Snowbourn River to its junction with the Entwash, and thence north along the Entwash."[T 5]

The Folde was a small region in the central south of Rohan, and in neither the East-mark nor the West-mark. It contains Rohan's capital, Edoras,[T 6] and surrounding settlements. It is Rohan's most populous region. In an earlier concept, Rohan's capital region was called the King's Lands, of which the Folde was a sub-region to the south-east of Edoras.[T 7] This earlier concept of the Folde found its way onto the map of Gondor published with The Return of the King.

Most of the rest of Rohan's population is spread along the foothills of the White Mountains in both directions from the Folde. In the West-mark the region of Westfold extended along the mountains to Helm's Deep (the defensive centre of Westfold) and to the Gap of Rohan. Beyond the Gap of Rohan lies the West Marches, the kingdom's far west borderland.

The region of the Eastfold extends along the White Mountains in the opposite direction (and was thus a part of the East-mark). It is bound by the Entwash to the north. Its eastern borderland is called the Fenmarch; beyond this lies the Kingdom of Gondor.

The centre of Rohan (to the north of the Folde) is mainly a large plain, divided by the Entwash into the East Emnet and the West Emnet.[T 8] These regions fell respectively into the East-mark and the West-mark.

The northernmost region of Rohan, and the least populous, is the Wold. The Field of Celebrant (named for a synonym of the River Silverlode), even further north, is added to Rohan after the War of the Ring,[T 9].



The Uffington White Horse, from where the banner and shield of the House of Eorl – a "white horse upon green" – is derived.[T 1][9][T 10]

The Dúnedain of Gondor and the Rohirrim are distantly related (having, in-universe, descended from the same place), However, as opposed to the inhabitants of Gondor, who were portrayed as enlightened and highly civilized, the Rohirrim were portrayed as Middle-men, on a lower level of enlightenment.[10]

The people of Rohan and their ancestors have also been interpreted as partly representing "primeval, Garden of Eden types", reminding their Gondorian contemporaries of the early days of Mankind.

The names and many details of their culture are derived from Germanic cultures, particularly that of the Anglo-Saxons and their Old English language, towards which Tolkien felt a strong affinity. Ultimately Anglo-Saxon England was defeated by the cavalry of the Normans at the Battle of Hastings, and some Tolkien scholars have speculated that the Rohirrim are Tolkien's wishful version of an Anglo-Saxon society that retained a "rider culture", and would have been able to resist such an invasion.[11] Tolkien rendered the language of the Riders of Rohan, Rohirric, as the Mercian dialect of Old English. Even words and phrases that were printed in modern English showed a strong Old English influence. Old English was supposed to render an archaic form of Westron, which was supposedly rendered by Modern English.[T 11] This solution occurred to Tolkien in 1942, when he was searching for an explanation of the Eddaic names of the dwarves already published in The Hobbit.

Théoden is called "Théoden King", rather than "King Théoden", just as Scandinavian and the Anglo-Saxon era kings had the word konungr or cyning ("king") added after their names, e.g. Hervarðar konungr, rather than before, while Alfred the Great, king of England, was Ælfred cyning in Old English.

While Tolkien represents the Rohirrim with Anglo-Saxon culture and language, their ancestors are given Gothic attributes. The names of Rhovanion’s royal family, (who were the ancestors of the Rohirrim), include such names as Vidugavia, Vidumavi and Vinitharya, which are of Gothic origin. Vidugavia specifically has been seen as an synonym for Vitiges, king of the Ostrogoths in Italy from 536 to 540.[12]. This parallel was also suggested to have happened in the real world between Old English and Gothic.[13][14]

In response to a query about clothing styles in Middle-earth, Tolkien wrote:

The Rohirrim were not "medieval", in our sense. The styles of the Bayeux Tapestry (made in England) fit them well enough, if one remembers that the kind of tennis-nets [the] soldiers seem to have on are only a clumsy conventional sign for chainmail of small rings.[T 12]

Horses and warfare[edit]

Anglo-Saxon arms and armour

The armies of Rohan were largely horsemen. The basic tactical unit was the éored, an Old English word meaning "a unit of cavalry, a troop",[15] which at the time of the War of the Ring had been standardized at a nominal strength of 120 riders.[T 13] There are also companies of infantry and archers, as seen in the Battle of the Fords of Isen. Rohan's armies were more of a very well-trained militia called upon in times of war, with the actual standing army relatively small. They are described as armed with long spears, swords, axes, light helms, round wooden shields, and mail armour. The only Rohirrim soldiers described as knights were the King's Riders, the personal bodyguard of the King of Rohan, such as Déorwine, who fell with six of his men at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.[16]

In time of war, every able man was obliged to join the Muster of Rohan. They were also bound by the Oath of Eorl to help Gondor in times of peril, and the latter asked for their aid through the giving of the Red Arrow. Also, the Rohirrim could be notified to aid Gondor by the lighting of the warning beacons of Gondor, a series of beacon fires along the White Mountains from Gondor's capital to its border with Rohan. (In the film The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, the beacons extended into Rohan, virtually all the way to Edoras.)

At the start of the War of the Ring a Full Muster would have been over 12,000 riders,[T 14][T 15]

Among the horses of the Rohirrim were the famed mearas (from the Old English for horse)[17] the noblest and fastest horses that ever roamed Arda.

It was because of the close affiliation with horses, both in war and peace, that they received their name. Rohirrim (or more properly Rochirrim) is Sindarin for "Horse-lords," and Rohan (or Rochand) means "Land of the Horse-lords".[T 16]


Tolkien generally called the language simply "the language of Rohan" or "of the Rohirrim". He did use adjectival form "Rohanese" at one point,[T 17] which Hammond and Scull also use.[18] The term "Rohirric" is also commonly used; it appears in Foster's Complete Guide to Middle-earth and in several discussions of the languages of Middle-earth.[18] Like many languages of Men, it is akin to Adûnaic, the language of Númenóreans, and therefore to the Westron or Common Speech.[19]

The Rohirrim call their homeland the Riddermark, a modernization by Tolkien of Old English Riddena-mearc, meaning, according to the Index to The Lord of the Rings, "the border country of the knights"; also Éo-marc, the Horse-mark, also simply the Mark.[20] They call themselves the Eorlingas, the Sons of Eorl. In the original Rohirric the name for their land is Lôgrad, with the element "lô-"/"loh-" corresponding to Anglo-Saxon "éo", horse.

Rohirric bears a similar relationship to Westron, the Common Speech of Middle-earth, as that of Old English to modern English, and so Tolkien rendered Rohirric names and phrases into Old English (English of the Anglo-Saxon period), just as the Common Speech is translated into English. Examples include words such as mearas (another Old English word for "horses",[17] which survives into Modern English as "mares") and éored.[15] Tolkien was a philologist, with a special interest in Germanic languages.

Many archaic Hobbit names bear similarities to Rohirric, since the ancestors of the Shire hobbits lived on the upper reaches of the Anduin, close to the ancestors of the Rohirrim, and there was apparently a good deal of linguistic cross-fertilization. These names are also translations of the original Westron Kuduk (Hobbit) and Rohirric kûd-dûkan (hole dweller).

In The Two Towers, chapter 6, the Riders of Rohan are introduced before they are seen, by Aragorn, who chants in the language of the Rohirrim words "in a slow tongue unknown to the Elf and the Dwarf", a lai that Legolas senses "is laden with the sadness of Mortal Men". The song is called the Lament of the Rohirrim. To achieve a resonant sense of the lost past, the now-legendary time of a peaceful alliance of the Horse-lords with the realm of Gondor, Tolkien has closely[21] adapted lines of the Old English poem The Wanderer.

Where is the horse gone? where the rider?
Where the giver of treasure?
Where are the seats at the feast?
Where are the revels in the hall?
Alas for the bright cup!
Alas for the mailed warrior!
Alas for the splendour of the prince!
How that time has passed away, dark under the cover of night,
as if it had never been.

Tolkien's adaptation, comparably heroic in its anguished nostalgia, is characteristic of his approach to remaking his sources:

Where now the horse and the rider? Where is the horn that was blowing?
Where is the helm and the hauberk, and the bright hair flowing?
Where is the hand on the harp-string, and the red fire glowing?
Where is the spring and the harvest and the tall corn growing?
They have passed like rain on the mountain, like a wind in the meadow;
The days have gone down in the West behind the hills into shadow.
Who shall gather the smoke of the dead wood burning?
Or behold the flowing years from the Sea returning?[T 18]

"Thus spoke a forgotten poet long ago in Rohan, recalling how tall and fair was Eorl the Young, who rode down out of the North," Aragorn explains. Tolkien has managed to incorporate into the imagery elements of plot (the horn that was blowing), his consistent thematic imagery of West and shadow and imagery of the constant seasonal and linear flow of irretrievable time that gives The Lord of the Rings an authentically Anglo-Saxon note. In the last two lines Tolkien has also introduced the character of answers familiar from Old English riddle literature, while he has extended the staccato Anglo-Saxon lines of his model to adjust to our expectations of five-beat stress in heroic poetry in English.

Internal history[edit]

Early history[edit]

In the thirteenth century of the Third Age (T.A.), the Kings of Gondor made close alliances with the Northmen of Rhovanion, a people said in The Lord of the Rings to be akin to the Three Houses of Men (later the Dúnedain) from the First Age.

In the twenty-first century, a remnant tribe of such Northmen calling itself the Éothéod moved from the valleys of Anduin to the northwest of Mirkwood, clearing out what remained of the recently defeated witch-kingdom of Angmar, east of the Misty Mountains. While there, some dispute arose between them and the Dwarves over the treasure-hoard of Scatha the dragon.

Later, in 2509, Cirion the Steward of Gondor sent summons to the Éothéod for aid in throwing off a combined invasion of Balchoth (Men from eastern Middle-earth), and Orcs from Mordor.

Eorl the Young, lord of the Éothéod, answered the summons, and arrived unexpected at a decisive battle on the Field of Celebrant, routing the orc army, and then destroying it as it fled.

As a reward, Eorl was given the Gondorian province of Calenardhon (except Isengard). This land had earlier been devastated by the plague of 1636, and the survivors to a large extent slain in the invasion mentioned above.

Kingdom of Rohan[edit]

Eorl the Young and his people founded the Kingdom of Rohan in the former Calenardhon in T.A. 2510. The first line of kings lasted for 249 years, until the ninth king Helm Hammerhand died. His sons had been killed earlier, and his nephew Fréaláf Hildeson began the second line of kings, which lasted until the end of the Third Age.

In 2758, Rohan was invaded by Dunlendings under Wulf, son of Freca, of mixed Dunland and Rohan blood. The King, Helm Hammerhand, took refuge in the Hornburg until aid from Gondor and Dunharrow (another refuge of the Rohirrim) arrived a year later and defeated the invaders.

It was soon after this that Saruman arrived and took over Isengard, and was welcomed as a strong ally, since it would take Rohan close to 200 years to recover its strength after the invasion.

War of the Ring and aftermath[edit]

In T.A. 3014, Saruman began using his influence to weaken Théoden, the 17th King of Rohan, as part of a campaign to invade or take over the kingdom. In 3019, he launched a great invasion of Rohan, with victory in the two first battles (at the Fords of Isen; Théoden's son, Théodred was killed during these attacks) and defeat at the Battle of the Hornburg, where the Huorns came to the aid of the Rohirrim.

On the heels of this victory, Théoden rode with an army to Minas Tirith and helped break its siege in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, where he was slain. He was succeeded as King by his nephew Éomer (the first of the third line of kings). Éomer thereupon took command of the battle. Also in this battle, Éowyn, niece of Théoden and sister of Éomer, slew the Lord of the Nazgûl. Éomer rode with the armies of Gondor to the Black Gate of Mordor and took part in the Battle of the Morannon against the forces of Sauron, who were defeated when the Ruling Ring was destroyed.

The rule of the Stewards of Gondor was then over. King Éomer and the new king of Gondor, Elessar, renewed their oath of alliance, and reaffirmed Cirion's grant of Calenardhon to the Rohirrim. At this time, Éowyn married Faramir, Prince of Ithilien and Steward of Gondor, thus joining the lines of Gondor and Rohan.

In the Fourth Age, Rohan remained in peaceful coexistence with the Reunited Kingdom. A community of Dwarves, led by Gimli, developed in the caves of Helm's Deep, which became prosperous from its mining of precious materials.


Kings and Marshals[edit]

Rohan was an absolute monarchy, though the nobles and Marshals had important power in the governance of the realm.[citation needed] The King led the army during wartime.

The succession of the Kings of Rohan was by primogeniture. Although females could not succeed to the throne, males could (in certain circumstances) succeed via a female relative of the previous king. In the War of the Ring, King Théoden popularly appointed his niece Éowyn to rule during his absence from the capital Edoras.

The country was divided into districts, such as the Eastfold and the Westfold, led by Marshals, though it is not clear whether their functions extended beyond the purely military. Originally the First Marshal was responsible for the area around Edoras, the capital, while the Second and Third Marshals were assigned various territories depending on the need at the time. After the War of the Ring the First Marshal was replaced with the position of Underking, and the Second and Third Marshals were renamed Marshals of the East-mark and West-mark, holding those lands permanently.[T 19]

Alliance with Gondor[edit]

The alliance between Rohan and Gondor came into existence in the year 2510 of the Third Age. In that year the Easterlings launched a massive invasion of Gondor. The army of Gondor was defeated and trapped between the Limlight and the Celebrant. Gondor, which had always been on friendly terms with the different tribes of the Northmen, sent messengers to the closest tribe, the Éothéod. Although it was unlikely that the message calling for aid would come through, it did. Then Eorl the Young and his fierce Éothéod Riders unexpectedly took the field during the Battle of Celebrant and turned the tide in the favour of Gondor. As a reward Cirion, the Steward of Gondor, gave Eorl the depopulated province of Calenardhon for his people to settle, while fulfilling Gondor's need for a strong ally. The Oath of Eorl was sworn by both Cirion and Eorl. Neither nation has ever broken the alliance ever since. Rohan has gone through great lengths to fulfil their part of the treaty including sacrificing two of its heirs when Gondor was under threat from the Haradrim in 2885, when Fastred and Folcred, the twin sons of King Folcwine, were killed during the Battle of Crossings of Poros. King Théoden once again honoured the alliance in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.

War with the Dunlendings[edit]

To the west of the Gap of Rohan lived the Dunlendings, a native people who had been largely hostile towards the Dúnedain and their allies for a long time (although they tolerated the exiled Dwarves of Durin's Folk in Dunland). The Dunlending Lord Wulf led a victorious army of Dunlendings and briefly usurped the throne of Rohan during the Long Winter (T.A. 2758-59), avenging the murder of his father Freca by Helm Hammerhand.

Rumours of tributes paid to Sauron[edit]

During the early days of the War of the Ring, rumours were spread that the Rohirrim supplied Sauron's armies with horses. These rumours were obviously false: the Rohirrim valued their horses more than anything, and would never send them away, even as tribute. Still these rumours had some effect, in that they obscured the fact it was Saruman who had fallen, rather than Rohan. The basis of the rumour was that Sauron's Orcs stole many of Rohan's black horses during raids, thus making black horses rare; however, this was theft, which angered the people of Rohan.


When King Théoden began to grow old, he took as an advisor Gríma, later called Wormtongue. Gríma quickly became Théoden's chief advisor, but unbeknownst to all he was secretly working for Saruman. Gríma played on Théoden's fears to further weaken the strength of the king and all of Rohan, always advising retreat where an attack was needed. He may have also begun poisoning the king at this time. This nearly proved disastrous for Rohan, and also for Gondor, by robbing them of their strongest ally in the north. Gríma Wormtongue's plans were not revealed until Gandalf arrived in Edoras during the War of the Ring.

After King Théoden's son died, Gríma attempted to have the king's nephew Éomer disinherited; he may have intended to marry Théoden's niece, Éowyn, the only remaining member of the royal family, and thus take the throne as her consort.


Poolburn Reservoir, site of several scenes representing Rohan in New Line Cinema's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy

The critic Jane Chance writes that Theoden is transformed by Gandalf into a good bold "Germanic king"; she contrasts this with the failure of "the proud Beorhtnoth" in the Old English poem The Battle of Maldon. In her view, in the account of the battle of Helm's Deep, the fortress of the Riddermark, Tolkien is emphasising the Rohirrim's physical prowess.[22]

The critic Tom Shippey notes that the Riders of Rohan are, despite Tolkien's protestations, much like the ancient English (the Anglo-Saxons), but that they differed from the ancient English in having a culture based on horses. They use many Old English words related to horses; their name for themselves is Eotheod, horse-people, and the names of riders like Eomund, Eomer, and Eowyn begin with the word for horse, eo[h].[21]

The Tolkien scholar Thomas Honegger, agreeing with Shippey's description of the Rohirrim as "Anglo-Saxons on Horseback", calls the sources for them "quite obvious to anyone familiar with Anglo-Saxon literature and culture".[11] The resemblances, according to Honegger, include masterly horsemanship, embodying the Old English saying Eorl sceal on éos boge, éored sceal getrume rídan ("The leader shall on horse's back, warband shall ride in a body").[11] The Riders are a Germanic warrior-society, exemplifying the "northern heroic spirit", like the Anglo-Saxons.[11] But the "crucial" fact is the language; Honneger notes that Tolkien had represented Westron speech as modern English; since Rohan spoke a related but older language, Old English was the natural choice in the same style; Tolkien's 1942 table of correspondences also showed that the language of the people of Dale was represented by Norse. Honegger notes that this does not equate the Rohirrim with the Anglo-Saxons (on horseback or not), but it does show a strong connection, making them "the people most dear to Tolkien and all medievalists."[11]

Jane Ciabattari writes on BBC Culture that Lady Eowyn's fear of being caged rather than "doing great deeds" by riding to battle with the Rohirrim resonated with 1960s feminists, contributing to the success of Lord of the Rings at that time.[23]

Portrayal in adaptations[edit]

For New Line Cinema's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy directed by Peter Jackson, the Poolburn Reservoir in Central Otago, New Zealand was used for Rohan scenes.[24] The theme for Rohan is played on a Hardanger fiddle. A fully realised set for Edoras was built on Mount Sunday in the upper reaches of the Rangitata Valley, near Erewhon in New Zealand. Some of the set was built digitally, but the main buildings atop the city were built on location: for example the mountain ranges in the background are not added in with computer-generated imagery, but part of the actual location shot. The interiors of buildings such as the Golden Hall, however, were located on soundstages in other parts of New Zealand; when the camera is inside of the Golden Hall, looking out the open gates, the image of the on-set Edoras set is digitally inserted into the door-frame. It was known among the cast and crew for being extremely windy, as can be seen during the film and DVD interviews. After filming, Mount Sunday was returned to its original state.[25]



This list identifies each item's location in Tolkien's writings.
  1. ^ a b Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Book V Ch. 5, The Ride of the Rohirrim: "his banner blew in the wind, white horse upon a field of green"; Book V Ch. 10, The Black Gate Opens: "the banners of Rohan and Dol Amroth, White Horse and Silver Swan"; Book VI Ch. 4, The Field of Cormallen: "white on green, a great horse running free"; Appendix A, II, The House of Eorl: "the White Horse upon Green flew in many winds until Éomer grew old.", ISBN 0-395-08256-0
  2. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1994). "The White Rider". The Two Towers. Book III, Chapter 5. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.CS1 maint: location (link)
  3. ^ a b J.R.R Tolkien, The making of Appendix A, in 'The Peoples of Middle-Earth' p.273
  4. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1954), The Two Towers, 2nd edition (1966), George Allen & Unwin, book 3 ch. VI p. 125 ("they heard below them in the town the heralds"); ISBN 0 04 823046 4
  5. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1980), Unfinished Tales, George Allen & Unwin, part 3, ch. V. Appendix (i) p. 367 footnote; ISBN 0-04-823179-7
  6. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1967), Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings, in Wayne G. Hammond & Christina Scull (2005), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, Harper Collins, p. 771; ISBN 0 00 720308 X
  7. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1980), Unfinished Tales, George Allen & Unwin, part 3, ch. V. Appendix (i) p. 367; ISBN 0-04-823179-7
  8. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1967), Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings, in Wayne G. Hammond & Christina Scull (2005), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, Harper Collins, pp. 769 & 778; ISBN 0 00 720308 X
  9. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1996), The Peoples of Middle-earth (being volume 12 of The History of Middle-earth), Houghton Mifflin, part 1, ch. IX (iii), p. 273; ISBN 0-395-82760-4
  10. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Two Towers, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Book III, Ch. 6, The King of the Golden Hall: "a small shield he also took. It bore the running horse, white upon green, that was the emblem of the House of Eorl.", ISBN 0-395-08254-4
  11. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Appendix F, On Translation, ISBN 0-395-08256-0
  12. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #211, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
  13. ^ Unfinished Tales, p. 326 n. 26
  14. ^ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien editor, Unfinished Tales, (1980). It is explained in this passage that: "... before the attacks of Saruman a Full Muster would probably have produced many more than twelve thousand riders ..."p. 315.
  15. ^ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien editor,The War of the Ring, Houghton Mifflin, (1990), p.249, In one of the drafts of the early chaprters of Book V, Aragorn tells Théoden that the entire force assembled at Dunharrow amounted to about 20,000, nearly 10,000 Riders and an equal amount on foot; however, this was stated to include contingents of Dunlanders and Woodmen.
  16. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1980), Unfinished Tales, George Allen & Unwin, part 3 ch. 2(iii) p. 307; ISBN 0-04-823179-7
  17. ^ J.R.R. Tolkien, "The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001, p. 8.
  18. ^ The Two Towers, ch. 6; the comparison is repeatedly noted in the Tolkien literature; recently by Grigsby (2005) and Solopova (2009).
  19. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Ballantine Books, Part III, V, Appendix.


  1. ^ Shippey, Tom (1982). The Road to Middle-Earth. Grafton (HarperCollins). p. 111. ISBN 0261102753.
  2. ^ The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, No. 297
  3. ^ Fonstad, Karen Wynn (1994), The Atlas of Tolkien's Middle-earth, revised paperback edition, Harper Collins, Appendix p. 191; ISBN 0 261 10277 X
  4. ^ Martinez, Michael (2016-02-25). "What is the Area of Gondor?". Middle-earth & J.R.R. Tolkien Blog. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  5. ^ Bosworth, eodor
  6. ^ Bosworth, medu-seld
  7. ^ Shippey, Tom (2001). J. R. R. Tolkien | Author of the Century. HarperCollins. p. 99. ISBN 978-0261-104013.
  8. ^ It is line 311 of Beowulf. Shippey, Tom (1982). The Road to Middle-Earth. Grafton (HarperCollins). p. 112. ISBN 0261102753.
  9. ^ Shippey, T. A. (2005) [1982]. The Road to Middle-earth (3rd ed.). HarperCollins. p. 132. ISBN 0-261-10275-3.
  10. ^ Noel, Ruth S. (1977). The Mythology of Middle-earth. Houghton Mifflin. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-39525-006-8.
  11. ^ a b c d e Honegger, Thomas (2011). Fisher, Jason (ed.). The Rohirrim: 'Anglo-Saxons on Horseback'? An inquiry into Tolkien's use of sources. Tolkien and the Study of His Sources: Critical Essays. Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland. pp. 116–132.
  12. ^ Chance, Jane (2004). Tolkien and the Invention of Myth: A Reader. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-0-8131-2301-1.
  13. ^ Solopova, Elizabeth (2009), Languages, Myths and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J.R.R. Tolkien's Fiction, New York City: North Landing Books, p. 51, ISBN 0-9816607-1-1
  14. ^ Day, David (2017). "The Northmen of Rhovanion". The Heroes of Tolkien. Hachette UK. ISBN 978-0-75373-271-7.
  15. ^ a b Bosworth, eóred
  16. ^ "Déorwine". Encyclopedia of Arda. Mark Fisher. 23 May 1999.
  17. ^ a b Bosworth, mearh, horse
  18. ^ a b "Rohan language". Tolkien Gateway. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  19. ^ Solopova 2009, p. 84.
  20. ^ Bosworth, mearc
  21. ^ a b Shippey, Tom (1982). The Road to Middle-Earth. Grafton (HarperCollins). pp. 111–119. ISBN 0261102753.
  22. ^ Nitzsche, Jane Chance (1980) [1979]. Tolkien's Art. Papermac. pp. 114–118. ISBN 0-333-29034-8.
  23. ^ Ciabattari, Jane (20 November 2014). "Hobbits and hippies: Tolkien and the counterculture". BBC Culture.
  24. ^ "New Zealand The Home of Middle-earth". Film New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2007-04-03. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  25. ^ Brodie, Ian (2002). The Lord of the Rings Location. Harper Collins. ISBN 1-86950-452-6.

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