Rolex Kentucky Three-Day Event
The Rolex Kentucky Three Day Event is an eventing competition held at the Kentucky Horse Park in Lexington, Kentucky. Rolex Kentucky is a CCI**** eventing competition. Four stars is the highest level of competition in the sport, the same level of competition as Eventing at the Olympics and the World Equestrian Games. The event is sponsored by Rolex watches and is known by many equestrians simply as Rolex. Prize money of $350,000 is distributed among the top placings with $110,000 as well as a Rolex watch awarded to the first place horse and rider.
Although the event's name continues to reflect its roots as a three-day competition, Rolex currently takes place over four days (Thursday through Sunday). Due to large number of entries, both Thursday and Friday are devoted to Dressage. Cross-country is on Saturday, and show-jumping is on Sunday.
In 1974, Bruce Davidson and the United States Equestrian Team won individual and team gold at the World Championships held in Burghley, England and Bowers took 2nd place. This gave the United States the right to hold the next World Championships four years later, in 1978. The Kentucky Horse Park in Lexington, Kentucky was due to open around the same time, and plans were made to hold the World Championships there.
Equestrian Events, Inc. (EEI) was formed to as a non-profit organization to help plan the competition and raise public awareness. The first horse trials at the Kentucky Horse Park was held in 1976, to prepare. In 1977, the National Pony Club Rally and the North American Junior Three-Day Event Championships were also held there.
The 1978 event had more than 170,000 spectators and added more than $4 million to the local economy. The event was broadcast worldwide, as well as nationally on CBS. The success of the World Championships helped to convince the EEU to continue the event annually. Today, the event is broadcast worldwide in 18 languages.
Although the event began as an advanced three-day, and later included open intermediate and preliminary competitions, today it only holds the highest level: the CCI****. Intermediate-level competition was held in 1979 and from 1985 to 1981. An Advanced-level CCI was held from 1980 to 1999 up to the *** level, with Advanced Horse Trials (non-CCI) also held from 1992 to 1996. The CCI**** was begun in 1998, and has been held annually since. Since 2000, the CCI**** is the only competition held during this time, and the preliminary, intermediate, and CCI*** levels are not offered.
Rolex Kentucky had also hoped to continue the classic format, despite the other major events around the world switching to the short format. Originally, the plan was to alternate years, offering the short format in even-numbered years as preparation for the Olympic games or the World Championship, while running the classic format in odd-numbered years. However, in 2006 it was announced that, due to lack of funds and interest from upper level riders, the event would only offer the short format. Therefore, all competition run before 2005 (excluding the 2004 Modified division) was run "classic format," and the 2006 event onward will be run in the "short format."
The CCI**** competition was first suggested in 1994 by Denny Emerson, who believed The United States had enough competitors at this high level to warrant the development of a four star. Previously, American riders trained in England when they were preparing for international competition, as the country had the only two annual CCI**** at that time: Badminton and Burghley. The USET began making plans in 1996, and held the country's first and the world's third annual four-star competition at the Kentucky Horse Park in 1998.
Physicality of the sport
This sport takes many different precautions concerning the horse's health. Two horses died of a heart attack on the course in April 2008.
Self-efficacy is a way to assess themselves and the horse using a scientific method. Evaluating the health of the horse is important because the horse could easily get injured.
A study was done to compare the heart rate between a trained and untrained horse. The results show that trained horses do not have more stress or pain in comparison with untrained horses. However, if evaluated 30 minutes before competition, the trained horse would show less stress. According to this experiment the training method, "Deep and Round", put more stress on the horse.
Previous rider/horse winners
- 1978 World Three Day Event Championships: Team Gold- Canada; Individual Gold- Bruce Davidson / Might Tango
- 1979 Modified Open Intermediate 3-Day (No Roads & Tracks): Juliet Bishop (CAN) / Taxi
- 1980 Modified Advanced 3-Day (No Roads & Tracks): Torrance Watkins / Poltroon
- 1981 Modified Advanced 3-Day (USET Selection Trials): James C. Wofford / Carawich
- 1982 Advanced 3-Day (CCI): Kim Walnes/ The Gray Goose
- 1983 Advanced 3-Day (CCI): Bruce Davidson / JJ Babu
- 1984 Advanced 3-Day (CCI): Bruce Davidson / Dr. Peaches
- 1985 Advanced 3-Day (CCI): Derek di Grazia / Sasquatch
- 1986 Advanced 3-Day (CCI): James C. Wofford / The Optimist
- 1987 Advanced 3-Day (CCI): Kerry Millikin / The Pirate
- 1988 Advanced 3-Day (CCI)- Olympic Selection Trial: Bruce Davidson / Dr. Peaches
- 1989 Advanced 3-Day (CCI)- Olympic Selection Trial: Bruce Davidson / Dr. Peaches
- 1990 Advanced 3-Day (CCI**)- World Championships Selection Trial: David O'Connor / Wilton Fair
- 1991 Advanced 3-Day (CCI***): Karen Lende / Mr. Maxwell
- 1992 Advanced 3-Day (CCI***)- Olympic Selection Trial: Stuart Young-Black (CAN) / Von Perrier
- 1993 Advanced 3-Day (CCI***)- Olympic Selection Trial: Bruce Davidson / Happy Talk
- 1994 Advanced 3-Day (CCI***)- Olympic Selection Trial: Julie Gomena / Treaty
- 1995 Advanced 3-Day (CCI***)- Olympic Qualifying Competition: David O'Connor / Custom Made
- 1996 Advanced 3-Day (CCI***)- USET Selection Trial: Stephen Bradley / Dr. Dolittle
- 1997 Advanced 3-Day (CCI***)- USET Selection Trial: Karen O'Connor / Worth the Trust
- 1998 CCI****: Nick Larkin (NZL) / Red; CCI***: Tiffani Loudon / Makabi
- 1999 CCI****: Karen O'Connor / Prince Panache; CCI***: Kimberly Vinoski / Over the Limit
- 2000 CCI****: Blyth Tait (NZL) / Welton Envoy
- 2001 CCI****: David O'Connor / Giltedge
- 2002 CCI****: Kim Severson-Vinoski / Winsome Adante
- 2003 CCI****: Pippa Funnell (GBR) / Primmore's Pride
- 2004 CCI****: Kim Severson / Winsome Adante. Modified (without steeplechase) CCI****: Darren Chiacchia/Windfall II
- 2005 CCI****: Kim Severson / Winsome Adante
- 2006 CCI**** without steeplechase: Andrew Hoy (AUS)/ Master Monarch
- 2007 CCI**** Clayton Fredericks (AUS) / Ben Along Time
- 2008 CCI**** Phillip Dutton (USA) / Connaught
- 2009 CCI**** Lucinda Fredericks (AUS) / Headley Britannia
- 2010 CCI**** William Fox-Pitt (GBR) / Cool Mountain
- 2011 CCI**** Mary King (GBR) / Kings Temptress (also took 2nd place aboard Fernhill Urco)
- 2012 CCI**** William Fox-Pitt (GBR) / Parklane Hawk
- 2013 CCI**** Andrew Nicholson (NZL) / Quimbo
- 2014 CCI**** William Fox-Pitt (GBR) / Bay My Hero
- 2015 CCI**** Michael Jung (GER) / fischerRocana FST
- 2016 CCI**** Michael Jung (GER) / fischerRocana FST
- Thomas, Katie. "Equestrians' Deaths Spread Unease in Sports Growing Ranks." New York Times. April 9, 2008.
- Beauchamp, Mark R. "Self-efficacy and Other-Efficacy in Dyadic Performance: Riding as one in Equestrian Eventing." Journal of Sported and Exercise Psychology. June 2008.
- van Breda, Eric. "A Nonnatural head-neck Position (Rollkur) during Training Results in Less Acute Stress in Elite, Trained, Dressage horses." Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 2006.