Rolex Sea Dweller
The Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date Sea-Dweller is a line of diver's watches manufactured by Rolex, with an underwater diving depth rating of 1,220 meters (4 000 ft) and up to 3,900 metres (12,800 ft) for the Sea-Dweller Deepsea model. Launched in 1967 with a diving depth of 610 metres (2 000 ft), the Sea-Dweller features a gas escape valve, developed by the brand specifically for watches, which allows the helium trapped in the watch while under water to be released at a given pressure during decompression, while preserving the watch case's waterproofness. Today's Sea-Dweller models are available in steel or steel and yellow gold, and have a 43 mm case.
The Deepsea model comes in a 44 mm case in steel and is equipped with the brand's patented Ringlock system, which was designed to provide a higher degree of pressure resistance.
During the 1960s, the needs of professional divers working at great depths led to the development of the first 'ultra water resistant' tool watches designed for conducting safe diving operations at 300 m+ (1,000 ft+) depths.
The Rolex Oyster Perpetual Sea-Dweller Submariner 2000 with reference number 1665 was originally developed in 1967 but became available to the public only in 1971. This delay was probably caused by issues with obtaining the patent for the helium escape valve. The Rolex helium valve was the idea of Robert A. Barth, a US Navy diver who pioneered saturation diving during the US Navy Genesis and SEALAB missions led by Dr. George F. Bond. In the past, it was wrongly assumed the Sea-Dweller was developed in cooperation with Comex S.A. industrial deep-sea diving but the French company became a partner of Rolex only in late 1971. The first version of the Sea-Dweller was the so-called "Single Red" with a depth rating of 500 metres (1,600 ft). Most of these watches were awarded to pioneers in underwater exploration like Robert Palmer Bradley, who was a pilot of Deepstar 4000. Later versions had an increased depth rating of 610 metres (2,000 ft).
Most Sea-Dweller watches incorporate a helium escape valve for saturation diving. Early Sea-Dwellers, however, did not always have the valve. Until the 2017 introduction of the reference number 126600, Sea-Dweller's were also distinguished by the absence of the date magnifier ("cyclops") present on most other Rolex models as it was impossible to attach a cyclops with Ultraviolet (UV) light curing adhesive at the top of a watch crystal exposed to the pressure encountered at its test depth. The Sea-Dweller diving watch range has been standard issue for Comex divers since 1977.
The Sea-Dweller Submariner 2000 watches have two red text lines on the watch dial, which led to an unofficial "Double Red" designation by watch collectors. The Rolex Sea-Dweller 2000 watch case has a diameter of 40.0 mm (1.57 in) mm and a thickness of 14.7 mm (0.58 in).
The Sea-Dweller Submariner 2000 models were succeeded by the Rolex Oyster Perpetual Sea-Dweller 4000 (4000 ft = 1220 m) model, with an increased depth rating to 1,220 metres (4,000 ft). The last Comex Sea-Dweller 4000 Rolex reference number is 16600. This watch was issued to Comex divers since 1992. The Rolex Sea-Dweller 4000 watch case has a diameter of 40.0 mm (1.57 in) mm and a thickness of 15.5 mm (0.61 in) ( crystal thickness 4 mm (0.16 in)), and the case and bracelet weigh 165 g (5.8 oz). The watch was discontinued in 2008.
In 2014 Rolex re-introduced the Sea-Dweller with a new 116600 reference. This watch retained the historic 40mm case size but was updated with a cerachrom ceramic bezel and the new ‘Maxi dial’. The bracelet was updated with the new ‘glidelock extension’ system.
At the BaselWorld watch and jewellery show 2017, Rolex introduced an enlarged Sea-Dweller model featuring a date magnifier on a redesigned watch crystal and an updated automatic movement (Calibre 3235). Its reference number is 126600. The Rolex Sea-Dweller 126600 watch case has a diameter of 43.0 mm (1.69 in) mm.
Several semi-custom production runs of Sea-Dweller Submariner 2000 and 4000 models were produced with and without helium escape valves and differing watch dial patterns for the Comex S.A. company. These variants sometimes also had differing Rolex reference numbers. Some of these non-standard Sea-Dweller watches had the Comex S.A. logo depicted on the watch dial, which led to an unofficial "COMEX watches" designation by collectors. These watches were either issued to Comex staff members or were given as business gifts.
Rolex Sea-Dweller Deepsea variant
At the BaselWorld watch and jewellery show 2008, Rolex introduced an updated Sea-Dweller model named the Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date Sea-Dweller Deepsea. Its reference number is 116660.
With an official depth rating of 3,900 metres (12,800 ft), the Sea-Dweller deepsea represented in its launch year the most water resistant mechanical watch in serial production. To obtain this official depth rating, the Sea-Dweller deepsea is tested to a depth of 4,875 metres (15,994 ft) to offer the 25% safety reserve required by the ISO 6425 divers' watches standard. To test the water resistance of the Sea-Dweller DEEPSEA, Rolex uses testing equipment developed for them by Comex.
Normal surface air filled watch cases and crystals designed for extreme depths must be large to cope with the water pressure.
The Rolex Sea-Dweller deepsea watch case has a diameter of 44.0 mm (1.73 in) mm and a thickness of 17.7 mm (0.70 in) (domed crystal thickness 5.5 mm (0.22 in)), and the case and bracelet weigh 212 g (7.5 oz).
Other features which came with the Deepsea at 2008 was the "Ringlock System" for sealing the sapphire crystal to the case, a caseback made of titanium/steel alloy, the "Glidelock-clasp" and diver extension link, "maxi-dial", engraved rehaut, ceramic bezel with platinum-filled numbers, calibre 3135 with antimagnetic Parachrome-Blue-hairspring and blue "Chromalight" loom.
The first variant of Sea-Dweller Deepsea reference 116660 has a classic black dial with white text on the dial.
A second "D-Blue"-variant was released in 2014 in honor of James Cameron and his journey to the deepest area of the ocean in the year 2012. It has a blue/black dial and green colored "DEEPSEA"-label.
A new Deepsea model reference 126660 was introduced at Baselworld 2018. It is equipped with the calibre 3235, a broader bracelet and resized folding clasp and a slightly redesigned case.
The design and actual availability of diving watches certified for more than 1,000 m (3,281 ft) is not solely explicable by practical diving needs.
The diving depth record for actual offshore diving was achieved in 1988 by a team of professional divers of the Comex S.A. industrial deep-sea diving company performing pipeline connection exercises at a depth of 534 metres (1,752 ft) of seawater (msw) in the Mediterranean Sea. They wore Rolex Sea-Dwellers.
In 1992, Comex diver Theo Mavrostomos achieved a record of 701 metres (2,300 ft) of seawater (msw) in an onshore hyperbaric chamber. He took 43 days to complete the dive. The watch used during this scientific record dive, where a hydrogen-helium-oxygen (hydreliox) gas mixture was used as breathing gas, was a Rolex Sea-Dweller 16600 with a 1,220 m (4,000 ft) depth rating. Rolex used this achievement in advertising campaigns.
The complexity, medical problems and physiological limits, such as those imposed by high pressure nervous syndrome, the accompanying high costs of professional saturation diving to extreme depths and the development of deep water atmospheric diving suits and remotely operated underwater vehicles in offshore oilfield drilling and production effectively ended the need for ever deeper, non-atmospheric manned intervention in the ocean. These practical factors make watch depth ratings of more than 1,000 m (3,281 ft) marketing curiosities.
Experimental Sea-Dweller DEEPSEA CHALLENGE watch
In late March 2012, Rolex announced that a new prototype diving watch was developed and is part of the Rolex supported attempt to dive the DSV Deepsea Challenger to the bottom of the Challenger Deep, the deepest surveyed point in the oceans. On 26 March 2012 the DSV Deepsea Challenger carried a Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date Sea-Dweller DEEPSEA CHALLENGE prototype diving watch strapped to its manipulator arm to a depth of 10,898.4 metres (35,756 ft) of seawater (msw). The experimental Sea-Dweller DEEPSEA CHALLENGE watch is designed to be waterproof up to 12,000 metres (39,370 ft). According to the pilot of the DSV Deepsea Challenger, James Cameron, the "Rolex Deepsea Challenge was the reliable companion throughout the dive; it was visible on the sub's manipulator arm and working precisely at 10,898 meters down at the bottom of the Challenger Deep." The normal surface air filled watch case has a diameter of 51.4 mm (2.02 in) and a thickness of 28.5 mm (1.12 in) (domed synthetic sapphire crystal 14.3 mm (0.56 in)) to cope with the water pressure at the deepest surveyed point in the oceans.
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- "Discover more on Rolex.com". Rolex. Retrieved 2019-07-26.
- Perezcope – Rolex Single Red Sea-Dweller Ref. 1665 at Phillips GWA8
- Rolex "Double Red" Sea-Dweller Submariner 2000
- Dials of the Double Red
- Rolex Double Red Sea Dweller with the Patent Pending Caseback by Delgado
- The Rolex Sea-Dweller
- Battle Of Three Rolex Divers
- All you need to know about the Rolex Sea-Dweller 43mm Ref. 126600 – Why it is like it is?
- COMEX Watches by Delgado Archived 2008-03-19 at the Wayback Machine
- The Rolex ref.1665 Patent Pending Sea-Dweller
- Rolex Sea-Dweller DEEPSEA by rruegger (in German)
- Hubbard, Paul (2008-04-03). "The New Rolex Sea-Dweller DEEPSEA". Watch Report.
- The deep dive watch The Rolex DEEPSEA brochure
- Rolex Sea-Dweller DEEPSEA 2018 (in English)
- Comex S.A. HYDRA 8 and HYDRA 10 test projects Archived 2008-10-05 at the Wayback Machine
- COMEX Watches by Guill@ume and Delgado Archived 2008-03-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Technology: Dry run for deepest dive
- Advertisements referring to Comex divers using Rolex watches
- The Rolex Deepsea Challenge Archived 2012-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
- "Deepsea Challenge". National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
- ROLEX Sea-Dweller DEEPSEA Challenge
- Rolex Deepsea Challenge: Deepest Point On Earth by Kyle Stults, March 26, 2012
- James Cameron about the Rolex DEEPSEA CHALLENGE Archived 2012-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
- Rolex Deepsea Challenge Watch by Kyle Stults, March 20, 2012