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Rolled oats

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A tablespoon of rolled oats
Rolled oats, dry
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy379 kcal (1,590 kJ)
67.70 g
Sugars0.99 g
Dietary fiber10.1 g
6.52 g
13.15 g
Vitamin A equiv.
0 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.460 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.155 mg
Niacin (B3)
1.125 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
1.120 mg
Vitamin B6
0.1 mg
Folate (B9)
32 μg
Vitamin B12
0.00 μg
40.4 mg
Vitamin C
0 mg
Vitamin D
0 μg
Vitamin E
0.42 mg
Vitamin K
2.0 μg
52 mg
4.25 mg
138 mg
3.630 mg
410 mg
362 mg
6 mg
3.64 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
β-glucan (soluble fibre) 4 g

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[1] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[2]

Rolled oats are a type of lightly processed whole-grain food. They are made from oat groats that have been dehusked and steamed, before being rolled into flat flakes under heavy rollers and then stabilized by being lightly toasted.[3]

Thick-rolled oats usually remain unbroken during processing, while thin-rolled oats often become fragmented. Rolled whole oats, without further processing, can be cooked into a porridge and eaten as old-fashioned oats or Scottish oats; when the oats are rolled thinner and steam-cooked more in the factory, they will later absorb water much more easily and cook faster into a porridge, and when processed this way are sometimes called "quick" or "instant" oats.[3]

Rolled oats are most often the main ingredient in granola and muesli. They can be further processed into a coarse powder, which breaks down to nearly a liquid consistency when boiled. Cooked oatmeal powder is often used as baby food.


The oat, like other cereals, has a hard, inedible outer husk that must be removed before the grain can be eaten. After the outer husk (or chaff) has been removed from the still bran-covered oat grains, the remainder is called oat groats.[3] Since the bran layer, though nutritious, makes the grains tougher to chew and contains an enzyme that can cause the oats to go rancid, raw oat groats are often further steam-treated to soften them for a quicker cooking time and to denature the enzymes for a longer shelf life.[3][4]

Steel-cut or pinhead oats[edit]

Steel-cut oats (sometimes called "pinhead oats", especially if cut small) are oat groats that have been chopped by a sharp-bladed machine before any steaming, and thus retain bits of the bran layer.[3]


Rolled oats can be eaten without further heating or cooking, if they are soaked for 1–6 hours in water-based liquid, such as water, milk, or plant-based dairy substitutes. The required soaking duration depends on shape, size and pre-processing technique.

Whole oat groats can be cooked as a breakfast cereal in the same general way as the various forms of oatmeal, rolled oats, and pinhead oats; they simply take longer to cook.[3][5] Rolled oats are used in granola, muesli, oatcakes, and flapjacks (the style of "flapjack" that is like a granola bar, not a pancake).


Whole oats (uncooked) are 68% carbohydrates, 6% fat, and 13% protein (table). In a 100-gram reference amount, whole oats supply 379 calories and contain high amounts (20% or more the Daily Value, DV) of the B vitaminsthiamine and pantothenic acid (40% and 22% DV, respectively) – and several dietary minerals, especially manganese (173% DV) and phosphorus (59% DV). As a rich source of dietary fiber (10 grams per 100 gram serving), whole oats supply beta-glucan (4 grams per 100 gram serving; table), a soluble fiber with cholesterol-lowering effects.[3][6][7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". FDA. Archived from the original on 27 March 2024. Retrieved 28 March 2024.
  2. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154. Archived from the original on 9 May 2024. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Oats". The Nutrition Source, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University. 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  4. ^ "Types of Oats". The Whole Grain Council. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  5. ^ Cloake, Felicity (10 November 2011). "How to cook perfect porridge". The Guardian.
  6. ^ Whitehead A, Beck EJ, Tosh S, Wolever TM (2014). "Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Am J Clin Nutr. 100 (6): 1413–21. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086108. PMC 5394769. PMID 25411276.
  7. ^ Joyce, Susan A.; Kamil, Alison; Fleige, Lisa; Gahan, Cormac G. M. (2019). "The Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Oats and Oat Beta Glucan: Modes of Action and Potential Role of Bile Acids and the Microbiome". Frontiers in Nutrition. 6: 171. doi:10.3389/fnut.2019.00171. ISSN 2296-861X. PMC 6892284. PMID 31828074.