Rolls-Royce Trent 1000
|Rolls Royce Trent 1000 displayed at Virginia Tech|
|National origin||United Kingdom|
|First run||14 February 2006|
|Major applications||Boeing 787 Dreamliner|
|Unit cost||US$ 41.7 million incl. support|
|Developed into||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB|
The Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 is a British turbofan engine, developed from earlier Trent series engines. The Trent 1000 powered the Boeing 787 Dreamliner on its maiden flight, and on its first commercial flight.
On 6 April 2004 Boeing announced that it had selected two engine partners for its new 787: Rolls-Royce and General Electric (GE). In June 2004, the first public engine selection was made by Air New Zealand who chose the Trent 1000 for its two firm orders. In the largest 787 order, that of Japan's All Nippon Airways, Rolls-Royce was selected as the engine supplier. The deal is valued at $1bn (£560m) and covers 30 787-3s and 20 787-8s.
The first run of the Trent 1000 was on 14 February 2006. First flight on Rolls-Royce's own flying testbed (a modified Boeing 747-200) was successfully performed on 18 June 2007 from TSTC Waco Airport. The engine received joint certification from the FAA and EASA on 7 August 2007 (7-8-7 in Europe).
The Trent 1000 is the launch engine on both initial 787 variants, the -8 with ANA and the -9 with Air New Zealand. On 7 July 2007, Rolls Royce secured its largest ever order from an aircraft leasing company when International Lease Finance Corporation placed an order worth $1.3 billion at list prices for Trent 1000s to power 40 of the 787s which it has on order ($16.25 m per engine). On 27 September 2007 British Airways announced the selection of the Trent 1000 to power 24 Boeing 787 aircraft.
The 787 was introduced in September 2011 with Package A with 1% worse thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) than the initial Boeing specification, which was matched by Package B certified in December 2011, then improved by Package C offering 1% better fuel burn than specified and EASA certified in September 2013. From early operations, GE claimed a 2% fuel burn advantage and 1% better performance retention.
In March 2014, of the 787 firm orderbook, Rolls had 321 (31%), GE 564 (55%) and 146 were undecided (14%). The performance improvement packages rectified fuel burn and reliability issues, but problems in the active fleet persist and durability problems with certain components remain for 400 to 500 engines in 2017.
Corrosion-related fatigue cracking of IPT blades was discovered at All Nippon Airways in early 2016. Engines showing excessive corrosion are pulled from service and repaired in a shop visit, more corrosion-resistant blades have been developed and are rolled-out. HPT blades fatigue is checked and IPC rotor seals are inspected but several airlines had to ground 787s. Rolls had to spend about $35 million on unexpected “technical provisions” for its in-service Trent 1000 fleet in 2017.
Trent 1000 TEN
Rolls-Royce developed an improved version of the Trent 1000, which achieves reduced fuel burn via an improved intermediate pressure compressor, in which the aft (rear) stages spin at higher speeds; three blade blisks were introduced in the new compressor. The engine first ran in mid-2014 and 75% of its parts are new or changed from the 1000.
Rolls-Royce claims that the new design is helping the company reduce General Electric's dominance of the Boeing 787 engine market, with 42% of newly declared engine orders now going to Rolls. It was certified by the EASA in July 2016. Claiming to offer up to 3% lower fuel burn than the competition, it first flew on a Boeing 787 on 7 December 2016. Combining features from the Trent XWB of the Airbus A350 and Advance3 core technology, beginning in 2017 Rolls-Royce will provide the Trent 1000 TEN as its engine option for the Boeing 787.
Initially, Boeing toyed with the idea of sole sourcing the powerplant for the 787, with GE being the most likely candidate. However, potential customers demanded choices and Boeing relented.
For the first time in commercial aviation, both engine types will have a standard interface with the aircraft, allowing any 787 to be fitted with either a GE or Rolls-Royce engine at any time as long as the pylon is also modified. Engine interchangeability makes the 787 a more flexible asset to airlines, allowing them to change from one manufacturer's engine to the other's in light of any future engine developments which conform more closely to their operating profile. The cost of such a change would require a significant operating cost difference between the two engine types to make it economical - a difference that does not exist with the engines today.
As with earlier variants of the Trent family, Rolls partnered with risk and revenue sharing partners on the Trent 1000 program. This time there were six partners: Kawasaki Heavy Industries (intermediate compressor module), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (combustor and low pressure turbine blades), Industria de Turbo Propulsores (low pressure turbine), Carlton Forge Works (fan case), Hamilton Sundstrand (gearbox) and Goodrich Corporation (engine control system). Altogether, these partners have a 35 percent stake in the program.
The Trent 1000 family makes extensive use of technology derived from the Trent 8104 demonstrator. In order to fulfill Boeing's requirement for a "more-electric" engine, the Trent 1000 is a bleedless design, with power take-off from the intermediate-pressure (IP) spool instead of the high-pressure (HP) spool found in other members of the Trent family. A 2.8 m (110 in) diameter swept-back fan, with a smaller diameter hub to help maximize airflow, was specified. The bypass ratio has been increased over previous variants by suitable adjustments to the core flow.
A high pressure ratio along with contra-rotating the IP and HP spools improves efficiency.[not in citation given] The use of more legacy components reduces the parts count to minimise maintenance costs. A tiled combustor is featured.
Variants were certified by the EASA
- on 7 August 2007
- Trent 1000‐A, Trent 1000‐C, Trent 1000‐D, Trent 1000‐E, Trent 1000‐G, Trent 1000‐H
- on 10 September 2013
- Trent 1000‐A2, Trent 1000‐C2, Trent 1000‐D2, Trent 1000‐E2, Trent 1000‐G2, Trent 1000‐H2, Trent 1000‐J2, Trent 1000‐K2, Trent 1000‐L2
- on 6 May 2015
- Trent 1000‐AE, Trent 1000‐CE, Trent 1000‐AE2, Trent 1000‐CE2
- on 11 July 2016
- Trent 1000‐AE3, Trent 1000‐CE3, Trent 1000‐D3, Trent 1000‐G3, Trent 1000‐H3, Trent 1000‐J3, Trent 1000‐K3, Trent 1000‐L3, Trent 1000‐M3, Trent 1000‐N3, Trent 1000‐P3, Trent 1000‐Q3, Trent 1000‐R3
|Trent 1000-A||August 2007||69,294 lbf (308.24 kN)||64,722 lbf (287.90 kN)|
|Trent 1000-C||August 2007||74,511 lbf (331.44 kN)||69,523 lbf (309.25 kN)|
|Trent 1000-D||August 2007||74,511 lbf (331.44 kN)||69,523 lbf (309.25 kN)|
|Trent 1000-E||August 2007||62,264 lbf (276.96 kN)||58,866 lbf (261.85 kN)|
|Trent 1000-G||August 2007||72,066 lbf (320.57 kN)||64,722 lbf (287.90 kN)|
|Trent 1000-H||August 2007||63,897 lbf (284.23 kN)||58,866 lbf (261.85 kN)|
|Trent 1000-Z||August 2007||77,826 lbf (346.19 kN)|
Data from EASA
- Type: Three-shaft high bypass ratio turbofan engine
- Length: 4.738 m (186.5 in)
- Diameter: 285 cm (112 in) (Fan)
- Dry weight: 5,936–6,120 kg (13,087–13,492 lb)
- Compressor: one-stage LP (fan), eight-stage IP, six-stage HP compressor
- Combustors: single annular combustor with 18‐off fuel spray nozzles
- Turbine: Single-stage HP turbine (13391 RPM), single-stage IP turbine (8937 RPM), six-stage LP turbine (2683 RPM)
- Maximum thrust: 265.3–360.4 kN (59,600–81,000 lbf)
- Overall pressure ratio: 50:1
- Bypass ratio: >10:1
- Air mass flow: 1,290 kg (2,840 lb) per second[verification needed]
- Thrust-to-weight ratio: 6.01(Trent 1000‐R)
- Comparable engines
- Related lists
- "Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Engines worth $500m to power Ethiopian Airlines" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 17 June 2015.
- "Trent 1000 completes testbed run". Flight International. 22 February 2006.
- "Rolls-Royce flies Boeing 787’s Trent 1000 engine on 747 testbed". Flight International. 19 June 2007.
- "European and US regulators certify Trent 1000 for Boeing 787". Flight International. 7 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
- "787 special: Starting block". Flight International. 26 September 2006.
- "ILFC selects Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 for 40 Boeing 787s" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 6 Jul 2007.
- "FAA confirms Trent 1000 failure was uncontained". 2010-08-24.
- Guy Norris (Sep 6, 2010). . Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Tim Kelly (26 October 2011). "Dreamliner carries its first passengers and Boeing's hopes". Reuters.
- François Julian (12 Sep 2013). "Nouveau standard de performances pour le Trent 1000". Air & Cosmos (in French).
- Guy Norris (Jun 26, 2012). "Operators Reporting Positive 787 Fuel-Burn Results". Aviation Week.
- Guy Norris. "GE Extends 787 Engine Market Lead Mar 25, 2014". Aviation Week.
- Alex Derber (Aug 10, 2017). "Learning Lessons From The Trent 1000". Aviation Week Network.
- Sean Broderick (Aug 31, 2017). "Issues With Newest Engines Provide Early MRO-Proving Opportunities". Aviation Week Network.
- "Perfect Ten" (PDF). The Magazine. Rolls-Royce. Sep 2015.
- Guy Norris (May 15, 2015). "Trent 1000 TEN Results Exceed Pre-Test Predictions". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 TEN certified by EASA" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 11 July 2016.
- "Trent 1000 TEN flies on the Boeing 787" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 7 December 2016.
- "Civil Aviation Programs To Watch". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Jun 9, 2017.
- Gregory Polek (June 11, 2010). "Questions Arise About Practicality of 787 Standard Engine Interface". Aviation International News.
- Charlotte Adams (1 May 2008). "Green Engines". Aviation Today.
- "Type certificate data sheet" (PDF). EASA. 11 July 2016.
- "Trent 1000 infographic". Rolls-Royce.
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