Rolls-Royce Trent 1000

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Trent 1000
Goodwin Hall Entry Rolls Royce T1000.jpg
Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 displayed at Virginia Tech
Type Turbofan
National origin United Kingdom
Manufacturer Rolls-Royce plc
First run 14 February 2006
Major applications Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Program cost US$7.7 billion[1]
Unit cost US$41.7 million incl. support[2]
Developed into Rolls-Royce Trent XWB
Rolls-Royce Trent 7000

The Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 is a British turbofan engine, developed from earlier Trent series engines. The Trent 1000 powered the Boeing 787 Dreamliner on its maiden flight, and on its first commercial flight.

Development[edit]

On 6 April 2004 Boeing announced that it had selected two engine partners for its new 787: Rolls-Royce and General Electric (GE). In June 2004, the first public engine selection was made by Air New Zealand who chose the Trent 1000 for its two firm orders. In the largest 787 order, that of Japan's All Nippon Airways, Rolls-Royce was selected as the engine supplier. The deal is valued at $1bn (£560m) and covers 30 787-3s and 20 787-8s.

The first run of the Trent 1000 was on 14 February 2006.[3] First flight on Rolls-Royce's own flying testbed (a modified Boeing 747-200) was successfully performed on 18 June 2007 from TSTC Waco Airport.[4] The engine received joint certification from the FAA and EASA on 7 August 2007[5] (7-8-7 in Europe).

The Trent 1000 is the launch engine on both initial 787 variants, the -8 with ANA and the -9 with Air New Zealand.[6] On 7 July 2007, Rolls-Royce secured its largest ever order from an aircraft leasing company when International Lease Finance Corporation placed an order worth $1.3 billion at list prices for Trent 1000s to power 40 of the 787s which it has on order ($16.25 m per engine).[7] On 27 September 2007 British Airways announced the selection of the Trent 1000 to power 24 Boeing 787 aircraft.

On 2 August 2010, a Trent 1000 suffered an uncontained engine failure of the intermediate turbine on a test stand.[8] It was reported as being due to a fire in the engine oil system.[9]

Operational history[edit]

On 26 October 2011, the 787 flew its first commercial flight from Tokyo Narita Airport to Hong Kong International Airport on All Nippon Airways.[10] It was powered by Trent 1000 engines.

The 787 was introduced in September 2011 with Package A with 1% worse thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) than the initial Boeing specification, which was matched by Package B certified in December 2011, then improved by Package C offering 1% better fuel burn than specified and EASA certified in September 2013.[11] From early operations, GE claimed a 2% fuel burn advantage and 1% better performance retention.[12]

In March 2014, of the 787 firm orderbook, Rolls-Royce had 321 (31%), GE 564 (55%) and 146 were undecided (14%).[13] The performance improvement packages rectified fuel burn and reliability issues, but problems in the active fleet persist and durability problems with certain components remain for 400 to 500 engines in 2017.[14]

Blade cracking[edit]

Corrosion-related fatigue cracking of IPT blades was discovered at All Nippon Airways in early 2016. Engines showing excessive corrosion were pulled from service and repaired in a shop visit, more corrosion-resistant blades were developed and rolled-out. HPT blades fatigue was checked and IPC rotor seals inspected but several airlines had to ground 787s. Rolls had to spend $35 million on unexpected “technical provisions” for its in-service Trent 1000 fleet in 2017.[15]

In April 2018, the inspection interval for 380 Package C Trent 1000s was reduced from every 200 flights to every 80 to address durability problems, as the EASA should be followed by the US FAA, reducing ETOPS from 330 to 140 minutes and impacting trans-Pacific flights.[16] On April 17, the US FAA confirmed this ETOPS reduction.[17] On 19 April, the EASA issued an Airworthiness Directive stating "occurrences were reported on RR Trent 1000 ‘Pack C’ engines, where some IPC Rotor 1 and Rotor 2 blades were found cracked. This condition, if not detected and corrected, could lead to in-flight blade release, possibly resulting in reduced control of the aeroplane."[18] EASA inspection rates are increased but ETOPS are maintained.[citation needed]

On 26 April 2018, the FAA limited ETOPS for package C engines.[19] This affected Air Europa, Air New Zealand, Avianca, British Airways, Ethiopian, LATAM, LOT Polish, Norwegian Air, Royal Brunei, Scoot, Thai Airways, Virgin Atlantic.[20]

Boeing dispatched 737 MAX head VP Keith Leverkuhn to help Rolls-Royce overcome the problems, showing their importance as 34 aircraft are grounded and this number could rise in coming months as the 383 affected engines power a quarter of the 787 fleet. The B787 production rise to 14 monthly by mid-2019 should not be affected as 70% have GE Aircraft Engines, but seven new airliners are assembled awaiting engines.[21]

As FAA and EASA airworthiness directives mandated inspections by June 9, grounded airliners should rise to a peak of 50: after 80% of the engines were checked, 29% of them failed inspection and remain grounded. Roll-Royce assigned 200 people to solve the issue and installs a revised IP compressor blade for early June testing, accelerating a permanent fix development to have parts available for overhaul from late 2018.[22] To cover these problems, Rolls budgets £340 million ($450 million) in 2018 and less in 2019, compared to an around £450 million ($643 million) 2018 free cash flow.[23] In early June, a redesigned blade was flight tested on Rolls-Royce's 747-200 as 35 were grounded, and easing ETOPS restrictions would need convincing regulatory agencies that disrupting a single-engine diversion is improbable enough.[24]

A similar IP Compressor durability issue was identified on some Package B engines, the 166 Package B engines will be inspected on-wing as an EASA AD will be published in June 2018. A precautionary redesign of the Package B part was started, as for the Trent 1000 TEN, while its young fleet did not show reduced IPC durability.[25] The Package B in service fleet is currently at 61 while eight are in storage.[26] A compressor blade stocks shortfall led to up to three days longer than planned fixes as grounded jets reach 43, while Rolls dedicated almost £1 billion ($1.3 billion) to address the issues.[27]

Aircraft-on-ground peaked at 44 before falling, less than the 50 expected, and turbine blade capacity, a limiting factor, increased by 50% since 2018 started.[28] The problems should not spread to the Trent XWB, as there is no evidence of similar issues and it was developed with more modern tools and a different design flow - while not enough engines were visited yet to rule it out, or to the Trent 7000 which will include Trent 1000 improvements.[29] A £554 million ($725 million) exceptional expense was taken for 2018, 40% of the total cash cost to 2022, before £450 million in 2019 and £100 million less in 2020.[30]

Mitigation[edit]

Exposing the base material to low-cycle fatigue, the thermal barrier coating on the IP turbine blades was eroded prematurely by “hot corrosion” caused by high atmospheric sulfur due to polluting industries around large Asia-Pacific cities. The initial fix, a revised base material and coating to counter IP turbine corrosion, was installed by September 2018 in over 62% of the affected fleet. Laboratory testing of the newer turbine is satisfactory and the turbine lifetime should be proved by in-service inspections, with some engines already having completed 1,000-1,500 cycles. A materials test program was verified with UK and European universities: low-cycle fatigue tests showed the agent diffusion into the main material was prevented, avoiding microcrack formation. A model predicts the corrosive agents exposure to avoid inspections and to sequence the retrofits.[31]

The failure mechanism was not clearly understood when the issue was discovered in March, after four compressor blades on the first IP rotor and one on the second failed in a high-time engine. Vibration surveys revealed a fan wake affecting the compressor blade, with a 100 Hz frequency difference between the IP and LP spools setting up an eigenmode synchronised vibration in the first two compressor rotors. This caused wear and tear leading to microcracks in the blades roots, growing to proper cracks failing after around 1,000 cycles and resulting in an inflight shutdown. To avoid eigenmodes, Rolls shifts the blade mass from the center towards the periphery. Testing showed no damaging vibration and certification should be approved by year-end, the new blade begun production in anticipation. While it has a different Trent XWB-style IP rotor design with no eigenmode, the same stages were also redesigned for the Trent 1000 TEN, as well as the Trent 7000.[31]

In March, Rolls conservatively limited single engine operating at maximum continuous power to 140 min, leading regulators to restrict ETOPS. Only one engine failed among over 100 showing small cracks, one-third of the suspect population of 366 engines, as crack develops slowly. On the ground at Derby, an instrumented Trent 1000 with cracked rotors ran 10 h at maximum continuous power with no crack propagation, and was then mounted to Rolls' 747 testbed aircraft in mid-September to confirm it is not a high-cycle fatigue problem to ease ETOPS restrictions. Flights should begin at the end of September off the California coast, it will be run at FL120 and maximum power like a single engine ETOPS diversion, to be followed by cold weather tests in Alaska.[31]

Trent 1000 TEN[edit]

Rolls-Royce designed an improved version targeting at least 2% better fuel burn than the current Trent 1000 Package C.[32] Rolls-Royce claims to offer up to 3% lower fuel burn than the competition.[33] The company claims it helps reducing General Electric's dominance of the Boeing 787 engine market, with 42% of newly declared engine orders now going to Rolls-Royce.[34]

It features a scaled version of the Airbus A350's Trent XWB-84 compressor,[32] and Advance3 core technology.[35] Fuel burn is reduced through its improved intermediate pressure compressor where the rear stages spin at higher speeds. Three blisk stages were introduced in the new compressor and 75% of its parts are new or changed from the 1000.[36]

The engine first ran in mid-2014.[36] Rolls-Royce initially hoped to certify the Trent TEN before the end of 2015, and to enter service in late 2016. Revising a weight-saving feature called ‘banded stators’ and other design issues delayed FAA Part 33 engine certification.[32] It was certified by the EASA in July 2016.[37]

It first flew on a Boeing 787 on 7 December 2016.[33] Rolls-Royce will provide the TEN as its engine option for the 787 from 2017.[35] Meeting smoke-emissions limits at landing and takeoff mode points but not at certain thrusts, in August 2017 Rolls-Royce asked the FAA for a temporary exemption through 2019 to develop a modification.[15] European LCC Norwegian Air, Singaporean carrier Scoot and Air New Zealand took delivery of Trent 1000 TEN-powered 787s in November 2017, with the first commercial service on the 23rd.[38]

Design[edit]

Initially, Boeing toyed with the idea of sole sourcing the powerplant for the 787, with GE being the most likely candidate. However, potential customers demanded choices and Boeing relented.

For the first time in commercial aviation, both engine types will have a standard interface with the aircraft, allowing any 787 to be fitted with either a GE or Rolls-Royce engine at any time as long as the pylon is also modified.[39] Engine interchangeability makes the 787 a more flexible asset to airlines, allowing them to change from one manufacturer's engine to the other's in light of any future engine developments which conform more closely to their operating profile. The cost of such a change would require a significant operating cost difference between the two engine types to make it economical - a difference that does not exist with the engines today.

As with earlier variants of the Trent family, Rolls partnered with risk and revenue sharing partners on the Trent 1000 program. This time there were six partners: Kawasaki Heavy Industries (intermediate compressor module), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (combustor and low pressure turbine blades), Industria de Turbo Propulsores (low pressure turbine), Carlton Forge Works (fan case), Hamilton Sundstrand (gearbox) and Goodrich Corporation (engine control system). Altogether, these partners have a 35 percent stake in the program.

The Trent 1000 family makes extensive use of technology derived from the Trent 8104 demonstrator. In order to fulfill Boeing's requirement for a "more-electric" engine, the Trent 1000 is a bleedless design, with power take-off from the intermediate-pressure (IP) spool instead of the high-pressure (HP) spool found in other members of the Trent family. A 2.8 m (110 in) diameter swept-back fan, with a smaller diameter hub to help maximize airflow, was specified. The bypass ratio has been increased over previous variants by suitable adjustments to the core flow.

A high pressure ratio along with contra-rotating the IP and HP spools improves efficiency.[40][not in citation given] The use of more legacy components reduces the parts count to minimise maintenance costs. A tiled combustor is featured.

Applications[edit]

Variants[edit]

Variants were certified by the EASA[41]

on 7 August 2007
Trent 1000‐A, Trent 1000‐C, Trent 1000‐D, Trent 1000‐E, Trent 1000‐G, Trent 1000‐H
on 10 September 2013
Trent 1000‐A2, Trent 1000‐C2, Trent 1000‐D2, Trent 1000‐E2, Trent 1000‐G2, Trent 1000‐H2, Trent 1000‐J2, Trent 1000‐K2, Trent 1000‐L2
on 6 May 2015
Trent 1000‐AE, Trent 1000‐CE, Trent 1000‐AE2, Trent 1000‐CE2
on 11 July 2016
Trent 1000‐AE3, Trent 1000‐CE3, Trent 1000‐D3, Trent 1000‐G3, Trent 1000‐H3, Trent 1000‐J3, Trent 1000‐K3, Trent 1000‐L3, Trent 1000‐M3, Trent 1000‐N3, Trent 1000‐P3, Trent 1000‐Q3, Trent 1000‐R3
Trent 1000 variants[41]
Designation Take-off rating Continuous
Trent 1000-E 62,264 lbf (276.96 kN) 58,866 lbf (261.85 kN)
Trent 1000-H 63,897 lbf (284.23 kN)
Trent 1000-A 69,294 lbf (308.24 kN) 64,722 lbf (287.90 kN)
Trent 1000-G 72,066 lbf (320.57 kN)
Trent 1000-C/D/L/P 74,511 lbf (331.44 kN) 69,523 lbf (309.25 kN)
Trent 1000-J/K/Q 78,129 lbf (347.54 kN) 71,818 lbf (319.46 kN)
Trent 1000-M/N 79,728 lbf (354.65 kN) 72,691 lbf (323.35 kN)
Trent 1000-R 81,028 lbf (360.43 kN)

Specifications[edit]

Trent 1000 on a Boeing 787 prototype

Data from EASA[41]

General characteristics

  • Type: Three-shaft high bypass ratio turbofan engine
  • Length: 4.738 m (186.5 in)
  • Diameter: 285 cm (112 in) (Fan)
  • Dry weight: 5,936–6,120 kg (13,087–13,492 lb)

Components

  • Compressor: one-stage LP (fan), eight-stage IP, six-stage HP compressor
  • Combustors: single annular combustor with 18‐off fuel spray nozzles
  • Turbine: Single-stage HP turbine (13391 RPM), single-stage IP turbine (8937 RPM), six-stage LP turbine (2683 RPM)

Performance

See also[edit]

Comparable engines

Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Trent 1000". Deagel.
  2. ^ "Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 Engines worth $500m to power Ethiopian Airlines" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 17 June 2015.
  3. ^ "Trent 1000 completes testbed run". Flight International. 22 February 2006.
  4. ^ "Rolls-Royce flies Boeing 787's Trent 1000 engine on 747 testbed". Flight International. 19 June 2007.
  5. ^ "European and US regulators certify Trent 1000 for Boeing 787". Flight International. 7 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
  6. ^ "787 special: Starting block". Flight International. 26 September 2006.
  7. ^ "ILFC selects Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 for 40 Boeing 787s" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 6 Jul 2007.
  8. ^ "FAA confirms Trent 1000 failure was uncontained". 2010-08-24.
  9. ^ Guy Norris (Sep 6, 2010). "Trent 1000 Turbine Rupture Linked To Oil Fire". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  10. ^ Tim Kelly (26 October 2011). "Dreamliner carries its first passengers and Boeing's hopes". Reuters.
  11. ^ François Julian (12 Sep 2013). "Nouveau standard de performances pour le Trent 1000". Air & Cosmos (in French).
  12. ^ Guy Norris (Jun 26, 2012). "Operators Reporting Positive 787 Fuel-Burn Results". Aviation Week.
  13. ^ Guy Norris. "GE Extends 787 Engine Market Lead Mar 25, 2014". Aviation Week.
  14. ^ Alex Derber (Aug 10, 2017). "Learning Lessons From The Trent 1000". Aviation Week Network.
  15. ^ a b Sean Broderick (Aug 31, 2017). "Issues With Newest Engines Provide Early MRO-Proving Opportunities". Aviation Week Network.
  16. ^ "Rolls-Royce's 787 Engine Woes Set to Curb Airline Operations". Bloomberg. 13 April 2018.
  17. ^ "FAA To Lower ETOPS Limits on Some Rolls-powered 787s". AIN Online. 16 April 2018.
  18. ^ "Airworthiness Directive 2018-0084R1". EASA. 19 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Airworthiness Directive 2018-09-05" (PDF). FAA. April 26, 2018.
  20. ^ "FAA further limits Trent 1000 ETOPS". ch-aviation. 8 May 2018.
  21. ^ Julie Johnsson and Benjamin D Katz (25 May 2018). "Boeing Deploys Executive to Rolls-Royce to Help End 787 Engine Crisis". Bloomberg.
  22. ^ Cathy Buyck (May 30, 2018). "Rolls-Royce Steps Up Efforts to Fix Troubled Trent 1000 Engines". AIN online.
  23. ^ Sarah Young (29 May 2018). "Rolls-Royce says tripling capacity to fix Trent 1000 engine problems". Reuters.
  24. ^ Sean Broderick and Tony Osborne (Jun 6, 2018). "Rolls-Royce Accelerating Boeing 787 Engine Fix". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  25. ^ "Trent 1000 service management update" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 11 June 2018.
  26. ^ "Trent 1000 Package C compressor issues discovered on Package B engine types". Aviation News Ltd. June 11, 2018.
  27. ^ Julie Johnsson and Benjamin D Katz (13 June 2018). "Rolls-Royce Parts Shortage to Delay 787 Engine Fix". Bloomberg.
  28. ^ David Kaminski-Morrow (15 June 2018). "Trent aircraft-on-ground situation improving: Rolls-Royce". Flightglobal.
  29. ^ David Kaminski-Morrow (15 June 2018). "Rolls-Royce confident over A330neo and A350 engine blades". Flightglobal.
  30. ^ David Kaminski-Morrow (2 Aug 2018). "Rolls-Royce absorbs first-half charge over Trent problems". Flightglobal.
  31. ^ a b c Guy Norris (Sep 20, 2018). "Rolls-Royce Unveils Details Of Trent 1000 Fixes And Testing". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  32. ^ a b c Alex Derber (Nov 27, 2017). "The Road to Number TEN". Aviation Week Network.
  33. ^ a b "Trent 1000 TEN flies on the Boeing 787" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 7 December 2016.
  34. ^ Guy Norris (May 15, 2015). "Trent 1000 TEN Results Exceed Pre-Test Predictions". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  35. ^ a b "Civil Aviation Programs To Watch". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Jun 9, 2017.
  36. ^ a b "Perfect Ten" (PDF). The Magazine. Rolls-Royce. Sep 2015.
  37. ^ "Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 TEN certified by EASA" (Press release). Rolls-Royce. 11 July 2016.
  38. ^ Victoria Moores (Nov 24, 2017). "Trent 1000 TEN enters commercial service". Aviation Week Network.
  39. ^ Gregory Polek (June 11, 2010). "Questions Arise About Practicality of 787 Standard Engine Interface". Aviation International News.
  40. ^ Charlotte Adams (1 May 2008). "Green Engines". Aviation Today. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016.
  41. ^ a b c "Type certificate data sheet" (PDF). EASA. 11 July 2016.
  42. ^ a b "Trent 1000 infographic". Rolls-Royce.
  43. ^ Priyanka Ojha , K.Raghava (12 March 2013). "Trent 1000 Aircraft Engine". Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology.

External links[edit]