Rolls-Royce Trent 7000
|National origin||United Kingdom|
|First run||27 November 2015|
|Major applications||Airbus A330neo|
|Unit cost||US$37.9M (2014 list price)|
|Developed from||Rolls-Royce Trent 1000|
The Rolls-Royce Trent 7000 is the seventh iteration of the Trent family of large turbofan jet engines and is the exclusive engine for the Airbus A330neo. The Trent 7000 is based on the Trent 1000-TEN architecture from the Boeing 787 and the technology of the Trent XWB of the Airbus A350 XWB.
It succeeds the Trent 700 used for the Airbus A330; its selection was announced with the A330neo launch in July 2014. It first ran on 27 November 2015 on a test bed in Derby. Although the first two test engines will be made in Derby, further test engines and production Trent 7000 will be assembled in the Rolls-Royce Singapore facility.
In 2015 Rolls experienced development problems with the Trent 1000 TEN, and had to involve extra resources to support the on-time March 2017 787-10 maiden flight but it led to delaying the Trent 7000. The first pair of engines were shipped to Airbus in June 2017. It made its first flight on 19 October 2017 aboard its A330neo application, directly after ground testing which included altitude, icing, cross-wind, noise and cyclic testing in USA, and endurance, operability and functional performance testing in UK.
As it is based on the Trent 1000, it could share its durability problems and that could deter buyers, fixes should be available six months after the plane is introduced in summer 2018. Rolls-Royce's CEO Warren East said the 7000 was not affected by the Trent 1000 issues.
It received its EASA type certification on 20 July 2018. It is certified as a Trent 1000 variant. This was delayed from the initially planned first quarter of 2017. At the time, ETOPS testing was halfway through as 3,000 engine cycles are planned, to be completed by early August. The engine should then be stripped and reported by the end of September, for an ETOPS certification in time for the year-end introduction. By August 2018, quantity production was challenging and in October Rolls-Royce expected 500 large engines deliver in 2018, down from 550. Rolls confirmed 10 deliveries by the end of October, below the 30 needed for 15 A330neos deliveries by year-end. The A330-900 was initially cleared for 180 min ETOPS with a limitation of 500 engine cycles for the first delivery to TAP Portugal on 26 November. Full ETOPS requires an EASA approval plan with a 3,000 cycles validation test plus three simulated diversions followed by disassembly and examination before the end of December.
Compared to the 20-year-older Trent 700 introduced in 1995, the Trent 7000 features a larger fan —112 inches (2.8 m) compared to 97 inches (2.5 m)— associated with a smaller fan hub. This doubles the bypass ratio from 5 to 10. It has the highest bypass ratio of any Trent engine.
The overall pressure ratio increases from 36 to 50 thanks to Trent XWB core compressor technology, improving thermal efficiency. This is associated with a 200-Kelvin increase in internal temperatures; Thermally-coated high-pressure turbine blades are used instead of the more expensive ceramic matrix composites, which will be used in 2020 with the next Rolls-Royce engine generation. The larger fan and higher bypass ratio require two more stages in the low-pressure turbine; the engine is heavier. The Trent 7000 weighs 6,445 kg (14,209 lb), while the Trent 700 weighs 6,160 kg (13,580 lb): 285 kg (628 lb) more.
Despite the additional weight and the extra drag resulting from the wider diameter, Rolls-Royce reports fuel consumption will improve by 11%. Since bleed air is used instead electrical power generation as in the 787's Trent 1000, the IP accessory drive is less loaded and enables the high-pressure compressor to maintain stability at low power settings, improving low-speed fuel consumption for short-haul operations. The engine features active turbine clearance control providing the optimal level of cooling air for different phases of flight.
At take-off, the fan displaces up to 1.3 t (2,900 lb) of air per second, the jet nozzle velocity is almost 1,000 mph (450 m/s) and each high pressure turbine blade generates around 800 hp (600 kW), rotating at 12,500 rpm with their tips reaching 1,200 mph (540 m/s). Rolls-Royce reports the engine is 10 dB quieter than the Trent 700.
Data from EASA
- Type: Three-shaft turbofan
- Length: 4775 mm / 188 in
- Diameter: 2.85 m (112 in) fan (20 swept fan blades)
- Dry weight: 6,445 kg (14,209 lb)
- Compressor: axial, 8 stages IP, 6 stages HP
- Combustors: single annular combustor with 18-off fuel spray nozzles
- Turbine: axial, 1 stage HP, 1 stage IP, 6 stages LP
- Maximum thrust: 324.0 kN / 72,834 lbf (Take-Off)
- Overall pressure ratio: 50:1
- Bypass ratio: 10:1
- Air mass flow: 1.3 t (2,900 lb) per second (take-off).
- Turbine inlet temperature: > 1,835 K (1,562 °C; 2,843 °F) max Turbine Entry Temperature
- Specific fuel consumption: -10% against current today’s Trent 700
- Thrust-to-weight ratio: 5.13
- Rotating speed: (100%) HP 13,391 rpm, IP 8,937 rpm, LP 2,683 rpm
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