Roma (2018 film)
|Directed by||Alfonso Cuarón|
|Written by||Alfonso Cuarón|
|Box office||$5.1 million|
Roma is a 2018 drama film written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón, who also produced, shot, and co-edited it. Set in 1970 and 1971, Roma follows the life of a live-in Mixteco housekeeper of a middle-class family, as a semi-autobiographical take on Cuarón's upbringing in the Colonia Roma neighborhood of Mexico City. The film stars Yalitza Aparicio and Marina de Tavira in the leading roles. It is an international co-production between Mexico and the United States.
The film had its world premiere at the 75th Venice International Film Festival on 30 August 2018, where it won the Golden Lion. It began a limited theatrical run in the United States on 21 November 2018, before streaming on Netflix in the US and other territories starting on 14 December 2018. The film received universal acclaim, with particular praise given to Cuarón's screenplay, direction and cinematography, as well as Aparicio's and de Tavira's performances. The film is considered to be one of the best films of 2018 and has been widely regarded by critics as one of the best films of the 2010s, and appeared on many critics' "top ten" lists of the year.
Roma received a number of accolades, with ten nominations at the 91st Academy Awards, among them Best Picture, Best Original Screenplay, Best Actress (Aparicio) and Best Supporting Actress (de Tavira). It became the first Mexican entry to win Best Foreign Language Film, and also won for Best Cinematography and Best Director, becoming the first foreign language film to win in the last category, as well as marking the first time a director won Best Cinematography for their own film. It was tied with The Favourite as the most-nominated film of the show, and with Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000) for the most Academy Award nominations ever received by a non-English language film. It also won Best Director and Best Foreign Language Film at the 76th Golden Globe Awards, Best Picture and Best Director at the 24th Critics' Choice Awards, and Best Film, Best Film Not in the English Language, Best Direction and Best Cinematography at the 72nd British Academy Film Awards.
In 1970, Cleodegaria "Cleo" Gutiérrez is an indigenous live-in maid in a middle-class household in the Colonia Roma neighborhood of Mexico City. She and another maid, Adela, speak Mixtec when they are together, but Spanish in the presence of the family: matriarch Sofía; her husband, Antonio; her mother Teresa; and their four young children. When Antonio, a doctor, remains in Quebec after a conference, the problems in his and Sofia's marriage become apparent.
When Cleo tells her boyfriend Fermín that she might be pregnant, he abandons her at a cinema. Sofía takes her to the hospital, where they confirm her pregnancy. She then takes Cleo and the children to a family friend's hacienda for New Year. Recent tensions over land in the area are revealed in a chatter, as a fire erupts in the forest, which was later extinguished. Back in the city, Cleo and Teresa see Antonio and his new, younger girlfriend at a movie theatre. Sofía tries to conceal her husband's infidelity from the children, but her second son later learns the truth by eavesdropping. Fermín refuses to acknowledge that the baby is his, threatening Cleo to beat her and their child if they try to find him again.
With the baby almost due, Teresa takes Cleo shopping for a crib. The store is overrun by a battle between student protestors and the right-wing paramilitary group Los Halcones (The Hawks). Fermín, a member of Los Halcones, holds a gun on Cleo before fleeing. Stressed, Cleo's water breaks. The ongoing clashes between students and Los Halcones slows traffic and her attempt to get to the hospital. When she does arrive, Antonio briefly appears to reassure Cleo, but quickly leaves. Her baby girl is stillborn.
Sofia takes Cleo and the children on a family holiday to the beaches at Tuxpan. She tells the children that she and their father are separated, and that the holiday was so their father can collect his belongings from their home. At the beach, two of the children are almost carried off by a strong current. Cleo wades in to save them, even though she does not know how to swim. As Sofía and the children affirm their love for Cleo for such selfless devotion, she tearfully confesses that she had not wanted her baby to be born. They return home to Roma to find the house reorganized. Cleo prepares a load for washing, telling Adela they have much to talk about.
- Yalitza Aparicio as Cleodegaria "Cleo" Gutiérrez, one of the family's maids
- Marina de Tavira as Sofía, the mother of the family
- Fernando Grediaga as Antonio, Sofía's absent husband
- Jorge Antonio Guerrero as Fermín, Cleo's lover
- Marco Graf as Pepe
- Daniela Demesa as Sofi
- Diego Cortina Autrey as Toño
- Carlos Peralta as Paco
- Nancy García as Adela, Cleo's friend, and one of the family's maids
- Verónica García as Teresa, Sofía's mother
- José Manuel Guerrero Mendoza as Ramón, Adela's lover
- Latin Lover as Professor Zovek
- Zarela Lizbeth Chinolla Arellano as Velez
- Clementina Guadarrama as Benita
- Nicolás Peréz Taylor Félix as Beto
- Kjartan Halvorsen as Ove Larsen
- Jennifer Armour as Leslie Matos
On 8 September 2016, it was announced that Alfonso Cuarón would write and direct a project focusing on a Mexican family living in Mexico City in the 1970s. Production was set to begin in fall 2016 by his own production company Esperanto Filmoj and Participant Media. The film was produced by Cuarón, Gabriela Rodríguez, and Nicolás Celis.
Roma was shot in sequence, which Yalitza Aparicio, who plays Cleo, said helped her. She was most terrified by the scene on the beach, as she—like her character—could not swim. Before being cast, Aparicio, who had recently completed graduate training in pre-school education, had no acting experience or formal training in acting. She has joked that the only "acting" she has ever done was lying to her parents and teachers.
Filming took place on-location throughout Mexico City, as Cuarón felt shooting on soundstages would be difficult for first-time actors. The movie theatre serving as a recurring location was the Teatro Metropólitan, where Cuarón had premiered Y tu mamá también in 2001.
Robbery on set
On 1 November 2016, the crew of Roma was the target of a robbery. According to the studio, "two women were hit, five crew members were hospitalized, and cellphones, wallets, and jewelry were stolen" during the attack. The crew reportedly arrived to set up filming for the day when a group of city workers approached the crew and tried to shut down filming. The crew stated they had permission to film, but the workers persisted and a brawl broke out between the groups.
A teaser trailer was released on 25 July 2018.
The film had its world premiere at the 75th Venice International Film Festival on 30 August 2018, and made its North American debut the next day at the Telluride Film Festival. The film also played at the Toronto International Film Festival. It was screened at the San Sebastián International Film Festival on 27 September 2018, the New York Film Festival on 5 October 2018, and the 29th New Orleans Film Festival as the Centerpiece Film on 22 October 2018. The film was released at independent theatres in Mexico on 21 November; however, the Cinépolis and Cinemex chains refused, as they demanded a longer exclusivity window than what Netflix offered. Released digitally on 14 December, the film was watched by 3.2 million households between January and February 2019, with a peak of 418,000 viewers on 23 February, the day before the Academy Awards.
After Roma was nominated for Best Picture at the 91st Academy Awards, AMC Theatres and Regal Cinemas both issued statements saying that Roma would not be part of the line-up at either chain's annual Best Picture showcase. AMC said in their statement that this was due to them never receiving a license from Netflix to screen Roma in their theaters. Both theaters chains have refused to screen films from Netflix due to their policies that require a minimum of 90 days between theatrical release and home viewing.
The eligibility of the film for the Academy Awards was a matter of controversy in the US film industry, since despite the film's limited theatrical release, many believed it to have been made for home viewing. In March 2019, Steven Spielberg expressed disapproval of streaming films being eligible for Academy Awards, and the timing of his comments led commentators to believe they were a response to Roma, although he did not mention the film by name.
The film received the biggest promotional campaign in Netflix's history, with anywhere from $25 million to $50 million in advertisements (with Netflix insisting on the former figure and its rivals on the latter). One unique tactic included sending out thousands of six-pound, Roma coffee table books (worth $175) to awards voters, which led a consultant to say "the shipping charges cost more than some movies' advertising budgets".
While Netflix has not publicly disclosed box-office figures for Roma, sources deduced that the film made $90,000–120,000 from three theaters in its opening weekend, 23–25 November, and a total of $200,000 over the five-day Thanksgiving frame, including selling out theaters in Los Angeles and New York City. Had the results been officially reported, its approximate venue average of $66,600 would have ranked among the best ever for a foreign-language film. In its second weekend of theatrical release, the film expanded to 17 theaters. IndieWire estimated the film grossed $110,000 from four of them, including selling out in San Francisco, and that the film would "easily be the best grossing subtitled film" of 2018. In its third weekend, the film made another estimated $500,000 from 100 theaters, for a running total of $900,000.
Despite being released on Netflix on Friday, 14 December, the film expanded to 145 theaters and grossed an estimated $362,000, for a four-week total of $1.4 million. It made another $300,000 the following week and $150,000 the week after that. By its ninth week of release, the film had made an estimated $2.8 million. In the weekend following the announcement of its 10 Oscar nominations, Roma grossed another $175,000 from around 80 theaters, pushing it past $3 million, the first foreign language film to do so domestically since Ida in 2013.
On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, Roma holds an approval rating of 96% based on 400 reviews, with an average rating of 9/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Roma finds writer-director Alfonso Cuarón in complete, enthralling command of his visual craft – and telling the most powerfully personal story of his career." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 96 out of 100, based on 50 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". It is the 26th highest-rated film of all-time on the site, and the best-reviewed of 2018.
Writing for The Guardian, Peter Bradshaw said "Roma is thrilling, engrossing, moving – and just entirely amazing, an adjectival pileup of wonder. He has reached back into his own childhood to create an intensely personal story." Likewise, Manohla Dargis of The New York Times called the film "an expansive, emotional portrait of life buffeted by violent forces, and a masterpiece" and praised Cuarón's use of "intimacy and monumentality to express the depths of ordinary life".
Slavoj Žižek argued that people were appreciating the film for the wrong reasons, claiming that people were appreciating Cleo's grace too much, without seeing the way that Cleo needs to break free from the moral constraints placed upon her.
According to a study of 65 indigeneity-oriented fictional features produced in Latin America in the 21st century, the film can be considered as a catalyst for change in the blueprint for representations of indigenous characters in cinema. Roma depicts Cleo, the main indigenous character, to a level of detail that there is no room for stereotypical portrayals. Gonzalez Rodriguez asserts that the film is a unique example of syntonic indigeneity as it challenges traditional representations of the indigenous Other as an exotic figure (histrionic indigeneity).
Roma won the Golden Lion for Best Film at the Venice International Film Festival. At the Toronto International Film Festival, it was also named second runner-up for the People's Choice Award.
The film received 10 nominations for the 91st Academy Awards, including Best Picture—thereby tying with The Favourite as the most-nominated film. It is also the first film distributed primarily by a streaming service that has been nominated for Best Picture. It is also tied with Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000) for the most Oscar nominations ever received by a film not in the English language. It ultimately won three Academy Awards, including Best Foreign Language Film, becoming the first Mexican film to win this honor.
Roma received American Film Institute's 2018 AFI Special Award, as it was not eligible for AFI Movies of the Year due to its foreign-language status. It was chosen by Time magazine and the New York Film Critics Circle as the best film of 2018, and by the National Board of Review as one of the top ten best films of 2018.
On 15 November 2019, it was confirmed that Roma would be receiving a DVD and Blu-ray release from The Criterion Collection, marking the first time a Netflix original film was added to the library, and one of the rare times that Netflix had permitted one of their films for physical media release. Netflix described the announcement as "such an honor". To coincide with the Criterion Collection release, in February 2020 Netflix released a behind-the-scenes documentary named Road to Roma.
- List of Mexican submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
- List of submissions to the 91st Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
- ""Extraño de donde soy y de donde vengo": Alfonso Cuarón" ["I miss from where I am and from where I come from": Alfonso Cuarón]. Sintesis (in Spanish). 14 March 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- "Alfonso Cuarón filma marcha que incluirá en la película 'Roma'" [Alfonso Cuarón shoots march that it will be featured in the movie 'Roma']. Excélsior (in Spanish). 22 January 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- "Pimienta Films está orgullosa del rumbo de "Roma"" [Pimienta Films is proud of Roma's course]. Diario de Yucatán (in Spanish). 5 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- Dale, Martín (2 April 2017). "Mexico's Nicolás Celis Prepares First TV Series 'Monstruos Perfectos' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety.com. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- "Trailers released on the month of November of 2018 rated by RTC" (PDF). RTC. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Roma". www.filmratings.com.
- Tartaglione, Nancy (25 July 2018). "Venice Film Festival Lineup: Welles, Coen Brothers, Cuaron, Greengrass, More – Live". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "Roma (2018) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
- "Roma". Toronto International Film Festival. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "Roma (2018)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- Thompson, Anne (14 September 2018). "TIFF 2018 Winners and Losers: Timothée Chalamet Shines, 'Roma' Wows, Xavier Dolan Flops". IndieWire. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- Brueggemann, Tom (3 March 2018). "'Apollo 11' Soars in IMAX, 'Climax' and 'Transit' Sustain Foreign-Language Trend". IndieWire. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Roma (2018)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- Dargis, Manohla (13 December 2018). "'Roma' Review: Alfonso Cuarón's Masterpiece of Memory". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
[Roma] centers on a young indigenous woman who works as a maid for a middle-class white family that's falling apart.
- Solórzano, Fernanda. "Entrevista a Alfonso Cuarón "Con Roma quería honrar el tiempo y el espacio; que los lugares dictaran lo que iba a pasar"". Letras Libres (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2019.
... Roma narra la vida de una familia de clase media.
- "Roma (2018)". BFI. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
- Anderson, Ariston (25 July 2018). "Venice to Kick Off Awards Season With New Films From Coen Brothers, Luca Guadagnino and Alfonso Cuaron". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- Vivarelli, Nick (25 July 2018). "Venice Film Festival Lineup: Heavy on Award Hopefuls, Netflix and Star Power". Variety. Penske Business Media. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- Kroll, Justin (8 September 2016). "Alfonso Cuaron Sets Mexican Family Drama as Next Film". Variety. Penske Business Media. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- Interview of Sam Green with Alfonso Cuarón why the production company is called 'Esperanto Filmoj', An interview with director Alfonso Cuarón, 17 January 2013.
- Kristopher Tapley, "'Roma' Actress Yalitza Aparicio on the Challenge of Playing Alfonso Cuarón's Real-Life Nanny." Variety, n.d., 2018. 
- Wilkinson, Alissa (21 November 2018). "Roma's Yalitza Aparicio had never acted before. Now she's in one of the year's buzziest films". Vox. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- Nast, Condé (12 February 2019). "Where was 'Roma' filmed?". CN Traveller. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
- Evans, Alan (3 November 2016). "Alfonso Cuarón film crew 'attacked and robbed' in Mexico City". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- Jones, Julia (3 November 2016). "Alfonso Cuarón film crew says Mexico City workers attacked them". CNN. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "Cesan a funcionario de la Cuauhtémoc tras agresión al equipo de Cuarón". 4 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- "Personal de la Cuauhtémoc agrede a staff de Alfonso Cuarón". El Economista. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- Keegan, Rebecca; Sperling, Nicole (6 April 2018). "Netflix Threatens to Pull Five Films from Cannes". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Lang, Brent (28 July 2021). "Netflix's Film Chief Scott Stuber Is Shaking Up Hollywood: 'The Movie Business Is in a Revolution'". Variety. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
- Tartaglione, Nancy (25 July 2018). "'ROMA': Alfonso Cuaron Shares First Look at Venice-Bound Personal Drama". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Tapley, Kristopher (30 August 2018). "'First Man', 'Front Runner' and 'Roma' Among 2018 Telluride Film Festival Selections". Variety. Penske Business Media. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- "45th Telluride Film Festival Program Guide" (PDF). Telluride Film Festival. The National Film Preserve. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- Vlessing, Etan (24 July 2018). "Toronto: Timothee Chalamet Starrer 'Beautiful Boy,' Dan Fogelman's 'Life Itself' Among Festival Lineup". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "Roma | New Orleans Film Society". neworleansfilmsociety.org. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Wiseman, Andreas (14 August 2018). "Damien Chazelle's 'First Man', Alfonso Cuaron's 'Roma', Bradley Cooper's 'A Star Is Born' Head To San Sebastian Fest". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (18 July 2018). "Alfonso Cuarón's 'ROMA' Set As New York Film Festival Centerpiece". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- Cuarón, Netflix, Cinépolis y Cinemex: el lío del estreno de 'Roma' – Expansión, 22 November 2018
- Atkinson, Claire (14 March 2019). "Netflix is sitting on a data goldmine — and it's starting to give us a peek". NBC News. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (22 January 2019). "AMC Theatres & Regal Bar Netflix's 'Roma' From Oscar Best Picture Nom Showcases". Deadline. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "Giving Awards to 'Roma' Is a "Devaluation of the Oscars", Say European Exhibitors | Hollywood Reporter".
- "Steven Spielberg to Voice Netflix Awards Concerns at Academy Meeting – Variety".
- "After Roma swept the Oscars, Steven Spielberg seeks to block streaming films | Ars Technica".
- Whoop, Glenn (27 August 2019). "Netflix embraces theatrical releases in quest for best picture Oscar. Will it be enough?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (25 November 2018). "Netflix's 'Roma' Makes Estimated $200K in 5-day Thanksgiving Opening". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- McClintock, Pamela (25 November 2018). "Box Office: Netflix's 'Roma' Opens Strong in Limited Release, Say Experts". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- Brueggemann, Tom (2 December 2018). "'The Favourite' and 'Roma' Continue to Pull Arthouse Audiences". IndieWire. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- Brueggemann, Tom (12 December 2018). "'Mary Queen of Scots' Leads Limited Openers, 'Amazing Grace' Wows New York". IndieWire. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Brueggemann, Tom (16 December 2018). "'If Beale Street Could Talk' Opens Strong As 'Green Book' and 'The Favourite' Thrive". IndieWire. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- Brueggemann, Tom (23 December 2018). "'Cold War' Another Strong Foreign-Language Opener as 'Roma' Remains Strong". IndieWire. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- Brueggemann, Tom (30 December 2018). "'On the Basis of Sex' Tops Late 2018 Specialty Openings". IndieWire. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Brueggemann, Tom (20 January 2018). "'Who Will Write Our History' Opens Strong at Specialty Box Office as Oscar Contenders Await Nominations". IndieWire. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- Brueggemann, Tom (27 January 2018). "'Never Look Away' Box Office Gets Oscar Bump; Godard's 'The Image Book' Finds Its Fans". IndieWire. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- "Roma (2018)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
- "Roma Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- "Best Movies of All Time". Metacritic. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- "The Best Movies of 2018". Metacritic. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- "Roma is being celebrated for all the wrong reasons, writes Slavoj Žižek". Coffee House. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Histrionic Indigeneity: Ethnotypes in Latin American Cinema, Gonzalez Rodriguez, Milton Fernando". Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "The awards of the Venice Film Festival from 1934 to the present day: Golden Lions for Best Film" under "Venice Film Festival: History", La Biennale di Venezia (accessed 30-05-2019).
- Nordine, Michael (8 September 2018). "Venice Film Festival Awards: Roma Wins the Golden Lion as The Favourite Lives Up to Its Name". IndieWire. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- "TIFF 2018 Awards: Green Book Wins the People's Choice Award, Upsetting A Star Is Born". IndieWire, 16 September 2018.
- "'Roma' and 'The Favourite' Lead Oscar Nominations With 10 Each, writes Brooks Barnes". www.nytimes.com. 22 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- Dicker, Ron (22 January 2019). "'Roma' Ties 'Crouching Tiger' For Most Foreign Film Oscars Nominations At 10". Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Melas, Chloe (24 February 2019). "Oscars winners 2019: See the full list of winners". CNN. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- Ehrlich, David (24 February 2019). "'Roma' Wins the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film, First Mexican Film to Do So". IndieWire. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- "AFI Awards". www.afi.com. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Thompson, Anne (4 December 2018). "AFI Awards: Top 10 Films and TV of 2018, Plus Special Award for 'Roma'". IndieWire. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Zacharek, Stephanie (15 November 2018). "The Top 10 Movies of 2018". Time. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Long, Kelle (31 August 2018). "Review Roundup: Critics Hail the Breathtaking Beauty of Roma". Motion Picture Association of America. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- "The Best Movies That Lost Best Picture at the Oscars". New York Magazine. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- Michael, Brendan (15 November 2019). "Alfonso Cuarón's 'Roma' Getting the Criterion Treatment". Collider. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- Jones, Mike (15 November 2019). "Roma Becomes First Netflix Film Added To Criterion Collection". ScreenRant. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- @NetflixFilm (15 November 2019). "It was such an honor to see ROMA added to the @Criterion Collection today. This personal story continues to make waves around the world. t.co/jqy3A7HXjq" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 January 2020 – via Twitter.
- "'ROAD TO ROMA' Documentary Now on Netflix Globally". What's on Netflix. 13 February 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Roma (2018 film).|