Roman Catholic Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA
|Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA
Fœderatarum Civitatum Americæ Septemtrionalis
The coat of arms of the Archdiocese for the Military Services
|Country||United States of America|
|Established||September 8, 1957 (59 years ago)|
|Archbishop||Timothy P. Broglio|
|Auxiliary Bishops||Richard Brendan Higgins
F. Richard Spencer
Robert J. Coyle
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, provides the Roman Catholic Church's pastoral and spiritual services to those serving in the United States armed forces or other federal services overseas. This military ordinariate is a special diocese that dates back to 1917 and was canonically erected in 1939 by Pope Pius XII for the members and others employed by the five branches of the United States military (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Navy), for the employees of the U.S. Veterans Health Administration and its patients, and for Americans in government service overseas. The Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, was created by Pope John Paul II in 1985 and incorporated under the laws of the State of Maryland, by the appropriate county Clerk of Courts, that same year.
The diocesan bishop of the archdiocese is the Archbishop for the Military Services. The current archbishop is Timothy P. Broglio. He is assisted by several auxiliary bishops. Together they oversee Catholic priests serving as military chaplains throughout the world. None of the priests of the Archdiocese are incardinated in the Archdiocese. Each of its priests remains incardinated in his diocese or religious institute. The Archdiocese maintains its offices in Washington, D.C., but has no territorial boundaries or "seat". The Archdiocese has no cathedral or bishop's church. Rather, the Archdiocese has jurisdiction wherever American men and women in uniform serve. The jurisdiction of the Archdiocese extends to all United States government property in the United States and abroad, including U.S. military installations, embassies, consulates and other diplomatic missions.
- 1 History
- 2 Prelature
- 3 Chancery
- 4 Noncombatant status
- 5 Patron saints
- 6 Prayers
- 7 Notable chaplains by conflict
- 8 Fiction and literature portraying Catholic military chaplains
- 9 See also
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Prior to the creation of the Military Ordinariate and then the Archdiocese for the Military Services, the armed forces of the United States was served by an informal corps of volunteer priests. Beginning in 1917, the spiritual care of those in military service fell to the Military Ordinariate, the equivalent of a personal vicariate apostolic, that is, a particular church the membership of which is defined by some personal quality (as in this case being a member or a dependent of a member of the armed services) that is headed by a legate of the pope. Originally, the ordinariate was headed by then-Bishop Patrick J. Hayes, an auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of New York who served double duty as papal military vicar for the United States beginning on November 24, 1917.
Hayes was chosen because New York was the primary port of embarkation for U.S. troops leaving for Europe and therefore a convenient contact point for Catholic chaplains serving with them. When Cardinal John Farley, Archbishop of New York, died, Hayes was appointed as his successor and simply kept the additional title and duty of military vicar. In November 1939, the Holy See established the Military Vicariate of the United States of America. The post remained an additional duty of the archbishop of New York from Hayes' time until Cardinal Terence Cooke began plans to separate it as its own jurisdiction in the early 1980s, plans he was unable to carry out before his death in 1983. His successor, Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor, a former Navy chaplain, former chief of Navy chaplains (the military's title for its own senior chaplain officer) and former auxiliary bishop for the military, then assisted in creating the separate Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, in 1985 and participated in the selection of its first own archbishop. On July 21, 1986, the military vicariate was elevated to the Military Ordinariate of the Archdiocese for the Military Services of the United States. As of April 2013, about 25% of the U.S. armed forces are Catholic.
The lists of bishops, archbishops and auxiliary bishops and their tenure of service:
Military ordinaries and archbishops
- Bishop (later Archbishop of New York and then also Cardinal) Patrick Joseph Hayes, Vicar Apostolic of Military, USA (24 November 1917 – 4 September 1938)
- Archbishop (later Cardinal) Francis Joseph Spellman, Apostolic Vicar for the U.S. Armed Forces (11 December 1939 – 2 December 1967) and Archbishop of New York
- Bishop John Francis O'Hara, CSC, Military Delegate (11 December 1939 – 10 March 1945)* 
- Bishop William Richard Arnold (15 May 1945 – 7 January 1965) — Died in office. Prior to becoming Apostolic Vicar for the U.S. Armed Forces, General Arnold was previously the Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army.
- Archbishop (later Cardinal) Terence James Cooke, Vicar Apostolic for the U.S. Military (4 April 1968 – 6 October 1983) and Archbishop of New York – Died in office.
- Joseph T. Ryan, first Archbishop for the Military Services (16 March 1985 – 14 May 1991) – Retired. Died October 9, 2000
- Joseph Thomas Dimino, Archbishop for the Military Services (14 May 1991 – 12 August 1997). Resigned for health reasons.
- Edwin Frederick O'Brien, Archbishop for the Military Services (12 August 1997 – 12 July 2007) – Appointed archbishop of Baltimore
- Timothy P. Broglio, Archbishop for the Military Services (25 January 2008 – present)
* O'Hara was appointed "military delegate" at the same time that Spellman was appointed "military vicar," essentially making Bishop O'Hara something a bit more than the vicar general under then-Archbishop Spellman's jurisdiction.
- William Tibertus McCarty, C.Ss.R. (1943–1947)
- James Henry Ambrose Griffiths (1949–1955)
- Philip Joseph Furlong (1955–1971)
- William Joseph Moran (1965–1981)
- James Jerome Killeen (1975–1978)
- Joseph T. Ryan – Coadjutor bishop (1975–1985) for the Military Vicariate – see #Military ordinaries and archbishops (above)
- John Joseph O'Connor (1979–1983) (retired Chief of Navy Chaplains) – Appointed bishop of Scranton
- Lawrence Joyce Kenney (1983–1990)
- Angelo Thomas Acerra, O.S.B. (1983–1990)
- Joseph Thomas Dimino (1983–1991) – see #Military ordinaries and archbishops (above)
- Francis Xavier Roque (1983–2004)
- John Gavin Nolan (1987–1997)
- John Joseph Glynn (1991–2002)
- José de Jesús Madera Uribe, M.Sp.S. (1991–2004)
- John Joseph Kaising (2000–2007)
- Joseph W. Estabrook (2004–2012)
- Richard Brendan Higgins (2004–present)
- F. Richard Spencer (2010–present)
- Neal James Buckon (2011–present)
- Robert J. Coyle (2013-present)
The Geneva Conventions state (Protocol I, 8 June 1977, Art 43.2) that chaplains are noncombatants: they do not have the right to participate directly in hostilities. Captured chaplains are not considered Prisoners of War (Third Convention, 12 August 1949, Chapter IV Art 33) and must be returned to their home nation unless retained to minister to prisoners of war.
- Patron saint of alpine troops
- See: St. Maurice
- Patron saint of armed forces
- See: St. Michael
- Patron saint of armies
- See: St. Maurice
- Patron saint of armorers
- See: St. Maurice
- Patron saint of artillery
- See: St. Barbara. The Order of Saint Barbara is awarded by the US Army Field Artillery Association.
- Patron saint of cavalry
- See: St. Martin of Tours and Saint George. The Order of Saint George is awarded by the US Army Armor Association.
- Patron saint of civil servants
- See: St. Matthew
- Patron saint of infantrymen
- See: St. Maurice. The Order of Saint Maurice is awarded by the National Infantry Association (US).
- Patron saint of sailors
- See: St. Nicholas
- Patron saint of transporters
- See: St. Christopher
- Patron saint of swordsmiths
- See: St. Maurice
- Patron saint of U.S. Special Forces
- See: St. Philip Neri
- See also: USN Chaplain Corps prayers, USMA Cadet Prayer, and Air Force Hymn
- Prayer for the Archdiocese
- Prayers for the Military
- Prayer for Troops
Notable chaplains by conflict
- For historic photographs of Army chaplains in World War I, World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War, see Chaplain Corps Museum.
- See footnote
- John McElroy, S.J. – One of two of the Army's first Catholic chaplains. Founder of Boston College.
- Anthony Rey, S.J. – One of two of the Army's first Catholic chaplains. Vice president of Georgetown College (1845).
- For Civil War chaplains, see footnote.
- Emmeran M. Bliemel, OSB – He was the first Catholic chaplain killed in action during the Civil War.
- William Corby – He is famous for giving a general absolution to the Irish Brigade at the Battle of Gettysburg.
- John Ireland – He served as a chaplain of the 5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment.
- Bernard John McQuaid – He volunteered as a chaplain and accompanied the New Jersey Brigade to the seat of war, during which service he was captured by the Confederates.
World War I
- John B. DeValles
- Francis P. Duffy – Chaplain for the 69th Infantry Regiment (a military unit from New York City and part of the New York Army National Guard) – known as "The Fighting 69th" – which had been federalized and redesignated the 165th U.S. Infantry Regiment.
- John Joseph Mitty – Chaplain; in 1919, he was assigned as Catholic chaplain at the U.S. Military Academy; during his tenure at West Point, General Douglas MacArthur served as superintendent.
- Colman O'Flaherty
- Barry O'Toole
World War II
- See footnote
- William R. Arnold (First Catholic Army Chief of Chaplains)
- Thomas J. Barrett 
- Frederic P. Gehring, C.M.
- Joseph Gilmore 
- William Guilfoyle 
- Philip M. Hannan
- William A. Irwin 
- Alfred W. Johnson 
- Francis J. McManus 
- Joseph T. O'Callahan (Medal of Honor USS Franklin (CV-13))
- John A. Ryan 
- Aloysius Schmitt (First US chaplain to die in WW II on the USS Oklahoma USS Schmitt (DE-676))
- Joseph T. Ryan
- John P. Washington (one of the Four Chaplains) 
- See footnote
- Emil J. Kapaun (Medal of Honor) 
- Dennis Murphy 
- John J. O'Connor (later appointed auxiliary bishop of the Military Vicariate)
Cold War (pre-Vietnam)
- Terence P. Finnegan (First Catholic Air Force Chief of Chaplains)
- Patrick J. Ryan (Second Catholic Army Chief of Chaplains)
- See footnote
- Vincent R. Capodanno, M.M. (Medal of Honor)
- Edwin R. Chess (Second Catholic Air Force Chief of Chaplains)
- Charles Liteky
- Francis L. Sampson (Third Catholic Army Chief of Chaplains)
- Charles J. Watters 
Cold War (post-Vietnam)
- John A. Collins (Fourth Catholic Air Force Chief of Chaplains)
- William Joseph Dendinger (Seventh Catholic Air Force Chief of Chaplains)
- Patrick J. Hessian (Fourth Catholic Army Chief of Chaplains)
- John P. McDonough (Fifth Catholic Air Force Chief of Chaplains)
- Henry J. Meade (Third Catholic Air Force Chief of Chaplains)
- Donald W. Shea (Fifth Catholic Army Chief of Chaplains)
- Arthur S. Thomas (Sixth Catholic Air Force Chief of Chaplains)
Iraq War/War on Terror
Fiction and literature portraying Catholic military chaplains
- The Fighting 69th
- The Longest Day (book)
- The Longest Day (film)
- MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors
- MASH (film)
- M*A*S*H (TV series)
- Chaplain of the Coast Guard
- Chaplain of the United States Marine Corps
- Chaplains assistants (Army)
- Chaplain's Medal for Heroism
- Insignia of Chaplain Schools in the US Military
- International Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference
- List of Catholic bishops of the United States: military service
- Military chaplain
- National Catholic Community Service
- National Catholic Welfare Council
- Religious Programs Specialist (Navy)
- Religious symbolism in the United States military
- United States Air Force Chaplain Corps
- United States military chaplains
- United States Navy Chaplain Corps
- U.S. Army Chaplain Museum – includes link to historic photographs of Army chaplains in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War
- Archdiocese for the Military Services of the United States. GCatholic. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- Karen Jowers (5 April 2013). "Training material listing Catholics as 'extremists' angers archdiocese". Army Times. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Hayes was appointed auxiliary bishop of New York on July 3, 1914, by Pope Pius X. On November 24, 1917, he was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Military, USA, because New York was the primary port of embarkation for U.S. troops leaving for Europe and therefore a convenient contact point for Catholic chaplains serving with them. On March 10, 1919, he was appointed the fifth archbishop of New York and retained the additional title and duty of military vicar. Pope Pius XI created him a cardinal on March 24, 1924.
- Spellman was appointed by Pope Pius XII as the sixth archbishop of New York on April 15, 1939, and was formally installed as archbishop on May 23. In addition to his duties as diocesan bishop, he was named Apostolic Vicar for the U.S. Armed Forces on December 11, 1939. He was created a cardinal on February 18, 1946.
- O'Hara was elected the vice president of the University of Notre Dame in 1933, and its president in 1934. President Franklin D. Roosevelt named him a delegate to the 1938 Pan-American Conference in Lima, Peru. On December 11, 1939, he was appointed Apostolic Delegate for the U.S. Military Forces and Titular Bishop of Milasa by Pope Pius XII. He was consecrated a bishop on January 15, 1940, by then-Archbishop Spellman. President Roosevelt later appointed him to the Board of Visitors of the U.S. Naval Academy, becoming the first Catholic bishop to be so honored. On March 10, 1945, he was named bishop of Buffalo and was installed on May 8. On November 23, 1951, he was named archbishop of Philadelphia. He was created a cardinal on December 15, 1958.
- Cooke was appointed auxiliary bishop of New York on September 15, 1965, by Pope Paul VI. He was consecrated a bishop on December 13. He was named the seventh archbishop of New York on March 2, 1968. In addition to his duties in New York, he was named Vicar Apostolic for the U.S. Military on April 4. He was created a cardinal by Pope Paul VI on April 28, 1969.
- Ryan was a Navy chaplain from 1943 to 1946 and took part in the Marine landing at Okinawa. He served as chancellor of the U.S. Military Vicariate from 1957 to 1958. On February 7, 1966, he was appointed the first archbishop of Anchorage, Alaska, by Pope Paul VI. He was consecrated a bishop on March 25 by Cardinal Spellman. On November 4, 1975, Ryan was named coadjutor archbishop for the Military Vicariate and Titular Archbishop of Gabii. After the death of Cardinal Cooke, Pope John Paul II elevated the Military Vicariate (which had been run by the Archdiocese of New York) to the rank of an archdiocese and named Ryan the first archbishop of the Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, on March 16, 1985.
- McCarty was appointed auxiliary bishop for the U.S. Armed Forces and Titular Bishop of Anaea on January 2, 1943, by Pope Pius XII. He was consecrated a bishop on January 25 by then-Archbishop Spellman, with Bishop John Francis O'Hara serving as a co-consecrator. On April 10, 1947, he was named coadjutor bishop of Rapid City, So. Dak.
- Furlong was chaplain, with the rank of major, for the 8th Regiment of the New York National Guard from 1943 to 1948. On December 3, 1955, he was appointed auxiliary bishop to the US Military Vicariate, a responsibility at the time of the archbishop of New York. New York Cardinal Archbishop Francis Spellman ordained Furlong bishop on January 25, 1956. After the death of Cardinal Spellman on December 2, 1967, Furlong served as administrator of the military vicariate until the appointment of then-Archbishop Terence Cooke as the new military vicar on April 4, 1968. Furlong retired as auxiliary bishop of the vicariate in 1971 at age 78.
- Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, official website. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- "St. Nicholas Center: People". St. Nicholas Center. 24 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-24.
- The U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps has a medal in his name. See United States Army Quartermaster Corps#Military Order of Saint Martin and Quartermaster Corps: The Order of Saint Martin (which includes photos of both sides of the medal).
- Prayer for the Archdiocese. Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- Prayers for the Military. Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- Prayer for Troops. U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- Go to Prayer for Troops and scroll down to "Prayers in a Time of War". U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- Go to Prayer for Troops and scroll down to "A Soldier's Prayers". U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- Military Heroes. Mission Capodanno website. Catholics in the Military. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- O’Conner, Thomas H. "Breaking the religious barrier", The Boston Globe, Boston, 10 May 2004.
- On the following page, go to the link for "Chaplains" and then click on the "USA Chaplains" link or the "CSA Chaplains" link."Home page". The National Civil War Chaplains Museum. Retrieved 2011-10-20.
- "Rev. Emmeran M. Bliemel – Hero of Battle of Jonesboro: 10th Tennessee Regiment: The first American Catholic Chaplain to die on the battlefield". The National Civil War Chaplains Museum. 2008. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
Chaplain of the 10th Tennessee Regiment, he courageously and unselfishly ministered to the spiritual needs of all the wounded, both under fire and behind the lines. He died while giving the last rites to his Commanding Officer, Colonel William Grace. Rev. Bliemel also ministered to the men of the 4th Kentucky Regiment (the Orphan Brigade).
- On Chaplains Hill in Arlington National Cemetery is a monument for 83 Catholic chaplains who died in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.
- A Servant of God, Father Kapaun died in a POW camp and was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor on April 11, 2013 by President Barack Obama. Milburn, John, "Army says Kansas Army chaplain Rev. Kapaun worthy of Medal of Honor for service in Korean War", Associated Press, October 13, 2009. Baltimore Sun website. Retrieved 2009-10-15. The article includes an undated photo (released by the Catholic Diocese of Wichita), showing Fr. Kapaun saying Mass in the field.
- Chaplain Dennis Murphy celebrates mass for the men of 65th AAA Bn., at Bolo Point, Okinawa. July 19, 1951. http://www.reporternews.com/photos/galleries/2010/jun/24/look-back-korean-war/18954 Retrieved 2013-9-6.
- See: Military chaplain#Further reading
- Crosby, Donald F., 1994. Battlefield Chaplains: Catholic Priests in World War II. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0814-1
- O'Brien, Steve. Blackrobe in Blue: The Naval Chaplaincy of John P. Foley, S.J. 1942-1946 (see external link, below)
- O'Rahilly, Alfred. The Padre of Trench Street (about Jesuit Father William Doyle). ISBN 1-905363-15-X
- O'Malley, Mark Francis. An History of the Development of Catholic Military Chaplaincy in the United States. Gregorian University, 2009 (dissertation).
- Boyle, Maureen (October 28, 2011). "Priests in Uniform: Twice Called to Serve: A growing number of men bravely fill a crucial need as Catholic military chaplains". Columbia (magazine). Knights of Columbus. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- O'Neill, Eddie (November 7, 2010). "Keeping faith alive on the front line: Ministry hopes MP3 players with spiritual content strike chord with troops". Our Sunday Visitor newsweekly. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
- Weatherbe, Steve (September 20, 2010). "Spiritual Sustenance: New Organization Feeds Sacramentally Starved Troops". National Catholic Register (print edition). Retrieved 2010-09-25.
- O'Neill, Eddie (February 7, 2010). "In the face of weakness, strength in the Spirit: Diagnosed with the terminal illness commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, one priest shares his experience and understanding of suffering". Our Sunday Visitor. Retrieved 2010-11-03.. Fr. Dan Farley is a fifteen-year veteran of the U.S. Army chaplain corps. He retired as a chaplain and returned to St. Maximilian Kolbe Parish in Portage County, Wisconsin, in the Diocese of La Crosse, in June 2009.
- Daigle, Fr. David, "Snapshot of a shipmate: LTJG Philip Johnson", Catholic News Agency, Washington D.C., June 21, 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- "Vicar General for the Diocese of Fargo to return to active duty", Catholic News Agency, Fargo, N.D., February 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- "Chaplains are entrusted with spreading Gospel of peace in military, Pope says", Catholic News Agency, Vancouver, Canada, October 26, 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- "Colombian priest to provide chaplain services to Hispanic US troops in Iraq", Catholic News Agency, Orlando, Fla., June 8, 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, official website
- Archdiocese for the Military Services of the United States. GCatholic.org. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- Military Ordinariate of United States of America, Military. David M. Cheney (Catholic-Hierarchy.org). Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- Mission Capodanno website (Catholics in the Military; serving personnel, chaplains and families of those in the U.S. military)
- Global Catholic Statistics: 1905 and Today by Albert J. Fritsch, SJ, PhD
- Organizational Profile – National Center for Charitable Statistics (Urban Institute)