Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Albi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Archdiocese of Albi-Castres-Lavaur
Archidioecesis Albiensis-Castrensis-Vauriensis
Archidiocèse d'Albi-Castres-Lavaur
Cathédrale gothique d'Albi.jpg
Location
Ecclesiastical province Toulouse
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Toulouse
Statistics
Area 5,780 km2 (2,230 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2015)
393,877
287,923 (73.1%)
Parishes 509
Information
Denomination Roman Catholic
Sui iuris church Latin Church
Rite Roman Rite
Established c. 5th Century
3 October 1678 (Archdiocese of Albi)
17 February 1922 (Archdiocese of Albi-Castres-Lavaur)
Cathedral Cathedral Basilica of St. Cecilia in Albi
Patron saint Saint Cecilia
Secular priests 131 (diocesan)
42 (Religious Orders)
Current leadership
Pope Francis
Archbishop Jean Marie Henri Legrez
Metropolitan Archbishop Robert Jean Louis Le Gall
Website
Website of the Archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Albi (–Castres–Lavaur) (Latin: Archidioecesis Albiensis (–Castrensis–Vauriensis); French: Archidiocèse d'Albi (–Castres–Lavaur)), usually referred to simply as the Archdiocese of Albi, is a non-metropolitan archdiocese (one having no suffragan dioceses) of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in southern France. The archdiocese comprises the whole of the department of Tarn, and is itself currently suffragan to the Archdiocese of Toulouse, a metropolitan archdiocese.

The current Archbishop of Albi is Jean Legrez, O.P. appointed archbishop by Pope Benedict XVI on Wednesday, February 2, 2011. He formerly served as Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint-Claude in France. In 2015, in the Diocese of Albi there was one priest for every 1,740 Catholics.

History[edit]

Originally erected around the 5th century as the Diocese of Albi,[1] the diocese was for centuries a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bourges.

Growth of Heresy[edit]

In 1145[2] Pope Eugenius sent Cardinal Albericus, the Bishop of Ostia, as his Legate, to Toulouse, against the Petrobusian heretics, and Cardinal Albericus took the Cistercian monk Bernard of Clairvaux along with him. Gofridus of Clarivaux, an associate of Bernard, left a highly-colored account of Bernard's work in confuting the Petrobosian leader Henry of Lausanne; after several days of preaching in Toulouse, Bernard caused Henri to flee, but he was quickly captured and turned over to the bishop of Toulouse. Bernard also preached against the Manichaean heretics of the neighborhood, though at the castle-town of Verfeil, some ten miles east of Toulouse, he was completely unsuccessful.[3]

The Cardinal, followed some days later by Bernard, then visited Albi. The Cardinal's reception was cold and jeering, reflecting no doubt the well-known anti-clerical attitudes of the Albigensians, in particular the luxury and arrogance of the higher clergy. Bernard's reception was more friendly, his reputation as an ascetic and celibate approximating the Albigensian view of "the good men". He was favorably received in his sermon in the Cathedral on 29 June, and, at least in his own imagination, he persuaded large numbers to return to the true and orthodox faith. His companion and biographer, Geoffrey of Auxerre, was less certain, an evaluation which appeared more realistic in the outcome. Geoffrey also wrote to the monks at Clairvaux that Bernard's return should be expected some time after the Octave of the Assumption (the last week of August). The Cardinal was back with the Pope in time for Christmas in Rome.[4]

In 1147, while he was still on his journey to France, Pope Eugene III received reports, charges that Bishop Gilibertus of Poitiers was guilty of heresy; the information was brought by two of Gilibertus' own Archdeacons. Gilibertus was summoned to answer to the charges. As the two Archdeacons were returning to France, they consulted with the well-known Cistercian monk, Bernard of Clairvaux, who became eager to help them in bringing Gilibertus to account. The Bishop was examined first at Auxerre, then in Paris (April–June), and finally at the Council of Reims in March 1148.

In 1165 a judicial meeting was assembled by Bishop Guillaume de Dorgne of Albi at the castle-town of Lombers, two leagues (c. 10 miles) south of Albi, a place agreed upon by the "good men" (boni homines) of the Vaudois, where they believed they would be safe under the protection of the knights who held the castle in fief. The "good men" were under suspicion of heresy, and they were expected to answer the charges against them.[5] The Bishop fortified his court with a large assembly of notables: the Archbishop of Narbonne and the Bishops of Agde, Lodève, Nîmes, and Toulouse; the Abbots of S. Pons, Castres, Sendrac, Saint-Guilham, Gaillac, Candeil, and others; the Provosts of Toulouse and of Albi; the Archdeacons of Narbonne and Agde; Countess Constance of Toulouse, Trincavel the Vicomte of Béziers, and the Vicomte of Laurac; and practically the entire population of Albi and Lombers.[6] Bishop Gaucelinus of Lodève, who acted as inquisitor, had six topics concerning the theological doctrine and practices of the "good men" on which he interrogated them closely, sometimes in fact engaging in debate. The "good men" refused to use or respond to arguments or texts from the Old Testament. They were reluctant to discuss the eucharist (though they admitted that any good man, cleric or layman could consecrate), marriage, or penance (They would only say that the sick could confess to anyone they wanted).[7] In return, the "good men" accused the prelates of being guilty of unchristian greed and luxury, lupi rapaces, and they named Bishop William a heretic. Bishop Gaucelinus pronounced sentence on the "good men" as heretics, and offered them an oath of purgation in which they could demonstrate their orthodoxy. They refused. Bishop Guillaume could not bring himself to compel them to swear, or to impose a penalty, since there was considerable support among the people for their cause. Thereafter the "good men" were called Albigensians.[8]

In 1167 the Albigensians were numerous and confident enough that they held their own Council at Saint-Felix-de-Caraman. A Bogomil bishop Nicetas, and Marcus, a representative of the Lombard community, were present. This council defined the geographical span of the Albigensian Bishoprics of Agenais, Toulouse, Albigeios and Carcasses (Carcassonne). The Albigensian bishop of Albi, Sicard Cellarier, took part.[9]

In 1179 Pope Alexander III summoned a general council of the Church, which met in Rome at the Lateran Basilica beginning on 5 March, and came to be called the Third Lateran Council. The 27th Canon of the Council addressed the heresies which were to be found in Gascony, the Albigeois, and Toulouse (in Gasconia, Albegesio, et partibus Tolosanis, et aliis locis) under the names Cathars, Patrines, Publicani, and other names. Anathemas were hurled against them, forbidding anyone to favor or to do business with them in their homes or on their properties.[10] In 1180 Pope Alexander appointed Cardinal Henri de Marsiac, who had once been Abbot of Clairvaux and who had been promoted Bishop of Albano at the Lateran Council, to serve as Legate in France against the Albigensians. In June 1181 he led a body of knights against the town of Lavaur, which served as the headquarters of the Cathar bishop of Toulouse. The Cardinal also held councils at Le Puy, Bazas, Limoges, Bourges and Bordeaux. He returned to Rome only after the death of Pope Alexander.[11]

Albigensian Crusade[edit]

The Vicomté d'Albi was united with the crown by King Louis VIII in 1226, during his visit to the Albigeois in October.[12]

In 1275 the Dominicans held their General Chapter meeting in Perpignan. At that meeting they took the decision to establish a convent of Dominicans in Albi, and they sent eight members of the Order to undertake the task. In the next year the establishment opened, with Bernard Bociat elected the first Prior Conventual. The first stone of their church, Saint-Louis, was laid by Bishop de Castenet in 1293.[13]

On 6 March 1474, King Louis XI of France by patent letters granted Bishop Louis d'Amboise and his successors the Presidency of the Three Estates of Languedoc, which included the lands of Perpignan and Roussillon, as well as the Bordelais and Guienne.[14]

Archbishopric[edit]

On 3 October 1678, Pope Innocent XI, in the Bull Triumphans pastor aeternus, raised the diocese to the status of a metropolitan archbishopric. The Province was composed of the dioceses of Albi, Riez, Castres, Cahors, Vabres, and Mende.[15] The bull was confirmed by King Louis XIV in letters patent dated 14 June 1680.[16]

Cathedral and Canons[edit]

The Canons of the Cathedral Chapter of Albi had once lived under the rule of Saint Augustine, since perhaps the 11th century.[17] Bishop Frotardus, at some point before his deposition in 1075, carried out a reform of the cathedral Chapter, complaining of the greed, lack of chastity, and neglect of duty of the Canons. Most of the Canons returned to their duty. the document attesting to the reform mentions two Sacristans, Capiscolaris (Cantor), a Treasurer, and a Dean. A Provost is also mentioned under Frotardus.[18]

Pope Boniface VIII, in a bull of 29 September 1297, secularized the Canons. This led to an immediate and intense struggle between the Bishop, Bernard de Castanet, and the Canons of the Cathedral Chapter over the redistribution of the property and rights which had belonged to the monks of the monastery. Prebends had to be created, and issues over the rights of presentation to various churches and priories (which ones were to belong to the bishop, and which to the Canons) had to be settled. The hostility that grew out of this situation certainly influenced the attempt in 1307–1308 to have Bishop de Castenet deposed by the Pope.

The Cathedral Chapter was composed of seven dignities (not dignitaries) and twenty canons. The dignities were: the Provost, the Cantor, the Succentor, the three Archdeacons, and the Theologian. Their prebends were granted by the bishop.[19] In 1678 there were eight dignities, twenty Canons, and forty-eight prebends.[20] In 1747 there were nine dignities and twenty Canons.[21]

There was also a collegiate church in Albi, the Church of Saint-Salvi, which was also served by a college of Canons, at least since the mid-eleventh century. The Canons, twelve in number, followed the rule of Saint Augustine, and were headed by a Provost. The Provost was elected by the Canons, and confirmed by the Bishop, and had the right to confer all the benefices that belonged to the collegiate church.[22]

The Collège of Albi was established on 19 May 1623 by Bishop Alphonse d'Elbène, and provided with an endowment of 3,000 livres. The Seminary of Albi was erected by the first Archbishop, Hyacinthe Serroni, in 1684.[23]

Revolution[edit]

In 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decided to bring the French church under the control of the State. Civil government of the provinces was to be reorganized into new units called 'départements', originally intended to be 83 or 84 in number. The dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church were to be reduced in number, to coincide as much as possible with the new departments. Since there were more than 130 bishoprics at the time of the Revolution, more than fifty dioceses needed to be suppressed and their territories consolidated.[24] Clergy would need to take an oath of allegiance to the State and its Constitution, specified by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and they would become salaried officials of the State. Both bishops and priests would be elected by special 'electors' in each department. This brought schism, since bishops would no longer need to be approved (preconised) by the Papacy; the transfer of bishops, likewise, which had formerly been the exclusive prerogative of the pope in canon law, would be the privilege of the State; the election of bishops no longer lay with the Cathedral Chapters (which were all abolished), or other responsible clergy, or the Pope, but with electors who did not even have to be Catholics or Christians.[25]

A new civil department, called "Tarn", was created by the French Legislative Assembly. The old diocese of Albi was suppressed, and a new "Diocese of Tarn" was created, with its center at Albi. It was assigned as a suffragan to the "Metropole du Sud". Archbishop François-Joachim de Bernis of Albi refused to take the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and therefore his See was declared by the Legislative Assembly to be vacant. Cardinal de Bernis died on 2 November 1794. His nephew and coadjutor succeeded to the diocese canonically, receiving the pallium on 1 June 1795. He did not actually resign canonically, however, until 2 March 1802.[26]

The electors of Tarn, meeting at Castres on 13 March 1791, chose in his place Jean-Joachim Gausserand, who was a Beneficier of the Cathedral Chapter of Albi and Promoter Forain of the district of Gaillac. He had been elected a deputy to the Estates General of 1789, and had taken the constitutional oath on 27 December 1790. He was consecrated a Constitutional Bishop in Paris at Notre Dame on 3 April 1791 by Constitutuonal Bishop Antoine-Adrien Lamourette. The consecration was valid, but canonically irregular, schismatic, and blasphemous (as a parody of genuine Catholic sacraments). Gausserand took possession of the diocese of Tarn on 1 May 1791. When Religion was formally abolished in 1793 and replaced by the Cult of Reason, the bishop went into hiding, and his diocese was abolished; but, after the Terror, when it was restored, he found that more than 200 of his priests had resigned, and 40 of them had married. Gausserand held three synods in the diocese, in 1797 and 1801. He refused the opportunity to reconcile at the time of the Concordat of 1801. In 1808 he was struck with the interdict, and he died in exile in Toulouse on 12 February 1820, without having been reconciled with the Roman Catholic Church.[27]

Bourbon restoration[edit]

After the signing of the Concordat of 1801 with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, Pope Pius VII demanded the resignation of all bishops in France, in order to leave no doubt as to who was a legitimate bishop and who was a Constitutional imposter.[28] He then immediately abolished all of the dioceses in France, for the same reason. Then he began to restore the old Ancien Regime dioceses, or most of them, though not with the same boundaries as before the Revolution, but instead taking account of the abolition of the Estates and Provinces and the creation of the new department system of civil government. The diocese of Albi was not one of those revived by Pope Pius VII in his bull Qui Christi Domini of 29 November 1801. The territory of the former diocese of Albi was assigned to the diocese of Montpellier, which also received the territories of the suppressed dioceses of Agde, Lavaur, Narbonne, Saint-Pons, and Vabres.[29]

Following the Concordat of 11 June 1817, the archdiocese was restored in 1822 to its former borders and title.

During the First World War, 349 members of the clergy of the diocese of Albi were mobilized. 17 died. Six won the Légion d'honneur; 3 won the Medaille militaire; 63 were awarded the Croix de guerre. [30]

In February 1922, the name was changed to its current designation: the Archdiocese of Albi-Castres-Lavour.

Bishops and Archbishops[edit]

To 1000[edit]

St Clair[31]
Anthimius[32]
  • c. 406: Diogenianus[33]
[451: Anemius][34]
  • 506: Sabinus[35]
  • 549: Ambroise[36]
  • 580–584: Salvius, St Salvi, (Salvy)[37]
  • 585: Desiderius (Didier)[38]
  • 614: Fredemundus[39]
  • 625–647: Constantius[40]
  • ?–664: Dido (Didon)[41]
  • c. 673: Richard[42]
  • 692–30. May 698: Citruin[43]
  • c. 700: Amarand[44]
  • 722: Hugo[44]
  • 734: Johannes[44]
  • c. 804: Deodatus (Verdatus)[45]
  • 825: Guilelmus[44]
  • 844: Balduin[44]
  • 854: Pandevius[44]
  • 876: Lupus[46]
  • 886: Eligius (Eloi)[47]
  • 887–891: Adolenus (Adolence)[48]
  • 921: Paterne
  • 926: Godebric
  • 936: Angelvin
  • 941–942: Miron
  • 961–967: Bernard
  • 972: Frotaire (Frotarius)
  • 975–987: Amelius or Ameil
  • 990: Ingelbin
  • 992: Honorat
  • 998: Amblard

1000-1300[edit]

  • 1020–1040: Amelius (or Ameil II).[49]
  • 1040–1054: Guilielmus[50]
  • 1062–1079: Frotardus[51]
  • 1079–1090: Guilelmus (III.)
  • 1096: Galterus (Galterius, Walter, Gauthier)[52]
  • 1098–1099: Hugo II.
  • 1100–1103: Adelgaire I.
  • 1103: Arnaldus de Cecenno[53]
  • 1109–1110: Adelgarius.
  • 1115: Sicard
  • 1115–1125: Bertrandus
  • 1125–1132: Humbertus[54]
  • 1136–1143: Hugo III.
  • 1143–1155: Rigaud
  • 1157–1174: Guilelmus[55]
[Gérard][56]
  • 1183: Claude André[57]
  • 1185–1227: Guilelmus Petri[58]
  • 1228–c. 1254: Durand
  • 1254–c. 1271: Bernard II. de Combret[59]
1271–1276: Sede Vacante[60]

1300-1500[edit]

  • 1308–1311: Bertrand des Bordes
  • 1311–1314: Géraud II.
  • 1314–1333: Béraud de Farges
  • 1334–1337: Pierre de la Vie[62]
  • 1337: Bernard de Camiet[63]
  • 1337–1338: Guillaume Court
  • 1339–1350: Pictavinus de Montesquiou[64]
  • 1351–1354: Arnaud Guillaume[65]
  • 1355–1379: Hugues Auberti (Hugo Alberti)
  • 1379–1382: Dominique de Florence, O.P. (Avignon Obedience)[66]
  • 1382–1383: Jean de Saie (Avignon Obedience)[67]
  • 1383–1392: Guillaume de la Voulte (Avignon Obedience)
  • 1393–1410: Dominique de Florence (again)[68]
  • 1410–1434: Pierre III. Neveu
  • 1435: Bernard V. de Cazilhac
  • 1435–1462: Robert Dauphin
  • 1462–1473: Cardinal Jean Jouffroy[69]
  • 1474–1503: Louis d'Amboise,[70] (the Elder)

1500-1700[edit]

1687–1693: Sede Vacante[86]
  • 1693–1703: Charles Le Goux de la Berchère[87]

1700-present[edit]

1801–1823: Sede Vacante
  • 1823–1833: Charles Brault[95]
  • 1833–1842: François-Marie-Edouard de Gualy[96]
  • 1842–1864: Jean-Joseph-Marie-Eugène de Jerphanion[97]
  • 1865–1875: Jean-Paul-François-Marie-Félix Lyonnet[98]
  • 1876–1884: Etienne-Emile Ramadié[99]
  • 1884–1899: Jean-Emile Fonteneau[100]
  • 1900–1918: Eudoxe-Irénée-Edouard Mignot[101]
  • 1918–1940: Pierre-Célestin Cézerac
  • 1940–1956: Jean-Joseph-Aimé Moussaron
  • 1957–1961: Jean-Emmanuel Marquès
  • 1961–1974: Claude Dupuy
  • 1974–1985: Robert-Joseph Coffy[102]
  • 1986–1988: Joseph-Marie-Henri Rabine
  • 1989–1999: Roger Lucien Meindre
  • 2000–2010: Pierre-Marie Joseph Carré
  • 2011–present: Jean Legrez, O.P.[103]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Compayre, p. 61. DeVic-Vaissete, IV, p. 383 column 1.
  2. ^ Adrian H. Bredero (2004). Bernard Of Clairvaux. A&C Black. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-567-08285-5.  The Encyclopedia Britannica article "Albigeois" Volume 1 (Cambridge 1910), p. 505, gives the date of 1147, which, however, is inconsistent with the known whereabouts of Cardinal Albericus.
  3. ^ Cesare Baronio (ed. Augustin Theiner), Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus XIX (Bar-le-Duc 1870), pp. 3-9.
  4. ^ De Vic and Vaissete, Histoire generale de Languedoc Tome III (Toulouse 1872), p. 745-746.
  5. ^ Pilar Jimenez, "Sources juridiques pour l'etude du catharisme: les actes du concile de Lombers (1165)," Clio & Crimen no. 1 (Durango ES, 2014), p. 358-372.
  6. ^ Martin Bouquet, ed. (1877). Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France (in French and Latin). Tome quatorzieme. Paris: Victor Palmé. pp. 431–434. 
  7. ^ Damian J. Smith (2010). Crusade, Heresy and Inquisition in the Lands of the Crown of Aragon: (c. 1167 - 1276). Boston-Leiden: Brill. p. 77. ISBN 90-04-18289-6.  Mark Gregory Pegg (2009). A Most Holy War: The Albigensian Crusade and the Battle for Christendom. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–44. ISBN 978-0-19-539310-1.  Crozes, pp. 58-59.
  8. ^ Crozes, p. 59.
  9. ^ Bernard Hamilton, "Cathar Links with the Balkans and Byzantium," Antonio Sennis, ed. (2016). Cathars in Question. Woodbridge Suffolk UK: Boydell & Brewer. pp. 131–150. ISBN 978-1-903153-68-0. , at 141-144.
  10. ^ C. J. Hefele, Histoire des conciles (tr. Delarc) Tome VII (Paris 1872) pp. 509-510.
  11. ^ Hefele, p. 514. Michael D. Costen, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade (Manchester 1997), pp. 105-106. Cardinal Henri missed the Conclave of 1181.
  12. ^ Compayré, p. 8, 270. Julien Théry-Astruc (2016), "The Heretical Dissidence...", p. 103 [revisionist, polemical].
  13. ^ Compayré, p. 58.
  14. ^ Compayré, pp. 85–87.
  15. ^ Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, Instrumenta, p. 1-3. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 75 note 1.
  16. ^ Compayré, p. 65.
  17. ^ DeVic-Vaissete, IV, p. 383 column 1.
  18. ^ Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 11, and Instrumenta, pp. 5–6. Compayré, pp. 70–71
  19. ^ Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 2.
  20. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 75 note 1.
  21. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 73 note 1.
  22. ^ J.-L. Biget, "Sainte-Cécile et Saint-Salvi: chapitre de cathédrale et chapitre de collégiale à Albi," Cahiers de Fanjoux 24 (1989) 65-104. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 49-52.
  23. ^ DeVic-Vaissete, IV, p. 383 column 2.
  24. ^ Louis Marie Prudhomme (1793). La République française en quatre-vingt-quatre départements, dictionnaire géographique et méthodique (in French). Paris: Chez l'éditeur, rue des Marais. pp. 7–11. 
  25. ^ Ludovic Sciout (1872). Historie de la constitution civile du clergé (1790-1801) .. (in French). Tome I. Paris: Firmin Didot frères, fils et cie. pp. 204–208. 
  26. ^ Bernis was appointed Archbishop of Rouen on 27 September 1819, and died on 4 February 1823. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 73 notes 4 and 5.
  27. ^ Paul Pisani (1907). Répertoire biographique de l'épiscopat constitutionnel (1791-1802) (in French). Paris: A. Picard et fils. pp. 403–407, 456. 
  28. ^ Em Sevestre; Émile Sévestre (1905). L'histoire, le texte et la destinée du Concordat de 1801 (in French). Paris: Lethielleux. pp. 238–249, 488, 496. 
  29. ^ Pius VI; Pius VII (1821). Collectio (per epitomen facta,) Bullarum, Brevium, Allocutionum, Epistolarumque, ... Pii VI., contra constitutionem civilem Cleri Gallicani, ejusque authores et fautores; item, Concordatorum inter ... Pium VII. et Gubernium Rei publicae, in Galliis, atque alia varia regimina, post modum in hac regione, sibi succedentia; tum expostulationum ... apud ... Pium Papam VII., Contra varia Acta, ad Ecclesiam Gallicanam, spectantia, a triginta et octo Episcopis, Archiepiscop. et Cardinal. antiquae Ecclesiae Gallicanae, subscriptarum, etc. 6 Avril, 1803 (in Latin). London: Cox & Baylis. pp. 111–121, at p. 116. 
  30. ^ Almanach catholique français (in French). Paris. 1920. p. 71. 
  31. ^ Clair is a name in the Proprium diocesis Auscitanensis, a list of diocesan Mass commemorations for June 1, as he was in Bordeaux, Auch, Limoges, Perigueux, Sarlat, and Lectoure. A church was named after him. De Vic-Vaissete, Histoire de Languedoc IV, p. 383. Crozes, pp. 8–18, provides an extensive treatment of the legend, and the objections to its authenticity. For the legend, see: Daniele Papebrochius; Francois Baert; Conrad Janninck (1695). Acta Sanctorum Junii (in Latin). Tomus I. Antwerp: typographia Henrici Thieullier. pp. 7–16. 
  32. ^ De Vic-Vaissete, IV, p. 383, states: "Antime était disciple de S. Clair & passe pour avoir été son successeur." (Antime was a disciple of S. Clair and passes as having been his successor) He is known only from the Proprium. Crozes, p. 18 note 2, quotes their meager content. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 3.
  33. ^ Diogenianus is mentioned by Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book II, 13. Duchesne, II, p. 42.
  34. ^ The name appears, without reference to diocese, in a list of subscribers to a synodal letter addressed to Pope Leo III. Duchesne, p. 42, note 2, notes that the name is derived from Polycarpe de la Rivière, a known forger of documents. Carolus Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963) p. 107-110 (who cites no manuscript source).
  35. ^ Sabinus was present at the Council of Agde in 506. Sirmond, Jacques, ed. (1789). "Concilium Agathense". Conciliorum Galliae tam editorum quam ineditorum collectio, temporum ordine digesta, ab anno Christi 177 ad ann. 1563, cum epistolis pontificum, principum constitutionibus, et aliis ecclesiasticae rei gallicanae monimentis (in Latin). 1. Paris: P. Didot. col. 796. 
  36. ^ Ambrosius was represented by the Archdeacon Viventius at the Council of Orleans in 549. Sirmond, I, col. 1044. Duchesne, p. 42.
  37. ^ Salvius is mentioned by Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book V, 44 and 50; VI, 29; VII, 1; VIII, 22. Duchesne, p. 43.
  38. ^ Desiderius was the successor of Salvius: Gregory of Tours, VIII, 22.
  39. ^ Fredemund signed the decrees of the Council of Paris in 614. Duchesne, II, p. 43, no. 7.
  40. ^ Constantius was present at the Council of Clichy in 627. Duchesne, II, p. 43, no. 8.
  41. ^ Duchesne, p. 43, argues that Dido is a contemporary of Pope Gregory I (590-604), and belongs before Bishop Constantius. The date of 664-667 is only the date of the manuscript in which his name is found. DeVic-Vaisette, IV, p. 656 column 2, remarks that the reference in the manuscript is the work of a falsifier.
  42. ^ The name is known only from a list constructed by a modern scholar, N. Sabatier, president of the Parlement of Toulouse. The source is conjectural, according to Louis Duchesne, II, pp. 41–42 and 44 no. 9. Cf. also Compayré, p. 68 note 4. Text of the list: Luc d' Achery, ed. (1666). Veterum aliquot scriptorum qui in Galliae bibliothecis, maxime Benedictinorum, latuerant, Spicilegium (in Latin). Paris: Apud C. Savreux. pp. 335–338. 
  43. ^ Duchesne, II, pp. 41–42 and 44.
  44. ^ a b c d e f The name does not appear in the list supplied by Duchesne, p. 42, or in his list of authentic bishops at p. 44.
  45. ^ Compayré, p. 8, notes Bishop Deodatus, who had been an Aumonier of Charlemagne, who had established at Albi a judge, a fiscal procurator, and two notaries. Compayre, p. 69, suggests that Verdat (c. 812) of the list is Deodatus.
  46. ^ Lupus was present at the Council of Ponthion in 876. His name may be mentioned in the catalogue list three times, by error: Duchesne, II, p. 44 no. 10.
  47. ^ Eligius subscribed at the Council in villa Portu in the diocese of Nimes in 886. Duchesne, II, p. 44, no. 11. J. D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio editio novissima Tomus 18 (Venice: Antonio Zatta 1773), p. 45.
  48. ^ Duchesne, II, p. 44, no. 12.
  49. ^ Amelius was present at the Council of Bourges in 1031, and at the Council of Limoges. He participated in the dedication of the monastery of Vendôme in 1040. Saint-Marthe, Gallia christiana, I, p. 10. De Vic-Vaissete, IV, pp. 384 column 2; 653 column 2. Crozes, pp. 52–53. Gams, p. 484.
  50. ^ The See of Albi was purchased for Bishop Guilelmus (Guillem), son of Bernard-Aymard, at the price of 5,000 sols for Count Pons of Toulouse, and a similar sum for Vicomte Bernard Athon of Albi and Bishop Frotarius of Nîmes. Saint-Marthe, Gallia christiana, I, pp. 10–11. Crozes, p. 53. De Vic-Vaissete, IV, pp. 384 column 2; 653 column 2.
  51. ^ Frotard was excommunicated in the Council of Toulouse in 1075 for simony, and deposed by Pope Gregory VII. He had purchased the See of Albi for the value of fifteen first-class horses. He went to Rome and appealed his sentence, but was refused by Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085). When Wibertus of Ravenna was set up as (antipope) Clement III, he appealed again and was successful in c. 1083. Etienne Baluze (1761). Stephani Baluzii Tutelensis miscellanea novo ordine digesta et non paucis ineditis monumentis opportunisque animadversionibus aucta (in Latin). Tomus I (novo ordine ed.). Junctinium. p. 125.  Crozes, p. 54. Stephanus Baluzius, Miscellaneorum Tomus sextus, hoc est Collectio veterum monumentorum... (Paris 1713), p. 431-432 (for the date). J.-D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XX (Venice 1775), pp. 457–458. Gams, p. 484.
  52. ^ Duchesne, II, p. 42. Saint-Marthe, Gallia christiana, I, p. 12.
  53. ^ Saint-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 12–13.
  54. ^ Humbertus is mentioned in documents of 1125, 1126 and 1127. In 1132 Humbert subscribed a charter in which Vicomte Roger of Albi was given the diocese of Albi in fief by Count Jourdain of Toulouse, and granted the right to participate in the election of a bishop of Albi. Compayré, p. 72. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 13. Crozes, pp. 55–56.
  55. ^ William of Dourgne was imprisoned by Vicomte Roger of Béziers in 1178, apparently in a conflict over seigneurial rights. Radosław Kotecki; Jacek Maciejewski (2014). Ecclesia et Violentia: Violence against the Church and Violence within the Church in the Middle Ages. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-1-4438-7002-3.  Jean Dufour, Les évêques d'Albi, de Cahors et de Rodez, des origines à la fin du XIIe siècle (Paris 1989), pp. 38–39. Crozes, pp. 58–60.
  56. ^ A "Bishop Gérard" is claimed for the diocese of Albi in 1176, but the only documentary evidence (the Concilium Lumbarense) has been redated from 1165 so that his dates do not conflict with those of Bishop Guilelmus. The names of other bishops in the document do not fit the period either, and Countess Constance of Toulouse, who was separated from Count Raymond V in 1165, signed the decrees. A real bishop, Pons d'Arsac of Narbonne, confirmed the decrees of the Council of Lombers at the Council of Capestang in 1166. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 15. C.J. Hefele, Histoire des conciles (tr. Delarc) VII (Paris 1872), pp. 432–434. Crozes, pp. 58–60.
  57. ^ Claude André is known from a single act of 1183: Gams, p. 484 column 2. De Vic-Vaissete, IV, p. 386.
  58. ^ Guilelmus is also called Guillaume Pierre de Brens, William Peyre, Guilliame Peyre, and Guilhem Peyre. He had been Provost of the Cathedral Chapter, and was Administrator of the diocese at least from 1177, during the imprisonment of Bishop Guilelmus by Roger II Trencavel. Bishop Guilelmus Petri died on 21 May 1230, and was buried on 22 May, according to a necrology and a manuscript in the episcopal archives, quoted by D'Auriac (p. 90 note 1, p. 91 note 1.). Eugène d'Auriac, pp. 63–91. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, Instrumenta, p. 7. Gams, p. 484. Eubel, I, p. 81.
  59. ^ Eubel, I, p. 81.
  60. ^ Julien Théry-Astruc (2016), "The Heretical Dissidence...", p. 103.
  61. ^ Bernard was appointed on 7 March 1275 or 1276. He was transferred to the diocese of Le Puy on 30 July 1308 by Pope Clement V. He was named a cardinal by Pope John XXII, and was promoted to the Suburbicarian See of Porto and Santa Rufina on 18 December 1316. He died on 14 August 1317. Crozes, pp. 62–74. Eubel, I, pp. 15 no. 1; 36, 81, 91.
  62. ^ Pierre de la Vie, Archdeacon of Fenohelto (Narbonne), was the nephew of Cardinal Arnaud de la Vie, and grand-nephew of Pope John XXII. He was appointed Bishop of Albi on 15 June 1334. He died on 27 August 1337. Crozes, p. 82. Eubel, I, p. 81.
  63. ^ Bernard de Camiet was appointed on 20 October 1337, and died on 28 November 1337. Crozes, p. 82. Eubel, I, p. 81
  64. ^ He is also called Peitavin de Montesquiou, and Pectin de Montesquieu. He had previously been Bishop of Bazas (1325–1334), and then Bishop of Maguelonne (1334–1339). He was appointed Bishop of Albi on 27 January 1339, and named a cardinal by Pope Clement VI on 17 December 1350, in consequence of which he resigned the bishopric. He died on 1 February 1355. Crozes, p. 84. Eubel I, pp. 19 no. 19; 81, 320, 516.
  65. ^ Bishop Arnaldus Guillelmi made his solemn entry into Albi on 10 July 1351. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, Instrumenta p. 12.
  66. ^ Dominique was appointed by Pope Clement VII on 18 May 1379. He was transferred to the diocese of Saint-Pons-de-Thomères on 30 May 1382. Crozes, p. 87. Eubel, I, p. 81, 406.
  67. ^ Jean de Saie had previously been Bishop of Lombès (1362–1363), Bishop of Dax (1363–1375), and then Bishop of Agen (1375–1382). He was appointed Bishop of Albi on 30 May 1382 by Pope Clement VII. Crozes, p. 86. Eubel, I, p. 77, 81, 97, 310.
  68. ^ Dominique of Florence was transferred back to Albi from Saint-Pons by Pope Clement VII on 24 October 1392, following the death of Guillaume de la Voulte. He took part in the Council of Pisa in 1409. He was transferred to the diocese of Toulouse on 5 September 1410. Dominique died on 17 March 1422. Crozes, p. 87. Eubel, I, pp. 81, 406, 488.
  69. ^ Cardinal Jouffroy had previously been Bishop of Arras (1453–1462). He was provided to the See of Albi by Pope Pius II on 10 December 1462. He died on 11 December 1473. Compayre, pp. 82–85. Eubel, II, p. 84.
  70. ^ Louis d'Amboise was the brother of Cardinal Georges d'Amboise. He was granted his bulls of consecration and installation on 24 January 1474. He was responsible for the construction of the choir of the Cathedral of Saint Cecilia. In 1498 he was appointed to the commission that investigated the legality of the marriage of King Louis XII and Jeanne de Valois. He wrote his Testament in 1481 and died in Lyon on 1 July 1503. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 33–35. Crozes, pp. 106–111. Eubel, II, p. 84.
  71. ^ On 22 May 1497, with the consent of Louis d'Amboise the Elder and the Chapter of Albi, Louis d'Amboise the younger (House of Amboise) was granted the right of succession upon the resignation or decease of his uncle. He succeeded on 1 July 1503, and resigned the diocese in September 1510. He was created a cardinal on 18 December 1506, and named Cardinal Priest of SS. Pietro e Marcellino on 11 January 1510. He died in 1517. Crozes, pp. 111–112. Eubel, II, p. 84 with note 3; III, p. 11 no. 16; 101 with note 2.
  72. ^ Cardinal de Britto was appointed Administrator of the diocese of Albi on 30 September 1510. He died on 9 November 1513. Eubel, III, p. 101.
  73. ^ Charles de Robertet was the nephew of Florimond de Robert, Secretaire des Commandemens du Roi, was elected bishop in December 1510, and took possession on 17 April 1511. He was appointed on 14 March 1515. He resigned in favor of Jacques de Robertet on 25 May 1515. Compayre, p. 91. Crozes, pp. 112–114. Eubel, III, p. 101.
  74. ^ Jean-Jacques was the brother of Charles Robertet, with whom he entered into an agreement for the succession to the diocese. He was appointed on 25 May 1515, and his brother died on 9 August. The succession was contested however. The Canons of the Cathedral held an election on 10 August 1515, and chose the Archbishop of Auch, François de Clermont-Lodève, who accepted and entered a suit against Jean-Jacques Robertet before the Parlement of Toulouse, which he won. This irritated King Francis, who by that time had the Concordat of Bologna in his hand, had the case revoked to the Parlement of Paris; but the Parlement also found in favor of Clermont-Lodève. The Cardinal, however, considering the royal interest, yielded to Robertet. He took possession on 27 November 1517. Compayre, pp. 91–92. Crozes, pp. 114–115. Eubel, III, p. 101.
  75. ^ Cardinal Adrien de Boissy died on 24 July 1523. Crozes, pp. 115–116. Eubel, III, p. 14, 101.
  76. ^ Aymar Gouffier de Boissy was the brother of Cardinal Adrien de Boissy. He was elected by the Chapter, despite the terms of the Concordat of Bologna, which gave the right of nomination to the King of France. Francis I later gave his assent, on 1 August 1523. He took possession of the See by proxy on 19 June 1524, and in person on 10 November 1527. He died on 9 October 1528. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 37–38. Eubel, III, p. 101.
  77. ^ Duprat was never consecrated a bishop. He was therefore only Administrator of the diocese of Albi. He was preconised by Pope Clement VII on 23 December 1528. He had as Coadjutor Pierre de la Porte. He died on 9 July 1535. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 38. Compayre, p. 95. Crozes, pp. 116–118. Eubel, III, p. 101.
  78. ^ The Cardinal de Lorraine was the son of René II, Duc de Lorraine. He was named a cardinal in 1518 by Pope Leo X. He took possession of the diocese of Albi on 5 October 1535. He was non-resident. He died on 10 May 1550. Compayre, p. 96. Crozes, p. 118-119. Eubel, III, p. 101.
  79. ^ The future Cardinal de Guise was transferred to the diocese of Albi from Troyes, where he was only Bishop-elect and Administrator, since he was well below the minimum age for consecration as a bishop. He was only 22 when appointed to Albi. He resigned the diocese of Albi before 9 May 1561. He was finally consecrated a bishop on 1 April 1571. Eubel, III, p. 101, 317.
  80. ^ Eubel, III, p. 101.
  81. ^ Bishop Filippo was a Florentine, and a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil Law and Canon Law) from the University of Avignon. He was the nephew of Archbishop Lorenzo Strozzi. He had been Abbot Commendatory of Saint-Victor-de-Marseille before being appointed Archbishop by King Charles IX and approved by Pope Pius IV. Denis de Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I (Paris 1716), p. 39. Eubel, III, p. 101.
  82. ^ Bishop Alfonso's father was a Florentine, del Bene, who had migrated to Lyon. He was nominated by King Henri III in August 1588, and was approved by Pope Sixtus V on 25 September 1589, by which time King Henri was dead at the hand of an assassin. Gallia christiana, I, pp. 39–40. Eubel, III, p. 101.
  83. ^ Gallia christiana, I, p. 40. Gauchat, IV, p. 75.
  84. ^ Gallia christiana, I, p. 40. Gauchat, IV, p. 75.
  85. ^ Born in Rome, Serroni was a protege of Michel Mazarin, O.P., the Cardinal's brother. He had previously been Bishop of Mende. He was nominated by King Louis XIV on 26 August 1676, and approved by Pope Innocent XI on 3 October 1678, becoming the first Archbishop. He took possession on 22 February 1679. In 1682 he took part in the Assembly of the French Clergy. He died in Paris on 7 January 1687. Jean, p. 2. Ritzler, V, p. 75 with note 2.
  86. ^ Because of the Four Gallican Articles, Pope Innocent XI and Pope Alexander VIII refused to preconise any of the episcopal nominations of Louis XIV.
  87. ^ Le Goux had previously been Bishop of Lavaur (1677–1692). He was nominated to the diocese of Albi by Louis XIV on 31 January 1687, but the King's quarrel with the Papacy over the Four Articles of 1682 postponed the granting of the bulls of transfer and appointment to Albi until 12 October 1693. Le Goux nonetheless enjoyed the temporal Administration of the diocese from 1687 to 1693. He was transferred to Narbonne on 12 November 1703. Jean, pp. 2–3. Crozes, pp. 133–137. Ritzler, V, p. 75 with note 3; p. 406 with note 5.
  88. ^ Nesmond was born in the diocese of Bordeaux, and was Doctor in theology (Paris). He had previously been Bishop of Montaubon (1692–1703), and was transferred to Albi on 12 November 1703. He became a member of the Académie Française in 1710. He was transferred to Toulouse on 14 January 1722, where he died on 26 May 1727. Jean, p. 3. Ritzler, V, p. 75, with note 4; p. 273; p. 378.
  89. ^ De Castries, a native of Montpellier, was the second son of René Gaspard, Marquis de Castries and Isabelle Bonzi, the sister of Cardinal Bonzi of Narbonne. He was a Doctor of theology (Paris), and became Archdeacon of Narbonne, thanks to the patronage of his uncle. He was Aumonier of the Dauphine and Grand Aumonier of the Duchesse de Berry. He had been named Bishop of Tours (1719–1723) in 1717, but did not receive his bulls until 1719, due to problems with his Jansenism. He was finally consecrated on 29 October 1719, but he was named Archbishop of Albi on 5 November 1719. He again suffered delays, and did not take possession of the temporalities of the diocese of Albi until 14 January 1722; his bulls were issued on 22 September 1722. He died at Albi on 15 April 1747. Jean, pp. 3 and 423. Ritzler, V, p. 75, with note 5; p. 395 with note 6.
  90. ^ Rochefoucauld the nephew of Cardinal Frédéric-Jérome de la Rochefoucauld, who named him Vicar General of Bourges. He was nominated by King Louis XV on 1 May 1747, and preconised (approved) by Pope Benedict XIV on 29 May 1747. He was consecrated a bishop on 20 June 1747 by Bishop Gabriel-Florent de Choiseul of Mende. He was transferred to the diocese of Rouen on 2 June 1759. He was created a cardinal on 1 June 1778; his red biretta was sent to him, but he never visited Rome and never obtained a titular church. He died in exile from the French Revolution on 23 September 1800 in Münster. Jean, p. 3. Ritzler, VI, p. 32, with notes 50 and 51; p. 73, with note 2; p. 359 with note 3.
  91. ^ Choiseul had previously been Bishop of Évreux. He was transferred to Albi on 28 May 1759, thanks to the influence of his brother, the minister of Louis XV. He was transferred to the diocese of Cambrai on 9 July 1764. Jean, p. 4. Julien Loth (1893). Histoire du cardinal de la Rochefoucauld et du diocèse de Rouen pendant la Révolution (in French). Evreux: l'Eure. pp. 13–20.  Ritzler, VI, p. 73, with note 3; 143 with note 2.
  92. ^ Bernis was created a cardinal by Pope Clement XIII on 2 October 1758, and assigned the titular church of San Silvestro in Capite on 26 June 1769. He was immediately named French Ambassador to the Holy See, and resided in Rome from 1769 to November 1791. Jean, p. 4. Ritzler, VI, p. 73, with note 4; p. 20, with notes 12 and 13.
  93. ^ Pisani, pp. 403–407.
  94. ^ Nephew of the Cardinal, François de Bernis was consecrated a bishop in Rome by Pope Pius VI on 30 December 1781, and appointed titular bishop of Apollonia and auxiliary bishop of his uncle in Albi. He was then named Coadjutor Archbishop with the right of succession on 14 July 1784, and given the title Archbishop of Damascus. He succeeded his uncle on his death in 1794, and like all the other bishops in France was dismissed by Pope Pius VII in 1801. He was Administrator of Lyon from 1817 to 1819, and became Archbishop of Rouen on 27 September 1819. Bernis died in 1823. Jean, p. 4. Gams, p. 483.
  95. ^ Brault was previously Bishop of Bayeux, 1802-1806. He attended the National Council in Paris in 1811, under the Emperor Bonaparte. He was designated Archbishop of Albi in 1817, but the appointment was never approved in Rome, due to disagreements between the French government and the Papacy over a new concordat, and therefore he remained at Bayeux. In 1819 he was offered the Archbishopric of Rouen, but he declined. In 1823 he was again offered Albi, and he was preconised on 26 February 1823. He died on 25 February 1833. Gams, p. 483. L'Ami de la religion et du roi: journal ecclésiastique, politique et littéraire (in French). Tome 75. Paris: A. Le Clère. 1833. pp. 263–264.  Blot, Thierry (1989). La reconstruction concordataire dans le diocèse de Bayeux sous l'épiscopat de Monseigneur Charles Brault (1802-1823). thèse soutenue à l'Université de Caen en 1989 sous la direction de Maurice Quenet.  Abbé Puesch, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 25–26.
  96. ^ Gualy had been Grand Vicar of Chartres from 1824. He was nominated Bishop of Saint-Flour on 8 July 1829, and preconised on 28 September 1829. He was consecrated bishop by his uncle Joseph-Julien Gualy, the Bishop of Carcassone, on 30 November 1829. On 18 March 1833 he was nominated Archbishop of Albi, and was transferred to Albi from Saint-Flour on 30 September 1833 by Pope Gregory XVI. He died on 16 June 1842. Abbé Puesch, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 26.
  97. ^ Jerphanion died on 22 November 1864. n.a. (1865). Notice sur Mgr. de Jerphanion, archevêque d'Albi (in French). Castres: V.-J. Abeilhou.  Crozes, pp. 268–275. Abbé Puesch, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 27/
  98. ^ Lyonnet had been Bishop of Saint-Flour (from 1852), then Bishop of Valence in 1857. He was nominated Archbishop of Albi by the French government on 4 December 1864, and transferred to Albi by Pope Pius IX on 29 March 1865. He died on 24 December 1875. Crozes, pp. 276–290. Abbé Puesch, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 27–28.
  99. ^ Ramadié had previously been Bishop of Perpignan (1865–1876). He was nominated Archbishop of Albi by President MacMahon on 17 January 1876, and preconised by Pope Pius IX on 26 June 1876. Gérard Cholvy, "Gallicans et ultramontains. Mgr. Ramadié succeseur de Mgr. Gerbet à Perpignan," in: Jean-Dominique Durand; Régis Ladous (1992). Histoire religieuse: histoire globale, histoire ouverte : mélanges offerts à Jacques Gadille (in French). Paris: Editions Beauchesne. pp. 301–316. ISBN 978-2-7010-1245-2.  Crozes, pp. 290–291. Abbé Puesch, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 28–29/
  100. ^ Fonteneau: Abbé Puesch, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 29–30.
  101. ^ Mingot had been Vicar General of Soissons. He was named Bishop of Fréjus on 6 June 1890, and was preconised by Pope Leo XIII on 26 June. He was named Archbishop of Albi on 7 September 1900, and preconised on 14 September. He took possession of the diocese in person on 21 February 1901. Joseph Hyacinthe Albanés; Ulysse Chevalier (1899). Gallia christiana novissima: Aix, Apt, Fréjus, Gap, Riez et Sisteron (in French). Montbéliard: Société anonyme d'imprimerie montbéliardaise. pp. 425–426.  Abbé Puesch, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 30.
  102. ^ Coffey had previously been Bishop of Gap (1967–1974). He was transferred to the diocese of Marseille on 13 April 1985, and was named a cardinal on 28 June 1991. He died on 15 July 1995.
  103. ^ Diocèse d'Albi, Monseigneur Jean Legrez, Biographie; retrieved: 2017-12-12.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]