Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa

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Archdiocese of Lipa
Archidioecesis Lipaensis
Arsidiyosesis ng Lipa
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa.png
Location
Country  Philippines
Territory Batangas
Ecclesiastical province Lipa
Statistics
Area 3,165 km2 (1,222 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2004)
1,905,348
1,843,617 (96.8%)
Parishes 64
Information
Denomination Roman Catholic
Sui iuris church Latin Church
Rite Roman Rite
Established 10 April 1910 (Diocese), 20 June 1972 (Archdiocese)
Cathedral Cathedral of Saint Sebastian in Lipa, Batangas
Patron saint Saint Joseph (Primary Patron)
Our Lady of Caysasay (Titular Queen of the Archdiocese)
Saint Sebastian (Patron Saint of Lipa City)
Current leadership
Pope Francis
Metropolitan Archbishop Archbishop Gilbert Garcera[1]
Vicar General Rev. Msgr. Ruben Dimaculangan
Emeritus Bishops Archbishop Emeritus Ramon Arguelles
Map
Jurisdiction of the metropolitan see within the Philippines.
Jurisdiction of the metropolitan see within the Philippines.
Website
Website of the Diocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa is an archdiocese in the Philippines comprising the civil province of Batangas and with its cathedral located in the city of Lipa. First created in 1910 from the Archdiocese of Manila, the diocese was elevated into its present status in 1972. Today, the Ecclesiastical Province of Lipa covers Batangas and suffragan territories in the civil provinces of Quezon, Marinduque, and Aurora. The archdiocese itself is divided into 7 vicariates further comprising a total of 64 parishes.

History[edit]

Historical marker installed at the cathedral by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines in 2011 commemorating the diocese.

Creation[edit]

The Diocese of Lipa was created on April 10, 1910, separating it from that of Manila under the supervision of Pope Pius X and with Giuseppe Petrelli as its first bishop. The diocese then covered the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas (now Quezon, Marinduque, and Aurora), and Mindoro (now Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro). There were initially very few priests for the large diocese.

Bishop Petrelli invited different Roman Catholic religious institutes to come to his diocese and help minister to the spiritual needs of the faithful. He also conceived the building of a seminary in the diocese. In June 1914 a diocesan seminary was built in Bauan, which was later transferred to San Pablo in Laguna. This initiative of the first bishop was continued by the next bishop, Alfredo Verzosa, the diocese's first Filipino bishop, who served a long term from 1916 to 1950. He invited priests from the Society of St. Vincent de Paul to help in the administration of the new seminary.

On July 2, 1936 Mindoro was separated and came under the jurisdiction of the Apostolic Prefecture of Calapan. On March 28, 1950 Lucena became a diocese of its own covering the southern portion of Quezon and Marinduque. About a month later on April 25, the Prelature of Infanta was created, comprising the remaining part of Quezon, including the Polillo Islands and what is now the province of Aurora.

In 1950 Rufino Santos took over the diocese. Described as a financial administrator of great acumen, Bishop Santos applied for bank loans to help construct some buildings. This way he continued the construction work of the Lipa Cathedral and built a major seminary beside it.

Laguna became a separate diocese on November 28, 1966, seated in the city of San Pablo and becoming a suffragan of Manila. This left the Diocese of Lipa covering just the province of Batangas.

Elevation into an archdiocese[edit]

With the departure of Monsignor Rufino Santos for the Archdiocese of Manila came a young bishop, Alejandro Olalia, D.D., who stayed with the diocese from 1953 to 1973. It was during his term that the Diocese of Lipa, on June 20, 1972, became the country's tenth Archdiocese and Ecclesiastical Province by order of Pope Paul VI. This same order elevated Bishop Olalia to the rank of archbishop on August 15, 1972.

Bishop Olalia died in 1973 and was replaced by Bishop Ricardo J. Vidal who stayed with the diocese until 1981. During his incumbency. Bishop Vidal organized the Pastoral Council, and initiated the construction of the Lipa Archdiocesan Formation Center.

Bishop Vidal was replaced in 1981 by Bishop Mariano Gaviola, who stayed with the diocese from 1981 to 1993. He was at the helm of the archdiocese as it celebrated its 75th anniversary and on March 19, 1993, the reins of the archdiocese were again transferred, this time to Bishop Gaudencio Rosales, a native of Batangas City. He was ordained priest in Lipa in 1958, became Auxiliary Bishop of Manila in 1974, served as bishop in Malaybalay in 1982, and on December 30, 1992 he was elected Archbishop of Lipa. Archbishop Rosales was the brainchild behind Aral Batangueño and Pondong Batangan.

With the resignation of Cardinal Jaime Sin in 2003, Archbishop Gaudencio Rosales was chosen by Pope John Paul II to be the Manila's new prelate leaving the See of Lipa under the apostolic administration of its Auxiliary Bishop Jose Paala Salazar (d. 30 May 2004). On May 14, 2004, Pope John Paul II appointed Bishop Ramon Cabrera Arguelles of the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines, another native of Batangas City as the fifth Archbishop of Lipa.

In his 13 years in office, Archbishop Arguelles canonically erected new parishes in Lipa City, Lemery, Taysan, Tanauan City and Batangas City and organized Marian events such as the annual Taal Lake Marian Regatta and National Days of Prayer in Lipa, both held every September. He is a strong opponent of the passage of RH Law, the operation of motorist lodges in the province, the possible mining activities in the municipality of Lobo, and the construction of a coal-fire power plant in Batangas City. He also led the establishment of a local election watchdog separate from the Church-based PPCRV.

Pope Francis accepted the resignation of Archbishop Argüelles on February 2, 2017 and, then, appointed Bishop Gilbert Garcera, the Bishop of the Diocese of Daet, Camarines Norte as its sixth Archbishop and eighth Local Ordinary.[2]

Organization[edit]

Metropolipan Cathedral of Saint Sebastian, seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa

The archdiocese has jurisdiction over the Catholic faithful in the province of Batangas. The province's land area is 3,165 square kilometers (1,222 sq mi) and the population as of the 1994 census is 1,668,480 of which 99.5 per cent are Catholics. The archdiocese also has general supervision over the suffragan dioceses and territorial prelatures for the provinces of Quezon and Marinduque.

The archdiocese is divided into 7 vicariates, each headed by a vicar forane. Except for the parishes in Vicariate IV which are run by the Oblates of St. Joseph, all other parishes are run by the diocesan clergy. There are 64 parishes in all, served by 143 priests. 122 of them diocesan. There are 13 religious brothers, and 197 religious sisters. Catholic schools number 23, high school seminaries 2 and college seminaries 3. Two pastoral centers are being maintained.

Suffragan dioceses and prelature[edit]

Archbishop[edit]

The seat of the Archbishop is in Metropolitan Cathedral of Saint Sebastian The Archbishop is also overseer of several suffragan dioceses of Lipa.

List of Archbishops of Lipa[edit]

No. Picture Name From Until Notes
1 Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa.png Giuseppe Petrelli, D. D. April 12, 1910 March 30, 1915 Appointed as the first Bishop of the Diocese of Lipa; later appointed as official to the Roman Curia
2 Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa.png Servant of God
Alfredo Florentin Versoza, D. D.
September 6, 1916 February 25, 1951 Retired from office
3 Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa.png Alejandro Ayson Olalia, D. D. December 28, 1953 January 2, 1973 Elevated to the rank of Archbishop when Lipa became an Archdiocese on 20 June 1972; died in office
4 Cardinal Ricardo Vidal.jpg Ricardo Jamin Vidal, D. D. August 22, 1973 April 13, 1981 Later appointed as the Archbishop of Cebu
5 Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa.png Mariano Garces Gaviola, D. D. April 13, 1981 December 13, 1992 Retired from office
6 Gaudencio Borbon Rosales, D. D. December 13, 1992 September 25, 2003 Later appointed as the Archbishop of Manila
7 Archbishop Ramon Argüelles.jpg Ramon Cabrera Arguelles, D. D. May 14, 2004 February 2, 2017 Retired from office
8 Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa.png Gilbert Armea Garcera, D. D. February 2, 2017 present

Auxiliary bishops[edit]

  • Servant of God Most Rev. Alfredo Maria Aranda Obviar, D.D. (March 11, 1944 Appointed - November 4, 1950 Appointed Bishop of Lucena)
  • Most Rev. Salvador Quizon Quizon, D.D. (June 9, 1979 Appointed - April 6, 2002 Retired)
  • Most Rev. Buenaventura Malayo Famandico, D.D. (April 6, 2002 Appointed - June 11, 2003 Appointed Bishop of Gumaca)
  • Most Rev. Jose Paala Salazar, D.D. (June 11, 2003 Appointed - May 30, 2004 Died)

Parishes[edit]

Vicariate I: Vicariate of Saint Francis Xavier[edit]

Municipality Parish Address Feast Day Parish Priest
Balayan Immaculate Conception Parish Plaza Rizal, Poblacion, Balayan, Batangas December 8 Rev. Fr. Virgilio B. Hernandez
Calaca Archdiocesan Shrine of Saint Raphael the Archangel Parish San Rafael Street, Poblacion, Calaca, Batangas October 24 Rev. Fr. Joseph Rodem C. Ramos
Calatagan Saint Dominic of Silos Parish Calatagan Highway, Poblacion, Calatagan, Batangas August 28 Rev. Fr. Leo Edgardo O. Villostas
Lian Archdiocesan Shrine and Parish of Saint John the Baptist Calatagan-Lian Highway, Lian, Batangas June 24 and August 29 Rev. Fr. Romulo C. Dolor
Nasugbu Saint Francis Xavier Parish J.P. Laurel Street, Nasugbu, Batangas December 3 Rev. Fr. Armando M. Lubis
Saint Anthony of Padua Parish Kaylaway, Nasugbu, Batangas April 27 Rev. Fr. Quini J. Magpantay
Tuy Saint Vincent Ferrer Parish Calingasan Street, Poblacion, Tuy, Batangas May 8 Rev. Fr. Aloysius H. Buensalida

Vicariate II: Vicariate of Saint John Mary Vianney[edit]

Municipality Parish Address Feast Day Parish Priest
Agoncillo Our Mother of Perpetual Help Parish L. Mendoza Street, Poblacion, Agoncillo, Batangas April 28 Rev. Fr. Ariel O. Gonzales
Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal Parish Agoncillo-Laurel Road, Subic Ibaba, Agoncillo, Batangas November 27 Rev. Fr. Exequiel M. Dimaculangan
Alitagtag Invencion dela Santa Cruz Parish National Road, Poblacion, Alitagtag, Batangas May 7 Rev. Fr. Carlo Magno C. Ilagan
Cuenca Saint Isidore the Farmer Parish Saint Isidore Street, Poblacion, Cuenca, Batangas May 15 Rev. Fr. Bernard A. Aguila
Lemery Saint Roch Parish Ilustre Avenue, Poblacion, Lemery, Batangas August 16 Rev. Msgr. Ruben M. Dimaculangan
Holy Cross Parish Palico-Batangas-Balayan Road, Bukal - Matingain, Lemery, Batangas September 14 Rev. Fr. Eugenio E. Valencia
[3]Our Lady of All Nations Parish Diokno Highway, Payapa, Lemery, Batangas Monday, after Pentecost Sunday Rev. Fr. Milo C. Malabuyoc
San Luis Saint Isidore the Farmer Parish Bauan-San Luis Road, Poblacion, San Luis, Batangas last Sunday of February Rev. Fr. Sabas D. Titular
San Nicolas Saint Nicolas of Tolentino Parish San Nicolas, Batangas September 10 Rev. Fr. Onofre Bimbo M. Pantoja
Santa Teresita Archdiocesan Shrine of Saint Therese of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face Palico-Balayan-Batangas Road, Poblacion, Santa Teresita, Batangas May 17 Rev. Fr. Noel V. Abutal
Taal Minor Basilica of Saint Martin of Tours Palico-Balayan-Batangas Road, Poblacion, Taal, Batangas November 11 Rev. Msgr. Alfredo A. Madlangbayan
Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Caysasay Calle Vicente Noble, Labac, Taal, Batangas December 8 Rev. Fr. Jose Ma. Loyola D. Cumagun

Vicariate III: Vicariate of the Immaculate Conception[edit]

Municipality Parish Address Feast Day Parish Priest
Batangas City Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception M.H. Del Pilar Street, Barangay 1, Batangas City January 16 Rev. Fr. Aurelio Oscar B. Dimaapi
Saint Michael the Archangel Parish Batangas-Tabangao-Lobo Road, Ilijan, Batangas City May 8 Rev. Fr. Jose Pedro Fernando P. Sudario
Saint Paul the Apostle Parish Isla Verde, Batangas City June 28 Rev. Fr. Oscar L. Andal
San Isidro Labrador Parish Barangay Road, San Isidro, Batangas City May 15 Rev. Fr. Oscar Larry F. Famarin
Saint Mary Euphrasia Parish De Joya Capitol Village, Kumintang Ilaya, Batangas City April 24 Rev. Fr. Rogelio Maynardo T. Beredo
Saint Rita de Cascia Parish Bolbok Road, Lourdes Village, Bolbok, Batangas City May 22 Rev. Fr. Gerardo Gil V. Lipat
Most Holy Trinity Parish and Shrine of the Archdiocesan Glorious Cross Batangas-Tabangao-Lobo Road, Pastor Village, Pallocan West, Batangas City fourth Sunday of May Rev. Msgr. Rafael L. Oriondo
Lobo Saint Michael the Archangel Parish P. Burgos Street, Lobo, Batangas May 8 Rev. Fr. Joseph P. Mendoza
Taysan Nuestra Señora dela Merced Parish Poblacion, Taysan, Batangas September 24 Rev. Fr. Ephraim A. Cabrera
Saint Lorenzo Ruiz Parish Taysan-Lobo Road, Dagatan, Taysan, Batangas September 28 Rev. Fr. Richard A. Hernandez

Vicariate IV: Vicariate of Saint Joseph[edit]

All parishes are under the supervision of the Oblates of Saint Joseph.

Municipality Parish Address Feast Day Parish Priest
Ibaan Saint James the Greater Parish J. Pastor Street, Poblacion, Ibaan, Batangas July 25 Rev. Fr. Perseverando M. Marquez, Jr., OSJ
Padre Garcia Most Holy Rosary Parish V. Luna Street, Poblacion, Padre Garcia, Batangas first Sunday of October Rev. Fr. John A. De Castro, OSJ
Rosario Our Lady of the Rosary Parish Gualberto Avenue, Poblacion II, Rosario, Batangas October 7 Rev. Fr. Carlito S. Argente, OSJ
Holy Family Parish San Juan-Rosario Highway, Alupay, Rosario, Batangas January 12 Rev. Fr. Stephen C. Gonzales, OSJ
San Jose Archdiocesan Shrine of Saint Joseph the Patriarch Chief Justice Querube C. Makalintal Avenue, Poblacion, San Jose, Batangas March 19 Rev. Fr. Norman Rodrigo G. Banzuela, Jr., OSJ
San Juan Saint John Nepomucene Parish P. Burgos Street, Poblacion, San Juan, Batangas May 16 Rev. Fr. Venancio E. Silva, OSJ

Vicariate V: Vicariate of Saint Sebastian[edit]

Municipality Parish Address Feast Day Parish Priest
Lipa City Metropolitan Cathedral of San Sebastian C. M. Recto Avenue, Lipa City January 20 Rev. Fr. Cecilio M. Arce
Santo Niño Parish Pinagtung-ulan, Lipa City January 2 Rev. Fr. Mateo L. Orario
Archdiocesan Shrine and Parish of Saint Vincent Ferrer [4] San Vicente Road, Banay-banay, Lipa City April 5 Rev. Fr. Armando R. Panganiban
Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage Parish M.K. Lina Street, Lodlod, Lipa City January 24 Rev. Fr. Estelito L. Africa, Jr.
San Isidro Labrador Parish San Isidro Drive, San Isidro, Lipa City May 15 Rev. Fr. Hermogenes R. Rodelas
Saint Anthony of Padua Parish Katipunan Road, Bolbok, Lipa City June 13 Rev. Fr. Nemer D. Chua
Santo Niño Parish Governor F. P. Leviste Road, Levitown, Marauoy, Lipa City third Sunday of January Rev. Fr. Angel Marcelo M. Pastor
Divina Pastora Parish Tambo, Lipa City May 6 Rev. Fr. Ildefonso T. Dimaano
Saint Therese of the Child Jesus Parish Lipa-Alaminos Road, Talisay, Lipa City October 1 Rev. Fr. Eugenio T. Peñalosa III
Our Lady, Mary Mediatrix of All Grace Parish Lipa-Rosario Road, Antipolo del Norte, Lipa City September 12 Rev. Fr. Conrado G. Castillo
Balete Nuestra Señora dela Paz y Buen Viaje Parish Leviste Highway, Poblacion, Balete, Batangas May 1 Rev. Fr. Jonathan M. Tamayo
Mataas na Kahoy Immaculate Conception Parish Paran Street, Poblacion, Mataas na Kahoy, Batangas December 8 Rev. Fr. Godofredo C. Mendoza

Vicariate VI: Vicariate of the Most Holy Rosary[edit]

Municipality Parish Address Feast Day Parish Priest
Tanauan City Saint John the Evangelist Parish F. Laureana Street, Poblacion IV, Tanauan City December 27 Rev. Fr. Ernesto I. Mandanas, Jr.
Our Lady, Queen of all Saints Parish Balele Road, Balele, Tanauan City first Sunday of June Rev. Fr. Glenn P. Cantos
Holy Family Flight into Egypt Parish Barangay Road, Luyos, Tanauan City January 22 Rev. Fr. Wilfredo A. Rosales
Nuestra Señora dela Soledad Parish J. P. Laurel Highway, Darasa, Tanauan City September 15 Rev. Fr. Jesse Lucas A. Balilla
Saint Augustine Parish Talisay-Tanauan Road, Santor, Tanauan City August 28 Rev. Fr. Jose Dennis S. Tenorio
Laurel Immaculate Conception Parish Talisay-Laurel Road, Poblacion, Laurel, Batangas December 29 Rev. Fr. Gerardo F. Garcia
Malvar Immaculate Conception Parish J.P. Laurel Highway, Poblacion, Malvar, Batangas January 10 Rev. Fr. Pablito C. Malibiran
Santo Tomas Saint Thomas Aquinas Parish General Malvar Avenue corner General Luna Street, Poblacion 3, Santo Tomas, Batangas March 7 Rev. Fr. Edgardo B. Pagcaliuangan
Saint Claire of Assisi Parish Santo Tomas-Alaminos Road, Santa Clara, Santo Tomas, Batangas August 11 Rev. Fr. Donaldo V. Dimaandal
Parish and National Shrine of Saint Padre Pio of Pietrelcina Lipa-Santo Tomas Road, San Pedro, Santo Tomas, Batangas June 28 and September 23 Rev. Fr. Joselin C. Gonda
Talisay Saint William the Hermit Parish J. Trinidad Street, Poblacion IV, Talisay, Batangas February 10 Rev. Fr. Eriberto R. Cabrera

Vicariate VII: Vicariate of the Holy Cross[edit]

Municipality Parish Address Feast Day Parish Priest
Bauan Immaculate Conception Parish Palico-Balayan-Batangas Road, Bauan, Batangas May 3 Rev. Fr. Federico A. Magboo
Our Mother of Perpetual Help Parish S. Ilagan Street, Aplaya, Bauan, Batangas May 2 Rev. Fr. Roy L. Macatangay
Holy Family Parish Balintawak Street, Bolo, Bauan, Batangas last Sunday of December Rev. Fr. Roy Jose C. Reyes
Mabini Saint Francis of Paola Parish F. Castillo Boulevard, Poblacion, Mabini, Batangas April 25 Rev. Fr. Timoteo Gameline D. Balita
San Pascual San Pascual Baylon Parish Palico-Balayan-Batangas Road, Poblacion, San Pascual, Batangas May 17 Rev. Fr. Eric Joaquin V. Arada
Saint Mary Magdaelene Parish L. Mendoza Street, Bayanan, San Pascual, Batangas July 22 Rev. Fr. Gregorio G. Landicho
Tingloy Saint Roch Parish Poblacion, Tingloy, Batangas August 16 Rev. Fr. Lauro M. Abante

Religious institutes and associations[edit]

Religious institutes of men[edit]

  1. Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer ~ CSsR, Redemptorists
  2. Brothers of the Christian Schools ~ FSC, De La Salle Brothers
  3. Order of Friars Minor Capuchin ~ OFM Cap
  4. Oblates of St. Joseph ~ OSJ
  5. Salesian Society of St John Bosco ~ SDB
  6. Order of Preachers ~ OP, Dominicans
  7. Society of the Divine Word ~ SVD
  8. Oblates of St. Francis de Sales ~ OSF
  9. Institute of the Incarnate Word ~ IVE
  10. Missionary Servants of the Word ~ MSP
  11. Clerics Regular Minor ~ CRM, Adorno Fathers

Religious institutes of women[edit]

  1. Congregation of the Augustinian Recollect Sisters ~ AR
  2. Clarisas Capuchinas Sacramentarias ~ CCS, Contemplative
  3. Canossian Daughters of Charity ~ FdCC
  4. Daughters of St. Paul ~ FSP
  5. Daughters of St. Francis of Florence ~ DSFF
  6. Franciscan Missionary Sisters of the Infant Jesus ~ FMIJ
  7. Missionary Catechists of the Sacred Heart ~ MCSH
  8. Missionary Catechists of St. Therese of the Infant Jesus ~ MCST
  9. Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of Fatima ~ MSOLF
  10. Missionary Sisters Servants of the Word ~ HMSP
  11. Discalced Nuns of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mt. Carmel ~ OCD, Contemplative
  12. Augustinian Sisters of Our Lady of Consolation ~ OSA-ASOLC
  13. Benedictines of the Incarnate Word ~ OSB
  14. Sisters Oblates of the Holy Spirit ~ OSS
  15. Oblates of Sisters of St. Joseph ~ OSSJ
  16. Congregation of the Mother of Sorrows Servants of Mary ~ OSM, Servite Sisters
  17. Pious Worker Sisters of the Immaculate Conception ~ POIC
  18. Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd~ RGS/CGS
  19. Missionary Sisters of the Catechism ~ SMC
  20. Congregation of the Sisters of St. Paul of Chartres ~ SPC
  21. Minim Nuns of St. Francis of Paola ~ OM
  22. Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate ~ FSI
  23. La Salle Sisters of Guadalupe ~ HGS
  24. Congregation of the Daughters of St. Dominic ~ OP-DSD
  25. Congregation of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth ~ CSFN

Lay religious organizations/Movements and their heads[edit]

  1. Pondong Batangan Community Foundation, Inc.
  2. Cursillo Movement
  3. Adoracion Nocturna Filipina
  4. Apostleship of Prayer
  5. Archdiocesan Charismatic Movement
  6. El Shaddai Movement
  7. Knights of Columbus
  8. Basic Ecclesial Communities
  9. Legion of Mary
  10. Barangay Sang Birhen
  11. Mother Butler's Guild
  12. Holy Name Society
  13. Daughters of Mary Immaculate:
  14. Catholic Women's League
  15. Propagation of the Devotion to St. Lorenzo Ruiz
  16. Prisoner's Welfare
  17. Defenders of the Faith
  18. Lipa Archdiocesan Divine Mercy Apostolate
  19. Couples for Christ Foundation for Family and Life (CFCFFL)

Vision[edit]

On August 18, 1995, after much review, and meetings presided over by Archbishop Gaudencio Rosales himself, the archdiocese's vision was conceived:

"A people of God called by the Father in Jesus Christ to be communities of totally developed human persons in the world, witnessing to the Kingdom of God by living the Paschal Mystery in the power of the Holy Spirit."

In the News[edit]

On April 10, 2010, the Archdiocese of Lipa celebrated the 100th anniversary of its elevation as a diocese by launching the coffeetable book, "A Century of Faith: The Local Church of Lipa". The event was held at the historic Basilica of St. Martin of Tours in Taal, Batangas.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 13°56′27″N 121°09′47″E / 13.9408°N 121.1630°E / 13.9408; 121.1630