Roman Catholic Diocese of Coimbra

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Diocese of Coimbra
Dioecesis Conimbricensis
Diocese de Coimbra
SeNova1.jpg
Location
Country  Portugal
Ecclesiastical province Braga
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Braga
Statistics
Area 5,300 km2 (2,000 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2016)
548,000 (est.)
500,000 (est.) (91.2%)
Parishes 269
Information
Denomination Roman Catholic
Sui iuris church Latin Church
Rite Roman Rite
Established 563
Cathedral Cathedral of the Holy Name of Jesus in Coimbra
Patron saint St Augustine of Hippo
Secular priests 125 (diocesan)
35 (Religious Orders)
13 Permanent Deacons
Current leadership
Pope Francis
Bishop Virgílio do Nascimento Antunes[1]
Metropolitan Archbishop Jorge Ferreira da Costa Ortiga
Map
Dioceses de Portugal.PNG
Website
Website of the Diocese of Coimbra

The Diocese of Coimbra (Latin: Dioecesis Conimbricensis) is a Roman Catholic diocese in Coimbra, Portugal.[2] It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Braga.[3]

History[edit]

The first known bishop was Lucentius, who participated in the first council of Braga (563),[4] the metropolitan See of Coimbra, until the latter was attached to the ecclesiastical province of Mérida (650-62). Titular bishops of Coimbra continued the succession under the Islamic conquest, one of whom witnessed the consecration of the church of Santiago de Compostela in 876.

The see was re-established in 1088, after the reconquest of the city of Coimbra by the Christian forces of Sisnando Davides (1064). The first bishop of the new series was Martin.[5] In the midst of the difficulties of restoring the Church in Portugal in the wake of the request of the country from the Arabs, Bishop Mauricio Burdino applied to Pope Paschal II and obtained a bull Apostolicae Sedis (24 March 1101),[6] assuring him of the possession of the old territory of his diocese, including parts which were once part of the diocese as they are reconquered from the Moors and the Arabs. He also assigned the bishop, for the time being, the territories of the vacant bishoprics of Lamego and Viseu, until such time as they could have their own bishops; and the territory and parishes of the Villa Vacaricia, which had been given by Count Raymond to the diocese of Coimbra.[7]

From 1139 Coimbra was the capital of the kingdom of Portugal and a principal beneficiary of the generosity of its kings, until the seat of government was moved to Lisbon in 1260. Among the more famous bishops have been Pedro (1300), chancellor of King Dinis; João Galvão, who was granted the title of Conde de Arganil for himself and his successors, on 25 September 1472 by King Alfonso V, in gratitude for his service in the conquest of Arzila and Tangier; and Manuel de Menezes (1573–78), former rector of the University of Coimbra from 1556 to 1560,[8] who fell with King Sebastian in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir on 4 August 1578.

University of Coimbra[edit]

The University of Coimbra, the only university in Portugal until the 20th century, was founded in 1290, but in Lisbon, not in Coimbra. A papal bull was obtained from Pope Nicholas IV,[9] and King Dinis I carried out the act of establishment. It was not until 1308 that the university was moved to Coimbra, due principally to the hostility of the people of Lisbon, though in 1338 it moved back. In 1354 the University returned to Coimbra, and in 1377 was established back in Lisbon. The University remained in Lisbon until King John III moved it back to Coimbra permanently in 1537. The involvement of the bishops of Coimbra in the affairs of the University was therefore intermittent and superficial, at least until the second half of the sixteenth century. Then they protected its medieval and Catholic character with zeal. One bishop, Miguel da Anunciação, spent eight years in prison for defying the efforts of the government to modernize the educational system of Portugal's university.[10]

Cathedrals[edit]

The Old Cathedral of Coimbra, built in the first half of the 12th century, partly at the expense of Bishop Miguel and his chapter, is a remarkable monument of Romanesque architecture. The architect was Robert of Clermont. It was dedicated to the Assumption of the Body of the Virgin Mary into Heaven.[11] The new cathedral, a Renaissance church built in 1580 as a church for its adjacent Jesuit college, is another important monument. The episcopal palace was built in the 18th century. The Cathedral was administered by a Chapter, whose eight dignities (not dignitaries) included: the Dean, the Cantor, the Scholasticus, the Treasurer, and the three Archdeacons (Coimbra, Sena). There were twenty-one Canons.[12]

Monastery of Santa Cruz[edit]

The most important monastery in the diocese is Santa Cruz Monastery, founded in 1131 by Afonso Henriques,[13] and for some time the most important in the kingdom by reason of its wealth and privileges.[14] Its prior was authorized, or so it was claimed, by Anastasius IV[15] and Celestine III[16] to wear the episcopal insignia.

Academic Centre of Christian Democracy[edit]

The Academic Center of Christian Democracy is an association of Christian inspiration, belonging to the Diocese of Coimbra, which provides support to university students, who study in the University of Coimbra. The directorate of the association is composed almost entirely of tenured professors and Doctors at the University. Notable members have included include António de Oliveira Salazar, Prime Minister (1932–1968) and dictator of Portugal.[17]

Bishops of Coimbra[edit]

to 1300[edit]

  • Paternus, O.S.B. (1082 – 21 March 1087)[18]
  • Martinus Simoens (1088–1091)[19]
  • Cresconius, O.S.B. (12 April 1092 – 22 June 1098)[20]
  • Mauricio Burdino, O.S.B. (1098–1111)[21]
  • Gondisalvus (Gonzalo) (c. 1111 – May 1125)[22]
  • Bernaldus, O.S.B. (1128–1147)[23]
  • João Anaia (1147–1158)
  • Miguel Salomão Pães (1158–1176)
  • Bermudo (1177 – 5 September 1182)
  • Petrus (1182)
  • Martinus (1183–1193)
  • Petrus (1193–1232)
  • Petrus (1232/33–1234)[24]
  • Tiburtius (27 May 1238 – 22 November 1246)[25]
  • Dominicus (1246–1247)[26]
  • Aegeas Fafas (15 December 1248 – 18 December 1267)[27]
Sede vacante (1267–1279)
  • Aimericus (9 January 1279 – 4 December 1295)[28]
  • Petrus Martini Collaço do Colimbria (9 August 1296 – 1301)[29]

1300 to 1700[edit]

  • Fernandus (27 August 1302 – 8 August 1303)[30]
  • Stephanus Annes de Brochardo (8 March 1307 – between June and September 1318)[31]
  • Raimundus (11 November 1318 – 15 July 1324)
  • Raimundus Ebrardo (26 April 1325 – 1333)
  • Joannes (23 August 1333 – 3 December 1337)[32]
  • Georgius Joannis (3 July 1338 – 1356)[33]
  • Lorenzo Rodriguez (23 May 1356 – 25 August 1358)[34]
  • Pedro Gomez Barroso (25 August 1358 – 23 July 1364)[35]
  • Vasco Fernandez (de Menezes) (23 July 1364 – 16 June 1371)[36]
  • Pedro Diaz de Tenorio (10 June 1371 – 13 January 1377)[37]
  • Martinho Perez de Charneca (1388 – 12 June 1398)[38]
  • Joannes de Azembuja (25 February 1399 – 29 May 1402)[39]
Sede vacante (1402 – 1407)
Joannes, Archbishop of Compostella (1402–1403?) Administrator during the sede vacante[40]
  • Aegidius (5 April 1407 – 1418)[41]
  • Ferdinand Coutinho (27 April 1418 – ?)[42]
  • Alvaro Ferreira (21 October 1429 – 1444)[43]
  • Juan Roderici (27 September 1459 – 9 February 1469)[44]
  • João Galvão (9 February 1469 – 22 May 1482[45]
  • Jorge de Almeida (22 May 1482 – 25 July 1543)
  • João Soares, O.E.S.A. (22 May 1545 – 26 November 1572)[46]
  • Manuel de Menezes (16 December 1573 – 4 August 1578)[47]
  • Gaspar do Casal, O.E.S.A. (27 November 1579 – 9 August 1584)
  • Afonso de Castelo-Branco (3 June 1585 – 22 May 1615)
  • Afonso Furtado de Mendonça (5 September 1616 – 12 November 1618)[48]
  • Martin Alphonso Mexia de Tovar (2 December 1619 – 30 August 1623)
  • João Manuel de Ataíde (19 February 1625 – 24 November 1632)[49]
  • Jorge de Melo (9 June 1636 – 2 October 1636)
  • João Mendes de Távora (22 Mar 1638 – 1 July 1646)
  • Manuel de Noronha (15 December 1670 – 11 May 1671)
  • Manuel de Noroña, O.F.M. (27 June 1672 – 19 January 1683)

since 1700[edit]

  • João de Melo (24 Apr 1684 – 28 Jun 1704)[50]
  • António Vasconcelos e Sousa (14 Dec 1705 – 23 Dec 1717)[51]
Sede vacante (1717–1740)[52]
  • Miguel da Anunciação (da Cunha), O.E.S.A.[53] (19 Dec 1740 – 29 Aug 1779)
  • Francisco de Lemos de Faria Pereira Coutinho (29 Aug 1779 – 16 Apr 1822)[54]
  • Francisco de São Luiz (Manoel Justiniano) Saraiva, O.S.B. (19 Apr 1822 – 30 Apr 1824)[55]
  • Joaquim de Nossa Senhora de Nazareth Oliveira e Abreu, O.F.M.Ref. (3 May 1824 – 31 Aug 1851)[56]
  • Manuel Bento Rodrigues da Silva (15 Mar 1852 – 18 Mar 1858)[57]
  • José Manuel de Lemos (27 Sep 1858 – 26 Mar 1870)[58]
  • Manuel Correia de Bastos Pina (22 Dec 1871 – 19 Nov 1913)[59]
  • Manuel Luís Coelho da Silva (31 Oct 1914 – 1 Mar 1936)[60]
  • António Antunes (1 Mar 1936 – 20 Jul 1948)
  • Ernesto Sena de Oliveira (29 Oct 1948 – 12 Aug 1967 Retired)
  • Francisco Rendeiro, O.P. (12 Aug 1967 – 19 May 1971)
  • João Antonio da Silva Saraiva (28 Jun 1972 – 3 Apr 1976)
  • João Alves (8 Sep 1976 – 24 Mar 2001 Retired)
  • Albino Mamede Cleto (24 Mar 2001 – 28 Apr 2011 Retired)
  • Virgilio do Nascimento Antunes (28 Apr 2011 – )

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Diocese do Coimbro, Clara Almeida Santos entrevista D. Virgílio Antunes; retrieved: 08 October 2017. (in Portuguese)
  2. ^ "Diocese of Coimbra". Catholic Encyclopedia. 
  3. ^ "Diocese of Coimbra". Catholic Hierarchy. 
  4. ^ This is generally referred to as the Second Council of Braga, though it has long been known that the Acts of the First Council of Braga (of 411) are a forgery. Eight bishops, including the Metropolitan, attended the council of 563. J.-D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus IX (Florence: A. Zatta 1763), p. 780, 782. Karl Joseph von Hefele (1895). A History of the Councils of the Church: From the Original Documents. Vol. IV. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. pp. 381–386. 
  5. ^ Martin was present in 1088 at the Council of Santa Maria de Fusellos as bishop-elect. Garsias de Loaysa- Giron (1593). Collectio conciliorum Hispaniae (in Latin). Madrid: Petrus Madrigal. pp. 145–147. 
  6. ^ Caro Erdmann, Papsturkunden in Portugal (Berlin: Weidmann 1927), pp. 154-156, no. 2.
  7. ^ M.C. Cunha (2013), p. 135.
  8. ^ The post of Rector of the University was in the gift of the King of Portugal. It was not a prerogative of the bishops of Coimbra. Bishop Agostino Ribeira of Angra was Rector from 1537 to 1543, and Bishop Bernardo da Cruz of S. Thomé from 1543. Theophilo Braga, Historia da Universidate de Coimbra I (Lisbon 1892), p. 463; II (1895), p. 837.
  9. ^ Sane ad audientiam (9 August 1290): Aloysius Tomassetti, ed. (1859). Bullarum diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum romanorum pontificum (in Latin). Tomus IV. Turin: Seb. Franco, H. Fori et H. Dalmazzo editoribus. p. 104. 
  10. ^ Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (2013). Southern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor & Francis. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-134-25965-6.  Theophilo Braga, Historia da Universidate de Coimbra III (Lisbon 1898), pp. 95-99.
  11. ^ Barbosa Morujao, p. 242.
  12. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 163 note 1.
  13. ^ João Madre de Deos (1839). Memoria sobre a existencia de real mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra: supprimido por um decreto no anno de 1834 (in Portuguese). Lisbon: C.A. da Silva Carvalho. pp. 5–7. 
  14. ^ Ingo Fleisch, "The Portuguese Clergy and the European Universities in the 12th and 13th Centuries," in: Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Centro de Estudos de História Religiosa (2007). Carreiras Eclesiásticas no Ocidente Cristão (séc. XII-XIV). Lisbon: Centro de Estudios de Historia Religiosa-UCP. pp. 63–75, at pp. 64–66. ISBN 978-972-8361-26-6. 
  15. ^ The bull of Anastasius IV granting this privilege is a forgery. Erdmann, Papsturkunden in Portugal, p. 219, no. 53.
  16. ^ The bull of Celestine III of 25 February 1192 recognizes the agreement made between the Prior and Brothers of Santa Cruz on the one hand, and Bishop Miguel and the Canons of Coimbra on the other, granting liberty from episcopal control, and in a bull of 26 February 1192 confirms the ancient customs and liberties and immunities of their church. Erdmann, pp. 350-352. This might have been taken to confirm the privilege granted in the forged bull.
  17. ^ "Centro Académico de Democracia Cristã". CADC. ; retrieved: 8 November 2017.
  18. ^ Paterno, Patrino, Patruino: He is said to have previously been Bishop of Tortosa. Antonio Brandao (1632). Terceira parte da monarchia lusitana: que contem a Historia de Portugal desdo Conde Dom Henrique, até todo o reinado del Rey Dom Afonso Henriques .. (in Portuguese). Lisbon: em o Mosterio de S. Bernardo por Pedro Craesbeck. pp. 276v–277.  (The charter is a forgery: Pierre David, "Regula Sancti Augustini, à propos d'une fausse chartre de fondation du chapitre de Coimbre," Revista Portuguesa de História 3 (1947), pp. 27-39.) Leitaõ Ferreira, pp. 42-44. Gams, p. 96, column 1. Reilly, p. 144.
  19. ^ Leitaõ Ferreira, pp. 44-48. Gams, p. 96, column 1.
  20. ^ Cresconius was consecrated by Archbishop Bernard of Toledo. Leitaõ Ferreira, pp. 48-51. Gams, p. 96, column 1.
  21. ^ Mauricio Burdino was a French Benedictine monk from Limoges, educated at Cluny. He was a protege of Bernard of Toledo and a client of Count Henry of Portugal, son-in-law of Alfonso VI of Castile. He was transferred to the diocese of Braga by Pope Paschal II in 1111. Gams, p. 96, column 1. Cunha (2013), pp. 135 and 144.
  22. ^ Bishop Gondisalvus benefits from the Testament of a priest, dated 6 December 1115. The bishop's own Testament is dated 19 March (or May) 1116. It is witnessed by three Archdeacons. Barbosa Morujao, p. 233-236. Gams, p. 96, column 1.
  23. ^ He subscribes and is referred to as Bernaldus. Barbosa Morujao, p. 237-238. Gams, p. 96, column 1.
  24. ^ Gams, p. 96, column 2. Eubel, I, p. 196.
  25. ^ On 21 August 1242, Tiburtius was still bishop-elect: Barbosa Morujao, p. 276.
  26. ^ Eubel, I, p. 196.
  27. ^ Aegeas was transferred to the diocese of Compostella. Eubel, I, p. 196, 199.
  28. ^ Aimericus had been Archdeacon of Palencia. Pope Clement IV had transferred Bishop Aegeas Fafas to the diocese of Compostella on 18 December 1267, leaving the See of Coimbra vacant; he intended to transfer Bishop Matthew of Viseu to Coimbra, but it was opposed by some of the Canons of Coimbra. Due to the appeal, the long papal sede vacante of 1268–1272, the II Council of Vienne, and the election and deaths of four popes in 1276–1277, the matter was unresolved. Bishop Matthew petitioned the new pope, Nicholas III to be allowed to remain in Viseu, and therefore Nicholas III provided Aimericus as the new Bishop of Coimbra on 9 January 1279. Jules Gay, Les Registres de Nicolas III Vol. 1 (Paris: Fontemoing 1898), p. 153 no. 402. Eubel, I, p. 196, 199.
  29. ^ Petrus had previously been Bishop of Evora (c. 1292–1296), and was provided to the diocese of Coimbra, which had requested him, by Pope Boniface VIII on 9 August 1296. His Testament was probated on 4 November 1301: Barbosa Morujao, p. 372. Eubel, I, p. 196, 236.
  30. ^ Fernandus had been a Canon in the Cathedral Chapter of Burgos. Eubel, I, p. 196. Gams, p. 96, col. 2, believed, wrongly, that he had been rejected by Pope Boniface VIII.
  31. ^ Bishop Stephanus' will survives. It was signed on 17 June 1318, and probated on 22 September 1318, in the presence of the Cantor, Scholasticus, and Archdeacon of the Cathedral Chapter. His nephew Vincentius Alfonsi was Archdeacon of Sena. Barbosa Morujao, pp. 401-408.
  32. ^ Bishop Joannes was transferred to the diocese of Castres (France) on 3 December 1337. Eubel, I, pp. 172, 196.
  33. ^ Georgius had been Canon in the Cathedral Church of Astorga, and was a Licenciate in Canon Law. Eubel, I, p. 196.
  34. ^ Lorenzo was transferred to Lisbon. he died on 19 June 1364. Eubel, I, p. 196. 507.
  35. ^ Petrus Gomez Alvarez de Albornoz had been Bishop of Sagunto. He was transferred to Lisbon on 23 July 1364. He was transferred to Cordoba on 4 June 1369, and was named a cardinal on 30 May 1371 by Pope Gregory XI. Eubel, I, pp. 21 no. 1; 196; 507.
  36. ^ Menezes had previously been Bishop of Idanna (26 May 1363 – 21 July 1364). He was transferred to the diocese of Coimbra by Pope Urban V on 23 July 1364. He was appointed Bishop of Lisbon on 16 June 1371. Gams, p. 96, column 2. Eubel, I, p. 196, 235, 507.
  37. ^ Diaz was appointed Archbishop of Toledo
  38. ^ Appointed, Archbishop of Braga.
  39. ^ Bishop Joannes had been transferred from the diocese of Porto on 25 February 1399 by Pope Boniface IX (Roman Obedience). He was transferred to the diocese of Lisbon on 29 May 1402. He was named a cardinal by Pope John XXIII on 6 June 1411. Eubel, I, pp. 33 no. 4; 196; 507. Cf. Leitaõ Ferreira, pp. 134-139.
  40. ^ Gams, p. 97. Eubel, I, p. 196; II, p. 200 note 10.
  41. ^ Aegidius (Gil Alma) had been Bishop of Porto. He was an appointee of Gregory XII (Roman Obedience). Gams pretends that there was a sede vacante, without mentioning appointees of the Avignon Obedience. Cf. Leitaõ Ferreira, pp. 141-143.
  42. ^ Ferdinandus was an appointee of Pope Martin V. Leitaõ Ferreira, pp. 143-144. Eubel, I, p. 196.
  43. ^ Leitaõ Ferreira, pp. 144-145.
  44. ^ Joannes Roderici was appointed Bishop of Évora
  45. ^ João Galvão was appointed Archbishop of Braga. He died on 27 July 1485. Eubel, II, p. 110.
  46. ^ Soares: Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 171, with note 3.
  47. ^ Menezes, a Doctor of Canon Law, had previously been Bishop of Lamego (1570–1573). Eubel, III, pp. 171. 218.
  48. ^ Afonso Furtado de Mendonça was transferred to the diocese of Braga on 19 March 1612 by Pope Paul V. He was transferred to the diocese of Lisbon on 2 December 1626 by Pope Urban VIII. Gauchat, IV, pp. 120, 155, 180.
  49. ^ A native of Lisbon, Joannes Manuel Ataide held a bachelor's degree in theology from Coimbra. He had previously been Bishop of Viseu (1609–1625). He was appointed Archbishop of Lisbon. Gauchat, IV, p. 155, 352, 371.
  50. ^ A native of Evora, Joannes de Melo held a doctorate in Canon Law from Coimbra. He had previously been Bishop of Elvas (1671–1673), and Bishop of Viseu (1673–1684). He was transferred to the diocese of Coimbra on 24 April 1684 by Pope Innocent XI, at the request of the King of Portugal, made on 24 January 1684. He died on 28 June 1704. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 163; 194 with note 3; 417.
  51. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 163, with note 4.
  52. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 163, note 5.
  53. ^ Miguel Carlos da Cunha (Miguel da Anunciação, in religion) was nominated Bishop of Coimbra by the King on 22 February 1739, and approved by Pope Benedict XIV. On 8 November 1768 he issued a pastoral letter, condemning a number of books of Enlightenment doctrine. He was arrested, imprisoned and deposed by the Marques de Pombal. He spent eight years imprisoned in the fortress of Pedrouços. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 172 with note 2.
  54. ^ The Portuguese government wanted to replace Bishop Miguel da Anunciação as soon as he was imprisoned, and they sent Lemos to Coimbra to take possession of the diocese. For some time the Pope refused to sanction this uncanonical move. Finally, Lemos was appointed Coadjutor bishop of Coimbra in September 1773 by the Marques de Pombal, in order to remove Bishop Miguel da Anunciação from his lawful seat as bishop in a canonical way. He was approved by the ever compliant Pope Clement XIV on 13 April 1774, who assigned him the titular see of Zenopolis in Turkey. On the death of Bishop Miguel on 29 August 1779, Lemos succeeded to the bishopric. He died on 16 April 1822 at the age of 86. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 172 with note 3.
  55. ^ "Noticia necrologica", in: Francisco de S. Luiz; Antonio Correia Caldeira (1872). Obras completas do cardeal Saraiva: (d. Francisco de S. Luiz) patriarcha de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Tomo I. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional. pp. xv–xxi. 
  56. ^ Bishop Joaquim had previously been Bishop of São Luís do Maranhão, Brazil (1819–1824). He was transferred to the diocese of Coimbra on 3 May 1824 by Pope Leo XII. He died on 31 August 1851. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VII, pp. 155, 236, 245.
  57. ^ Ridrigues de Silva was appointed Patriarch of Lisboa {Lisbon}. Innocencio Francisco da Silva (1893). Diccionario bibliographico portuguez: (9-12 do supplemento) Luiz de Campos-Zophimo Consiglieri Pedroso. Segundo supplemento. A-Antonio Maria Sande Vasconcellos (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Na Imprensa Nacional. pp. 132–133. 
  58. ^ Lemos: Ritzler-Sefrin, VIII, pp. 157, 214, 593.
  59. ^ Manuel Correia de Bastos Pina: Da Silva, pp. 159–161. João Manuel Esteves Pereira; Guilherme Rodrigues (1904). Portugal; diccionario historico, chorographico, heraldico, biographico, bibliographico, numismatico e artistico (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Joao Romano Torres. pp. 700–701. 
  60. ^ Pięta, Hierarchia catholica IX, p. 134.

Bibliography[edit]

Episcopal lists[edit]

Coordinates: 40°12′32″N 8°25′38″W / 40.2088°N 8.4271°W / 40.2088; -8.4271