Roman Warm Period
The Roman Warm Period, or Roman Climatic Optimum, was a period of unusually warm weather in Europe and the North Atlantic that ran from approximately 250 BC to AD 400. Theophrastus (371 – c. 287 BC) wrote that date trees could grow in Greece if they were planted, but that they could not set fruit there. That is the case today, implying that South Aegean mean summer temperatures in the 4th and 5th centuries BC were within a degree of modern ones. That and other literary fragments from the time confirm that the Greek climate then was basically the same as it was around AD 2000. Tree rings from the Italian Peninsula in the late 3rd century BC indicate a time of mild conditions there at the time of Hannibal's crossing of the Alps with imported elephants (218 BC).
Cooling at the end of the period is noted in Southwest Florida. This may have been due to a reduction in solar radiation reaching the Earth, which may have triggered a change in atmospheric circulation patterns.
More recent research, including a 2019 analysis based on a much larger dataset of climate proxies, has found that this putative period, along with other warmer or colder pre-industrial periods such as the "Little Ice Age" and "Medieval Warm Period" were regional phenomena, not globally coherent episodes.
A 1986 analysis of Alpine glaciers concluded that the period AD 100–400 period was significantly warmer than centuries before and after. Artifacts recovered from the retreating Schnidejoch glacier have been taken as evidence for the Bronze Age, Roman and Medieval Warm Periods.
Deep ocean sediment
A 1999 reconstruction of ocean current patterns, based on the granularity of deep ocean sediment, concluded that there was a Roman Warm Period, which peaked around AD 150.
An analysis of oxygen isotopes found in mollusk shells in an Icelandic inlet concluded in 2010 that Iceland experienced an exceptionally warm period from 230 BC to AD 40.
- Climate of ancient Rome
- Dunkirk transgression – Events of rising sea levels around the shores of the Low Countries in the late Roman period.
- Holocene climatic optimum – A warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years BP
- Medieval Warm Period – Time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region lasting from c. 950 to c. 1250
- Hubert Lamb – British climatologist
- Cambell, Ian D; Campbell, Celina; Apps, Michael J; Rutter, Nathaniel W; Bush, Andrew BG (1998). "Late Holocene similar to 1500yr climatic periodicities and their implications". Geology. 26: 471–473. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0471:LHYCPA>2.3.CO;2.
- Morris et al., p. 18
- Morris et al., p. 17
- Wang, Ting; Surge, Donna; Walker, Karen Jo (2013). "Seasonal climate change across the Roman Warm Period/Vandal Minimum transition using isotope sclerochronology in archaeological shells and otoliths, southwest Florida, USA". Quaternary International. 308–309: 230–241. Bibcode:2013QuInt.308..230W. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2012.11.013.
- Patterson, William Paul (1995), Stable isotopic record of climatic and environmental change in continental settings, University of Michigan, OCLC 712737306,
The Roman warm period though it has been suggested was responsible in part for advances in civilization, also had a dangerous side.
- Bianchi GG, McCave IN; McCave (February 1999), "Holocene periodicity in North Atlantic climate and deep-ocean flow south of Iceland", Nature, 397 (6719): 515–7, Bibcode:1999Natur.397..515B, doi:10.1038/17362, S2CID 4304638
- Werner, Johannes P.; Wang, Jianghao; Gómez-Navarro, Juan José; Steiger, Nathan; Neukom, Raphael (July 2019). "No evidence for globally coherent warm and cold periods over the preindustrial Common Era" (PDF). Nature. 571 (7766): 550–554. Bibcode:2019Natur.571..550N. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1401-2. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 31341300. S2CID 198494930.
- Desprat, S.; Goñi, M.F.S.; Loutre, M.-F. (2003). "Revealing climatic variability of the last three millennia in northwestern Iberia using pollen influx data". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 213 (1–2): 63–78. Bibcode:2003E&PSL.213...63D. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00292-9.
- Röthlisberger, F. (1986), 10,000 Jahre Gletschergeschichte der Erde, Sauerländer, ISBN 978-3794127979
- Imogen Foulkes, Alpine melt reveals ancient life, BBC News, 24 August 2008.
- Patterson WP, Dietrich KA, Holmden C, Andrews JT (March 2010), "Two millennia of North Atlantic seasonality and implications for Norse colonies", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107 (12): 5306–10, Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.5306P, doi:10.1073/pnas.0902522107, PMC 2851789, PMID 20212157
- Moberg, Anders; Sonechkin, Dmitry M.; Holmgren, Karin; Datsenko, Nina M.; Karlén, Wibjörn; Lauritzen, S. E. (10 February 2005), "Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data", Nature, 433 (7026): 613–617, Bibcode:2005Natur.433..613M, doi:10.1038/nature03265, PMID 15703742, S2CID 4359264. Corrigendum: Moberg et al. 2006.
- Moberg, Anders; Sonechkin, Dimitry M.; Holmgren, Karin; Datsenko, Nina M.; Karlén, Wibjörn; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik (23 February 2006), "Corrigendum: Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data", Nature, 439 (7079): 1014, Bibcode:2006Natur.439.1014M, doi:10.1038/nature04575.
- Jansen; et al. (2007), "Chapter 6: Palaeoclimate", Missing or empty
|title=(help), in IPCC AR4 WG1 2007.
- IPCC AR4 WG1 (2007), Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; Marquis, M.; Avery, K.B.; Tignor, M.; Miller, H.L. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-88009-1 (pb: 978-0-521-70596-7).
- Huang, S.; Pollack, H. N.; Shen, P. Y. (4 July 2008), "A late Quaternary climate reconstruction based on borehole heat flux data, borehole temperature data, and the instrumental record" (PDF), Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (L13703): L13703, Bibcode:2008GeoRL..3513703H, doi:10.1029/2008GL034187, hdl:2027.42/95180, archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012.
- Mann, Michael E.; Zhang, Zhihua; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Miller, Sonya K.; Rutherford, Scott; Ni, Fenbiao (9 September 2008), "Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (36): 13252–13257, Bibcode:2008PNAS..10513252M, doi:10.1073/pnas.0805721105, PMC 2527990, PMID 18765811.
- Black, Richard (1 September 2008), "Climate 'hockey stick' is revived", BBC News, retrieved 18 May 2011
- Arctic Warming Overtakes 2,000 Years of Natural Cooling, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 3 September 2009, archived from the original on 27 April 2011, retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Bello, David (4 September 2009), "Global Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling", Scientific American, retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Kaufman, Darrel; Schneider, David P.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Ammann, Caspar M.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Briffa, Keith R.; Miller, Gifford H.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Vinther, Bo M.; et al. (Arctic Lakes 2k Project) (4 September 2009), "Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling", Science, 325 (5945): 1236–1239, Bibcode:2009Sci...325.1236K, doi:10.1126/science.1173983, PMID 19729653, S2CID 23844037.
- Mann, Michael E.; Zhang, Zhihua; Rutherford, Scott; Bradley, Raymond S.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Shindell, Ddrew; Ammann, Caspar M.; Faluvegi, Greg; Ni, Fenbiao (27 November 2009), "Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly", Science, 326 (5957): 1256–1260, Bibcode:2009Sci...326.1256M, doi:10.1126/science.1177303, PMID 19965474, S2CID 18655276.
- Ljungqvist, F. C. (September 2010), "A New Reconstruction of Temperature Variability in the Extra-Tropical Northern Hemisphere During the Last Two Millennia" (PDF), Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 92 (3): 339–351, doi:10.1111/j.1468-0459.2010.00399.x, S2CID 55018654.
- Ljungqvist, F. C.; Krusic, P. J.; Brattström, G.; Sundqvist, H. S. (2012), "Northern Hemisphere temperature patterns in the last 12 centuries", Climate of the Past, 8 (1): 227–249, Bibcode:2012CliPa...8..227L, doi:10.5194/cp-8-227-2012.
- Morris, I; Saller, P; Sheidel, W (2013). The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World. Cambeidge University Press.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)