Roman Warm Period
The Roman Warm Period, or Roman Climatic Optimum, has been proposed as a period of unusually warm weather in Europe and the North Atlantic that ran from approximately 250 BC to AD 400.
Theophrastus (371 – c. 287 BC) wrote that date trees could grow in Greece if they were planted but that could not set fruit there. That is the case today, which suggests that southern Aegean mean summer temperatures in the 4th and 5th centuries BC were within a degree of modern temperatures. That and other literary fragments from the time confirm that the Greek climate then was basically the same as it was around AD 2000. Dendrochronological evidence from wood found at the Parthenon shows variability of climate in the 5th century BC that resembles the modern pattern of variation.
Cooling at the end of the period in southwestern Florida may have been due to a reduction in solar radiation reaching the Earth, which may have triggered a change in atmospheric circulation patterns.
A 1986 analysis of Alpine glaciers concluded that the period AD 100-400 period was significantly warmer than the periods that immediately preceded and followed. Artefacts recovered from the retreating Schnidejoch glacier have been taken as evidence for the Bronze Age, Roman and Medieval Warm Periods.
Deep ocean sediment
A 1999 reconstruction of ocean current patterns, based on the granularity of deep ocean sediment, concluded that there was a Roman Warm Period, which peaked around AD 150.
An analysis of oxygen isotopes found in mollusk shells in an Icelandic inlet concluded in 2010 that Iceland experienced an exceptionally warm period from 230 BC to AD 40.
- http://cel.webofknowledge.com/InboundService.do?SID=4A5e4%40P3InK9oE15oNb&product=CEL&UT=000073509400022&SrcApp=Nature&Init=Yes&action=retrieve&Func=Frame&customersID=Nature&SrcAuth=Nature&IsProductCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord.[dead link]
- Morris et al, p. 17
- Morris et al, p. 18
- "Seasonal climate change across the Roman Warm Period/Vandal Minimum transition using isotope sclerochronology in archaeological shells and otoliths, southwest Florida, USA". Quaternary International. 308-309: 230–241. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2012.11.013.
- Patterson, William Paul (1995), Stable isotopic record of climatic and environmental change in continental settings, University of Michigan, OCLC 712737306,
The Roman warm period though it has been suggested was responsible in part for advances in civilization, also had a dangerous side.
- Bianchi GG, McCave IN; McCave (February 1999), "Holocene periodicity in North Atlantic climate and deep-ocean flow south of Iceland", Nature, 397 (6719): 515–7, Bibcode:1999Natur.397..515B, doi:10.1038/17362
- Desprat, S.; Goñi, M.F.S.; Loutre, M.-F. (2003). "Revealing climatic variability of the last three millennia in northwestern Iberia using pollen influx data". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 213: 63–78. Bibcode:2003E&PSL.213...63D. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00292-9.
- Röthlisberger, F. (1986), 10,000 Jahre Gletschergeschichte der Erde, Sauerländer, ISBN 3794127978
- Imogen Foulkes, Alpine melt reveals ancient life, BBC News, 24 August 2008.
- Patterson WP, Dietrich KA, Holmden C, Andrews JT (March 2010), "Two millennia of North Atlantic seasonality and implications for Norse colonies", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107 (12): 5306–10, Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.5306P, doi:10.1073/pnas.0902522107, PMC , PMID 20212157
- Moberg, Anders; Sonechkin, Dmitry M.; Holmgren, Karin; Datsenko, Nina M.; Karlén, Wibjörn; Lauritzen, S. E. (10 February 2005), "Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data", Nature, 433 (7026): 613–617, Bibcode:2005Natur.433..613M, doi:10.1038/nature03265, PMID 15703742. Corrigendum: Moberg et al. 2006.
- Moberg, Anders; Sonechkin, Dimitry M.; Holmgren, Karin; Datsenko, Nina M.; Karlén, Wibjörn; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik (23 February 2006), "Corrigendum: Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data", Nature, 439 (7079): 1014, Bibcode:2006Natur.439.1014M, doi:10.1038/nature04575.
- Jansen; et al. (2007), "Chapter 6: Palaeoclimate", Missing or empty
|title=(help), in IPCC AR4 WG1 2007.
- IPCC AR4 WG1 (2007), Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; Marquis, M.; Avery, K.B.; Tignor, M.; Miller, H.L., eds., Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-88009-1 (pb: 978-0-521-70596-7).
- Huang, S.; Pollack, H. N.; Shen, P. Y. (4 July 2008), "A late Quaternary climate reconstruction based on borehole heat flux data, borehole temperature data, and the instrumental record" (PDF), Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (L13703): L13703, Bibcode:2008GeoRL..3513703H, doi:10.1029/2008GL034187.
- Mann, Michael E.; Zhang, Zhihua; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Miller, Sonya K.; Rutherford, Scott; Ni, Fenbiao (9 September 2008), "Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (36): 13252–13257, Bibcode:2008PNAS..10513252M, doi:10.1073/pnas.0805721105, PMC , PMID 18765811.
- Black, Richard (1 September 2008), "Climate 'hockey stick' is revived", BBC News, retrieved 2011-05-18
- Arctic Warming Overtakes 2,000 Years of Natural Cooling, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 3 September 2009, retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Bello, David (4 September 2009), "Global Warming Reverses Long-Term Arctic Cooling", Scientific American [webpage], retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Kaufman, Darrel; Schneider, David P.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Ammann, Caspar M.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Briffa, Keith R.; Miller, Gifford H.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Vinther, Bo M.; et al. (Arctic Lakes 2k Project) (4 September 2009), "Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling" (PDF), Science, 325 (5945): 1236–1239, Bibcode:2009Sci...325.1236K, doi:10.1126/science.1173983, PMID 19729653.
- Mann, Michael E.; Zhang, Zhihua; Rutherford, Scott; Bradley, Raymond S.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Shindell, Ddrew; Ammann, Caspar M.; Faluvegi, Greg; Ni, Fenbiao (27 November 2009), "Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly" (PDF), Science, 326 (5957): 1256–1260, Bibcode:2009Sci...326.1256M, doi:10.1126/science.1177303, PMID 19965474.
- Ljungqvist, F. C. (September 2010), "A New Reconstruction of Temperature Variability in the Extra-Tropical Northern Hemisphere During the Last Two Millennia" (PDF), Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 92 (3): 339–351, doi:10.1111/j.1468-0459.2010.00399.x.
- Ljungqvist, F. C.; Krusic, P. J.; Brattström, G.; Sundqvist, H. S. (2012), "Northern Hemisphere temperature patterns in the last 12 centuries", Climate of the Past, 8: 227, Bibcode:2012CliPa...8..227L, doi:10.5194/cp-8-227-2012.
- Morris, I; Saller, P; Sheidel, W (2013). The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World. Cambeidge University Press.