Roman à clef
Roman à clef (French pronunciation: [ʁɔmɑ̃n a kle], anglicised as /
Created by Madeleine de Scudéry in the 17th century to provide a forum for her thinly veiled fiction featuring political and public figures, the roman à clef has since been used by writers including Sylvia Plath, John Banville, Truman Capote, Simone de Beauvoir, Ernest Hemingway, George Orwell, Jack Kerouac, Victor Hugo, Blaise Cendrars, Philip K. Dick, Bret Easton Ellis, Jay McInerney, Naguib Mahfouz, Charles Bukowski, Malachi Martin, Saul Bellow, Hunter S. Thompson,James Joyce, and Djuna Barnes.
The reasons an author might choose the roman à clef format include: satire; writing about controversial topics and/or reporting inside information on scandals without giving rise to charges of libel; the opportunity to turn the tale the way the author would like it to have gone; the opportunity to portray personal, autobiographical experiences without having to expose the author as the subject; avoiding self-incrimination or incrimination of others that could be used as evidence in civil, criminal, or disciplinary proceedings; and the settling of scores.
Biographically inspired works have also appeared in other literary genres and art forms, notably the film à clef.
- Autobiographical novel
- Blind item
- Creative nonfiction
- List of narrative techniques
- Non-fiction novel
- Small penis rule
- "Roman à clef - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary".
- "The Continuum Encyclopedia of American Literature", By Steven R. Serafin, Alfred Bendixen, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005, ISBN 0-8264-1777-9, ISBN 978-0-8264-1777-0, pg. 525
- "Cambridge paperback guide to literature in English" by Ian Ousby, Cambridge University Press, 1996
- The Modernist roman à clef and Cultural Secrets, or I Know That You Know That I Know That You Know" by M. Boyde, University of Wollongong, 2009