Roman civil wars
There were several civil wars in ancient Rome, especially during the late Republic. The most famous of these are the war in the 40s BC between Julius Caesar and the optimate faction of the senatorial elite initially led by Pompey and the subsequent war between Caesar's successors, Octavius and Mark Antony in the 30s BC. Following is a list of civil wars in ancient Rome.
- The Crisis of the Roman Republic - an extended period of political instability and social unrest, from about 133 BC to 30 BC.
- Social War (91–88 BC), between Rome and many of its Italian allies - Roman victory.
- Sulla's first civil war (88–87 BC), between Lucius Cornelius Sulla's supporters and Gaius Marius' forces - Sullan victory.
- Sertorian War (83–72 BC ), between Rome and the provinces of Hispania under the leadership of Quintus Sertorius, a supporter of Gaius Marius - Sullan victory.
- Sulla's second civil war (82–81 BC), between Sulla and Marius' supporters - Sullan victory.
- Lepidus' rebellion (77 BC), when Lepidus rebelled against the Sullan regime.
- Catiline Conspiracy (63–62 BC), between the Senate and the dissatisfied followers of Catiline - Senatorial victory.
- Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC), between Julius Caesar and the Optimates initially led by Pompey - Caesarean victory.
- Post-Caesarian civil war (44–43 BC), between the Senate's army (led first by Cicero and then by Octavius) and the army of Antony, Lepidus, and their colleagues - Truce results in union of forces.
- Liberators' civil war (44–42 BC), between the Second Triumvirate and the Liberators (Brutus and Cassius, Caesar's assassins) - Triumvirate victory.
- Sicilian revolt (44–36 BC), between the Second Triumvirate (particularly Octavius and Agrippa) and Sextus Pompey, the son of Pompey - Triumvirate victory.
- Perusine War (41–40 BC), between the forces of Octavius against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia (the younger brother and wife of Mark Antony) - Octavius victory.
- Final War of the Roman Republic (32–30 BC), between Octavius and his friend and general Agrippa against Mark Antony and Cleopatra - Octavius victory.
- The Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69), between various Romans following the death of Nero (AD 68). After Nero's suicide, the generals Galba, Otho, and Vitellius take the throne within months of each other. General Vespasian, who until that point was fighting the revolt in Judaea, is victorious. He founds the Flavian dynasty.
- Year of the Five Emperors and subsequent civil war (AD 193–196), between the generals Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus following the assassination of Commodus (AD 192) and the subsequent murders of Pertinax and Didius Julianus (AD 193). Severus is victorious and founds the Severan dynasty.
- Year of the Six Emperors (AD 238), between various generals against Maximinus Thrax and after his murder. After Gordian I and Gordian II are defeated by a pro-Maximinus Army following an attempt to overthrow the emperor, Maximinus is assassinated. Pupienus, Balbinus, and Gordian III replace him, but the former two are assassinated within months and only Gordian III survives.
- Throughout the Crisis of the Third Century (AD 235–284), various generals fought with each other to become emperor and emperors fought against usurpers, so civil war was constant in that period.
- Civil wars of the Tetrarchy (AD 306–324), beginning with the usurpation of Maxentius and the defeat of Flavius Valerius Severus, and ending with the defeat of Licinius at the hands of Constantine I in 324 AD. The Tetrarchy established by Diocletian would break up because of these wars.
- Civil War of AD 350–351, when the emperor Constantius II defeated the usurper Magnentius.
- Civil War of AD 394, when the Eastern Emperor Theodosius I defeated the usurper Eugenius.
- Gildonic revolt (AD 398), when the Comes Gildo rebelled against the Western Emperor Honorius. The revolt was subdued by Flavius Stilicho, the magister militum of the Western Roman empire.
- Kohn, George Childs, 'Dictionary of Wars, Revised Edition' (Checkmark Books, New York, 1999)