Romania competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy. 98 competitors, 82 men and 16 women, took part in 65 events in 13 sports.
- Ion Cernea — Wrestling, Men's Men's Greco-Roman Bantamweight
- Lia Manoliu — Athletics, Women's Discus Throw
- Ion Monea — Boxing, Men's Middleweight (—75 kg)
- Leon Rotman — Canoeing, Men's C-1 1000m
- Maria Vicol — Fencing, Women's Individual Foil
- Atanasia Ionescu, Sonia Iovan, Elena Leuşteanu, Emilia Vătăşoiu-Liţă, Elena Niculescu, Uta Poreceanu — Gymnastics, Women's Team All-Around
- Ion Ţăranu — Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman Middleweight
Six cyclists, all males, represented Romania in 1960.
- Individual road race
- Team time trial
- 1000m time trial
15 fencers, 11 men and 4 women, represented Romania in 1960.
- Men's foil
- Men's team foil
- Men's épée
- Men's sabre
- Men's team sabre
- Women's foil
- Women's team foil
Nine shooters represented Romania in 1960. Ion Dumitrescu won the gold medal in the trap event.
- 25 m pistol
- 50 m pistol
- 300 m rifle, three positions
- 50 m rifle, three positions
- 50 m rifle, prone