Romanian cuisine

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Romanian cuisine (Romanian: Bucătăria românească) is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character. It has been mainly influenced by Turkish and a series of European cuisines in particular from the Balkans, or Hungarian cuisine as well as culinary elements stemming from the cuisines of Eastern and Central Europe.[1]

Romanian cuisine includes numerous holiday dishes arranged according to the mentioned season and holiday since the country has its roots in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Romanian dishes consist of vegetables, cereals, fruits, honey, milk, dairy products, meat and game.[1]

Multiple different types of dishes are available, which are sometimes included under a generic term; for example, the category ciorbă includes a wide range of soups with a characteristic sour taste. Variations include meat and vegetable soup, tripe (ciorbă de burtă) and calf foot soup, or fish soup, all of which are soured by lemon juice, sauerkraut juice (zeamă de varză), vinegar, or borș (traditionally made from bran). The category țuică (plum brandy) is a name for a strong alcoholic spirit in Romania.


In the history of Romanian culinary literature, Costache Negruzzi and Mihail Kogălniceanu were the compilers of a cookbook "200 rețete cercate de bucate, prăjituri și alte trebi gospodărești" (200 tried recipes for dishes, pastries and other household things) printed in 1841.[2] Also, Negruzzi writes in "Alexandru Lăpușneanu": "In Moldavia, at this time, fine food wasn't fashioned. The greatest feast only offered a few types of dishes. After the Polish borș, Greek dishes would follow, boiled with herbs floating in butter, after that, Turkish pilaf, and finally cosmopolitan steaks".[3]

Cheese has been a part of Romanian cuisine since ancient history. Brânză is the generic term for cheese in Romanian; it is originally a Dacian word. Traditional Dacian cuisine included vegetables (lentils, peas, spinach, garlic) and fruits (grapes, apples, raspberries) with high nutritional values.[4] The Dacians produced wine in massive quantities. Once, Burebista, a Dacian king, angered by the wine abuse of his warriors, cut down the vines; his people gave up drinking wine.[5] Legend says that the Dacian people created their own beer.[citation needed] Romans helped introduce different pastries made with cheese, including alivenci, pască, or brânzoaice. They also introduced different variations of millet porridge.

Maize and potatoes became staples of Romanian cuisine after their introduction to Europe. Maize, in particular, contributed to health and nutrition improvements of Romanians in the 16th and 17th centuries, resulting in a population boom.

For more than four centuries, Wallachia and Moldavia, the two medieval Romanian principalities, were strongly influenced by their neighbor, the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman cuisine changed the Romanian table with appetizers made from various vegetables, such as eggplant and bell peppers, as well as various meat preparations, such as chiftele (deep-fried meatballs, a variation of kofta) and mici (short sausages without casings, usually barbecued). The various kinds of ciorbă/borș (sour soups) and meat-and-vegetable stews, such as iahnie de fasole (beans), ardei umpluți (stuffed peppers), and sarmale (stuffed cabbage) are influenced by Turkish cuisine. The Romanian tomato salad is a variation of the Turkish çoban salata. Many traditional desserts and pastries combine honey and nuts, such as baclava, sarailie (or seraigli), halva, and rahat (Turkish delight).


Romanian recipes bear the same influences as the rest of Romanian culture. The Turks brought meatballs (perișoare in a meatball soup), from the Greeks there is musaca, from the Austrians there is the șnițel, and the list could continue. The Romanians share many foods with the Balkan area (in which Turkey was the cultural vehicle), and Eastern Europe (including Moldova and Ukraine). Some others are original or can be traced to the Romans, as well as other ancient civilizations. The lack of written sources in Eastern Europe makes it impossible to determine today the exact origin for most of them.

One of the most common meals is the mămăligă, the precursor of polenta, served on its own or as an accompaniment. Pork is the main meat used in Romanian cuisine, but also beef is consumed and a good lamb or fish dish is never to be refused.

Before Christmas, on December 20 (Ignat's Day or Ignatul in Romanian),[6] a pig is traditionally sacrificed by every rural family.[7] A variety of foods for Christmas are prepared from the slaughtered pig, such as:

  • Cârnați – garlicky pork sausages, which may be smoked or dry-cured;
  • Lebăr – an emulsified sausage based on liver with the consistency of the filling ranging from fine (pâté) to coarse;
  • Sângerete (black pudding) – an emulsified sausage obtained from a mixture of pig's blood with fat and meat, breadcrumbs or other grains, and spices;
  • Tobă (head cheese) – based on pig's feet, ears, and meat from the head suspended in aspic and stuffed in the pig's stomach;
  • Tochitură – a stew made with pork, smoked and fresh sausage simmered in a tomato sauce and served with mămăligă and wine ("so that the pork can swim"). There are many variations of this stew throughout Romania, with some versions combining different meats, including chicken, lamb, beef, pork and sometimes even offal;
  • Pomana porcului—pan-fried cubed pork served right after the pig's sacrifice to thank the relatives and friends who helped with the process;
  • Piftie/răcitură – inferior parts of the pig, mainly the tail, feet, and ears, spiced with garlic and served in aspic;
  • Jumări – dried pork remaining from rendering of the fat and tumbled through various spices

The Christmas meal is sweetened with the traditional cozonac, a sweet bread made with nuts, poppy seeds, or rahat (Turkish delight).

At Easter, lamb is served: the main dishes are borș de miel (lamb sour soup), roast lamb, and drob de miel – a Romanian-style lamb haggis made from minced offal (heart, liver, lungs), lamb meat and spring onions with spices, wrapped in a caul and roasted.[8][9] The traditional Easter cake is pască, a pie made from yeast dough with a sweet cottage cheese filling at the center.[10][11]

Romanian pancakes, called clătite, are thin (like the French crêpe) and can be prepared with savory or sweet fillings: ground meat, cheese, or jam. Different recipes are prepared depending on the season or the occasion.[12]

Wine is the preferred drink, and Romanian wine has a tradition of over three millennia.[12] Romania is currently the world's ninth largest wine producer, and recently the export market has started to grow.[12] Romania produces a wide selection of domestic varieties (Fetească, Grasă, Tămâioasă, Busuioacă, and Băbească), as well as varieties from across the world (Italian Riesling, Merlot, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Muscat Ottonel). Beer is also highly regarded, generally blonde pilsener beer, made with German influences. There are also Romanian breweries with a long tradition.

According to the 2009 data of FAOSTAT, Romania is the world's second largest plum producer (after the United States),[13] and as much as 75% of Romania's plum production is processed into the famous țuică, a plum brandy obtained through one or more distillation steps.[14]

Vegetarianism / Veganism[edit]

Followers of the Romanian Orthodox Church keep fast during several periods throughout the ecclesiastical calendar amounting to a majority of the year. In the Romanian Orthodox tradition, devotees keep to a diet without any animal products during these times. As a result, vegan foods are abundant in stores and restaurants; however, Romanians may not be familiar with a vegan or vegetarian diet as a full-time lifestyle choice.[15] Many recipes below have vegan versions, and the Vegetables section below contains many common fasting foods.

List of dishes[edit]


Ciorbă de cartofi
Ciorbă de burtă
  • Borș is fermented wheat bran, a souring agent for ciorbă. Borș is also used today as a synonym for ciorbă, but in the past, a distinction was made between borș and ciorbă (acritură), the souring agent for the latter being the juice of unripe fruits, such as grapes, mirabelle, or wood sorrel leaves.
  • Ciorbă is the traditional Romanian sour soup
  • Supă (generic name for sweet (usually clear) soups, made from vegetables alone or combined with poultry and beef). The difference between Supă and Ciorbă is that the meat and most of the vegetables are removed, the resulted liquid being served with dumplings or noodles. There are also a number of sour soups, which use lemon juice as a souring agent, called Supe a la grec (Greek soups).


Frigărui, Romanian-style kebabs


Romanian roe salad decorated with black olives.
  • Chiftele de pește - fish cake
  • Crap pane - breaded carp fillet
  • Ghiveci cu pește - fish stew with vegetables
  • Macrou afumat - smoked mackerel fillet
  • Novac afumat din Țara Bârsei - smoked carp fillet, registered as a Romanian protected geographical indication (PGI) product in the European Union[17]
  • Pană de somn rasol - catfish in brine with garlic
  • Plachie din pește - ragout of river fish with vegetables
  • Papricaș de pește - fish papricaș
  • Salată de icre - roe salad, traditionally made from carp, pike, or various marine fish species, called tarama, with onion
    • Salată cu icre de știucă de Tulcea - a variety of Salată de icre registered as a Romanian protected geographical indication (PGI) product in the European Union[17]
    • Salata tradițională cu icre de crap - another variety of Salată de icre registered as a Romanian protected geographical indication (PGI) product in the European Union[18]
  • Saramură de crap - carp in brine
  • Scrumbie de Dunăre afumată - smoked pontic shad, registered as a Romanian protected geographical indication (PGI) product in the European Union[19]


Ardei umpluți

List of salads[edit]

Salată de vinete

List of cheeses[edit]

Cașcaval Penteleu, a type of Romanian cheese

The generic name for cheese in Romania is brânză, and it is considered to be of Dacian origin. Most of the cheeses are made from cow's or sheep's milk. Goat's milk is rarely used. Sheep cheese is considered "the real cheese", although in modern times, some people refrain from consuming it due to its higher fat content and specific smell.

  • Brânză de burduf is a kneaded cheese prepared from sheep's milk and traditionally stuffed into a sheep's stomach; it has a strong taste and semi-soft texture
  • Brânză topită is a melted cheese and a generic name for processed cheese, industrial product
  • Brânză în coșuleț is a sheep's milk, kneaded cheese with a strong taste and semi-soft texture, stuffed into bellows of fir tree bark instead of pig bladder, very lightly smoked, traditional product
  • Caș is a semi-soft fresh white cheese, unsalted or lightly salted, stored in brine, which is eaten fresh (cannot be preserved), traditional, seasonal product
  • Cașcaval is a semi-hard cheese made from sheep's or cow's milk, traditional product. The Cașcaval de Săveni is a type of cașcaval published as a Romanian protected geographical indication (PGI) product in the European Union.[22]
    • Penteleu, a type of cașcaval, traditional product
  • Năsal cheese is a type of cheese with a pungent aroma, traditional product
  • Șvaițer, industrial product ("Schweizer Käse")
  • Telemea, cow's or sheep's milk white cheese, vaguely similar to feta. The traditional "Telemea de Ibănești" is a type of telemea registered as a Romanian protected designation of origin (PDO) product in the European Union, while the "Telemea de Sibiu" is registered as a Romanian protected geographical indication (PGI) product in the European Union.[16][22] Notably the "Telemea de Covurlui" is spiced with Nigella damascena seeds, which gives it a unique flavor.
  • Urdă - made by boiling the whey drained from cow's or ewe's milk until the remaining proteins precipitate and can be collected, traditional product
  • Zămătișe - a type of cottage cheese.

List of desserts[edit]

  • Alivenci, corn and cheese pie in sweet and salted variants. Traditional dessert in Eastern Romania and Moldova.
Amandine, Romanian chocolate sponge cake.
Cozonac in different shapes.
Papanași, Romanian doughnuts.

List of drinks[edit]

  • Afinată - a liqueur made from afine (aka. bilberry in English), which are similar to the North American blueberry.
  • Bere
  • Bragă
  • Cafea
  • Ceai - prepared in the form of either various plant tisanes (chamomile, mint, tilly flower, etc.) or common black tea, called ceai rusesc in Romanian, which is Russian tea usually served during breakfast.
  • Horincă is a plum or apple brandy, produced in the northern part of the country (Maramureș)
  • Must - the grape juice in the fermentation process that hasn't become wine yet.
  • Pălincă is a strong, double-distilled fruit brandy (especially plum, but also apple, apricots, peach, pear etc.) produced in Transylvania
  • Pelin de mai is a wine specialty, usually produced in the spring, flavored with Artemisia dried plants
  • Rachiu is a fruit brandy. Generic "rachiu" can be made from any fruit (except plums), while "țuică" is reserved exclusively for the variety of brandy made from plums.
  • Rachiu de tescovină is a pomace brandy produced from grapes that have been used in wine production, very similar to the Italian grappa
  • Sana is a kind of a drinkable yogurt
  • Secărică is a caraway fruit flavored vodka, similar to the German kümmel
  • Sirop - prepared with syrup made from fir tree, pine, buckthorn, blueberry, raspberry, or strawberry, with different types of honey or sugar
  • Socată is a non-alcoholic beverage made from fermented elderflower (Sambucus nigra)
  • Șliboviță is a plum brandy, produced in the Banat region.
  • Turț is a strong, double-distilled plum brandy, named after the village of Turț in northwestern Romania
  • Țuică is a plum brandy
  • Vin
  • Vișinată is a sour cherry liqueur
  • Vodcă
  • Zmeurată is a raspberry liqueur

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Bucătăria românească. Istoria gastronomiei românești". Hendi (in Romanian). Retrieved 2020-09-09.
  2. ^ Bogdan Ulmu: Rețete de la Kogălniceanu & Negruzzi | Bucatarescu
  3. ^ "Lumea" nr 17,1946,p 1,Art:O carte de bucate, G. Călinescu
  4. ^ "Alimentația la daci",
  5. ^ Strabo, Geography, VII:3.11
  6. ^ Ignatul or Ignat's Day (December 20)
  7. ^ Christmas customs in Romania: "pig's ritual sacrifice"
  8. ^ Making lamb drob
  9. ^ Traditional recipe for drob de miel, with step-by-step photos
  10. ^ A photo of pasca
  11. ^ Pasca recipe
  12. ^ a b c in Romania
  13. ^ "Final 2009 Data". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  14. ^ Țuica production consumed 75% of Romanian plums in 2003
  15. ^ "What Vegan Travelers Need to Know about Dining in Romania". Huffington Post. 2017-02-14. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  16. ^ a b c d Cârnații de Pleșcoi, al șaselea produs românesc recunoscut și protejat în UE
  17. ^ a b "EU reference site".
  18. ^ Salata tradițională cu icre de crap, un nou produs românesc recunoscut și protejat în UE
  19. ^ Scrumbia afumată de Dunăre, al cincilea produs românesc recunoscut oficial
  20. ^ Ghiveci: Romanian vegetable stew
  21. ^ Recipe for ghiveci
  22. ^ a b c "eAmbrosia – the EU geographical indications register".
  23. ^ ”Poale-n brâu" history and recipe
  24. ^ Covrigi on display
  25. ^ Varieties of gogoși: photos and recipes (in Romanian)
  26. ^ Mucenici: background and recipe
  27. ^ Recipe for savarina

Other sources[edit]

External links[edit]