Ron "Pigpen" McKernan
|Ron "Pigpen" McKernan|
Ron "Pigpen" McKernan in 1968
|Birth name||Ronald Charles McKernan|
|Also known as||Pigpen, Blue Ron|
September 8, 1945|
San Bruno, California, U.S.
|Origin||San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Died||March 8, 1973
Corte Madera, California, U.S.
|Genres||Blues, psychedelic rock, rock|
|Instruments||Vocals, organ, harmonica|
|Labels||Warner Bros. Records|
|Associated acts||Grateful Dead, Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions, The Warlocks|
Ronald Charles McKernan (September 8, 1945 – March 8, 1973), known as Pigpen, was an American singer and musician. He was a founding member of the San Francisco band the Grateful Dead and played in the group from 1965 to 1972.
McKernan grew up heavily influenced by African-American music, particularly the blues, and enjoyed listening to his father's collection of records and taught himself how to play harmonica and piano. He began socialising around the San Francisco bay area, becoming friends with Jerry Garcia. After the pair had played in various folk and jug bands, McKernan suggested they form an electric group, which became the Grateful Dead. He was the band's original frontman as well as playing harmonica and electric organ, but Garcia and bassist Phil Lesh's influences on the band became increasingly stronger as they embraced psychedelic rock. McKernan struggled to keep up, causing the group to hire keyboardist Tom Constanten, with McKernan's contributions limited to vocals, harmonica and percussion. He continued to be a frontman in concert for some numbers, including covers of Bobby Bland's "Turn On Your Love Light" and the Rascals' "Good Lovin'".
Unlike the other members of the Grateful Dead, McKernan avoided psychedelic drugs, preferring to drink alcohol (namely whiskey and wine). By 1971, his health had been affected by alcoholism and liver damage and doctors advised him to stop touring. He continued to perform live with the Grateful Dead as often as possible, but was forced to retire from touring altogether in mid-1972. McKernan was found dead of a gastrointestinal hemorrhage on March 8, 1973, aged 27 and is buried at Alta Mesa Memorial Park in Palo Alto.
Ronald Charles McKernan was born on September 8, 1945, in San Bruno, California. He came from Irish ancestry, and his father, Phil McKernan, was an R&B and blues disc jockey, who had been one of the first white DJs on KDIA, a black radio station. Ronald grew up with African-American friends and enjoyed black music and culture. As a youth, he taught himself blues piano, guitar and harmonica and developed a biker culture image. McKernan moved to Palo Alto, California with his family, where he became friends with musician Jerry Garcia at the age of 14. He built up a substantial collection of old blues 78s from labels such as Kent Records and Chess Records.
McKernan began spending time around coffeehouses and music stores, and worked at Dana Morgan's Music Store in Palo Alto with Garcia. One night Garcia invited McKernan on stage to play harmonica and sing the blues. Garcia was impressed and McKernan became the blues singer in local jam sessions. He was initially nicknamed "Blue Ron" before settling on "Pigpen". Toponymist Adrian Room has suggested McKernan was given the name due to his untidy and unclean habits while band biographies say he got the nickname owing to his similarity to Pig-Pen, the permanently dirty character in the comic-strip Peanuts.
McKernan was a participant in the predecessor groups leading to the formation of the Grateful Dead, beginning with the Zodiacs and Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions. Guitarist Bob Weir and drummer Bill Kreutzmann were added and the band evolved into the Warlocks. Around 1965, McKernan urged the rest of the Warlocks to switch to electric instruments. Bassist Phil Lesh joined soon after, and they became the Grateful Dead. The group were keen to involve McKernan in the band, as he was the group's original leader and was considered the best singer and frontman.
The Dead's early sets centred around blues and R&B covers chosen by McKernan. By the end of 1966, Garcia had improved his musical skills and wanted to assert himself more as a leader and musical director, changing the band's direction and reducing McKernan's contributions. In 1967, drummer Mickey Hart joined the Grateful Dead, followed by classically trained keyboardist Tom Constanten in 1968, further changing the group's style. Constanten often replaced McKernan on keyboards in the studio, as McKernan found it difficult to adapt to the new material that Garcia and Lesh composed for the band.
In October 1968, McKernan and Weir were nearly fired from the band after Garcia and Lesh believed their playing was holding the band back from lengthy and experimental jamming. Garcia delegated the task of firing them to Rock Scully, who said that McKernan "took it hard." Weir promised to improve, but McKernan was more stubborn. According to Garcia biographer Blair Jackson, McKernan missed three Dead shows before vowing not to "be lazy" any more and rejoining, while Kreutzmann objected to replacing McKernan and said the event never happened. In November 1968, Constanten was hired full-time for the band, having only worked in the studio up to that point. Road manager Jon McIntire commented that "Pigpen was relegated to the congas at that point and it was really humiliating and he was really hurt, but he couldn't show it, couldn't talk about it." He began to take Hammond organ lessons and learned how to use the various drawbars and controls.
After Constanten's departure in January 1970 over musical and lifestyle differences, McKernan nominally resumed keyboard duties. He contributed instrumentation to only one track ("Black Peter") on Workingman's Dead (1970), the band's breakthrough studio release. Consequently, the group's next studio album (1970's American Beauty) served as a showcase for session keyboardists Howard Wales and Ned Lagin, while the 1971 live album Grateful Dead featured three overdubbed organ parts from Merl Saunders in addition to McKernan's contributions on "Big Railroad Blues", "The Other One", and "Me & Bobby McGee". While Garcia expressed frustration at McKernan's missed rehearsals and his inability to keep up with new material, Lesh was more forgiving, opining that "it was okay for Pigpen to lay out... we kept wanting Pigpen to be there because he was 'one of us.'"
Musical style and influences
While in the Grateful Dead, McKernan sang and played blues-influenced organ and harmonica. He initially played a Vox Continental organ, but later switched to a Hammond. McKernan sang lead on several standards he wanted the Dead to cover, such as Otis Redding's "Pain in my Heart". Unlike fellow vocalists Garcia and Weir, he sang lead without playing any instrument except harmonica and actively interacted with the audience, occasionally walking out into the crowd. During the band's first year when they played straightforward blues, McKernan performed the majority of lead vocals, attracting an early audience that came specifically to see him sing and play harmonica. He took on early management duties in the band, ensuring they would be paid and promoted properly for gigs.
McKernan's studio contributions declined during the 1960s. Though his garage rock style was appropriate for early recordings, it was less suited to the group's later psychedelic and jamming styles. McKernan went from singing lead on all of side two of 1968's Anthem of the Sun to little more than sporadic appearances on the following year's Aoxomoxoa. He continued to front the band for long stretches during their live performances and suggested new material for the Dead's concert repertoire, including songs such as "Turn On Your Love Light", "Hard to Handle" and "In the Midnight Hour." McKernan achieved a new prominence in the late 1960s covering "Turn On Your Love Light," then the band's show-stopping finale, regularly taking fifteen to twenty minutes to complete. McKernan often improvised lyrics over the band's accompaniment, using phrases he had heard from black American friends, such as "rider" (slang for "lover"), "she's got box-black nitties" (referring to female underwear) and "boar hog's eye". When the Grateful Dead appeared at Woodstock, the band's set (which was marred by technical problems and general chaos and described as one of their worst shows) ended with "Turn On Your Love Light". Even as his instrumental contributions waned, McKernan's vocal performances remained an integral part of the band's live set; by early 1971, the band's cover of the Rascals' "Good Lovin'" (featured at shows at the Fillmore East later released as Ladies and Gentlemen... the Grateful Dead) began to emerge as a secondary showcase of his improvisatory talents alongside "Love Light."
McKernan was not a prolific songwriter, preferring to concentrate on blues covers and improvised lyrics. He composed the infrequently performed "Operator" for 1970's American Beauty. Several new songs emerged from a creatively fecund period coinciding with his health problems in 1971, most notably "Mr. Charlie," a collaboration with Dead lyricist Robert Hunter. The song appeared on the live album Europe '72, his last with the group.
Band author Tony Sclafani compared McKernan's role in the band, initially strong and pivotal but gradually declining, to that of Brian Jones in the Rolling Stones, particularly since both men were primarily influenced by the blues over rock 'n' roll and died aged 27. These comparisons are not entirely accurate as McKernan was always encouraged to sing material live and left the group due to ill health, while Jones was fired.
After McKernan's death, a number of recordings were found in his apartment, which have appeared as the bootleg recording "The Apartment Tapes". This included two songs recorded in 1964 with future Jefferson Airplane guitarist Jorma Kaukonen. On the bootleg, McKernan played acoustic guitar and piano, instruments he seldom used with the Dead.
McKernan was close friends with American singer-songwriter Janis Joplin due to common musical influences and lifestyles, particularly a shared love of alcohol over other drugs; a poster from the early 1970s showed them together at 710 Ashbury. Joplin joined McKernan on stage at the Fillmore West on June 7, 1969, with the Grateful Dead to sing his signature "Turn On Your Love Light," reprising this duet on July 16, 1970, at the Euphoria Ballroom in San Rafael, California. McKernan was good friends with fellow band member Tom Constanten, based on their mutual aversion to psychedelics. He eventually served as best man at Constanten's wedding.
While his bandmates and friends were using cannabis, LSD, and other psychedelics, McKernan preferred alcoholic beverages such as Thunderbird and Southern Comfort. Ironically, McKernan was arrested and fined after the cannabis bust on November 9, 1967, at 710 Ashbury Street, the Dead's communal home, even though he did not use the drug. The event was covered in the first issue of Rolling Stone, where the reporter noted McKernan had a substantial rifle collection and McKernan's picture appeared on a contemporary report in the San Francisco Chronicle. Because neither took illegal drugs, McKernan and Constanten were the only members of the band not arrested on the January 31, 1970, bust that inspired the lyrics of the band's song "Truckin'".
In the early years of the Grateful Dead, McKernan was easily recognisable by his biker image, making him a minor celebrity. In 1969, the band's record company, Warner Bros. Records ran a "Pigpen Look-Alike Contest".
Health and death
McKernan's alcoholism had begun to affect his health by his mid twenties. By the early 1970s, he began to experience symptoms of congenital biliary cirrhosis (which was unrelated to drinking). After being hospitalized in August 1971, doctors requested that he stop touring indefinitely. Pianist Keith Godchaux was subsequently hired and remained a regular member of the Grateful Dead until 1979. McKernan rejoined the band in December 1971 to supplement Godchaux on harmonica, percussion, and organ, though witnesses found that at some gigs he barely contributed anything. At one show, McKernan passed out in front of his Hammond organ. After their Europe '72 tour, his health had degenerated to the point where he could no longer continue playing live. He made his final concert appearance on June 17, 1972, at the Hollywood Bowl, in Los Angeles, California. He subsequently broke off all personal relationships with the band, explaining "I don't want you around when I die."
On March 8, 1973, aged 27 he was found dead of a gastrointestinal hemorrhage at his home in Corte Madera, California by his landlady. Though his contributions to the band had slowly diminished over the years, the other members were devastated at his death. McKernan was buried at the Alta Mesa Memorial Park in Palo Alto, California.[a] Garcia spoke at his funeral, saying "After Pigpen's death we all knew this was the end of the original Grateful Dead".
Despite his outward image, friends and band biographers have described McKernan as a quiet, kind and introspective person. Hart later said "Pigpen was the musician in the Grateful Dead." Kreutzmann said McKernan was "the sweetest guy anybody had ever met."
Weir later became influenced by McKernan's ability to work a crowd and improvise lyrics. He took over de facto frontman duties in concert and began to reintroduce material originally chosen by McKernan into the Dead's live set after his death. Weir began singing "Good Lovin'" with the Dead in 1973, and the group recorded the song on 1978's Shakedown Street. "Turn On Your Love Light" was revived in 1981, with Weir singing lead. He also revived the 1960s standard "Big Boy Pete", originally sung by McKernan, as a one-off in 1985. Jimmy Reed's "Big Boss Man", covered by the group on Grateful Dead (Skull and Roses) with McKernan singing lead, was revived by Garcia and performed occasionally through the 1980s and 90s.
- The Grateful Dead (1967)
- Anthem of the Sun (1968)
- Aoxomoxoa (1969)
- Live/Dead (1969)
- Workingman's Dead (1970)
- American Beauty (1970)
- Grateful Dead (1971)
- Europe '72 (1972)
- History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1973)
- Two from the Vault (1992)
- Grayfolded (1994)
- Hundred Year Hall (1995)
- Dick's Picks Volume 4 (1996)
- Dick's Picks Volume 8 (1997)
- Live at the Fillmore East 2-11-69 (1997)
- Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997)
- So Many Roads (1965-1995) (1999)
- So Many Roads (1965-1995) Sampler (1999)
- Dick's Picks Volume 16 (2000)
- Ladies and Gentlemen... the Grateful Dead (2000)
- Dick's Picks Volume 22 (2001)
- Steppin' Out with the Grateful Dead: England '72 (2002)
- Dick's Picks Volume 26 (2002)
- Dick's Picks Volume 30 (2003)
- Birth of the Dead (2003)
- Rockin' the Rhein with the Grateful Dead (2004)
- Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005)
- Dick's Picks Volume 35 (2005)
- Grateful Dead Download Series Volume 6 (2005)
- Fillmore West 1969: The Complete Recordings (2005)
- Fillmore West 1969 (2005)
- Three from the Vault (2007)
- Road Trips Volume 1 Number 3 (2008)
- Road Trips Volume 2 Number 2 (2009)
- Road Trips Volume 3 Number 3 (2010)
- Road Trips Volume 4 Number 1 (2010)
- Europe '72: The Complete Recordings (2011)
- Europe '72 Volume 2 (2011)
- Winterland: May 30th 1971 (2012)
- Dave's Picks Volume 6 (2013)
- Family Dog at the Great Highway, San Francisco, CA 4/18/70 (2013)
- Dave's Picks Volume 10 (2014)
- 30 Trips Around the Sun (2015)
- 30 Trips Around the Sun: The Definitive Live Story 1965–1995 (2015)
- Plot: Hillview Section 16 Lot 374
- Stanton 2003, p. 102.
- Scully 2001, p. 24.
- Trager 1997, p. 260.
- Sclafani 2013, p. 185.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 83.
- Scully 2001, p. 26.
- Scully 2001, pp. 23–24.
- Room 2010, p. 380.
- Hollow 2009, p. 30.
- Malvinni 2013, p. 1.
- Sclafani 2013, p. 187.
- Malvinni 2013, p. 2.
- Malvinni 2013, p. 28.
- Malvinni 2013, p. 42.
- Sclafani 2013, p. 188.
- Scully 2001, pp. 150,154,155.
- Sclafani 2013, p. 189.
- Scully 2001, p. 151.
- Jackson 1999, p. 156.
- Kreutzmann & Eisen 2015, p. 95.
- Jackson 1999, p. 157.
- Scully 2001, p. 155.
- Trager 1997, p. 151.
- Scully 2001, p. 208.
- Jackson 1999, p. 226.
- Sclafani 2013, p. 192.
- Malvinni 2013, p. 17.
- Malvinni 2013, pp. 17, 44.
- Malvinni 2013, p. 57.
- Perone 2005, pp. 120–121.
- Malvinni 2013, p. 60.
- Trager 1997, p. 145.
- "American Beauty – Grateful Dead". AllMusic. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- "Europe '72 – Grateful Dead". Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- Sclafani 2013, pp. 191–192.
- Sounes 2013, p. 95.
- Sclafani 2013, p. 191.
- Bonhams Auctioneers (May 8, 2007). "Lot Details". Bonhams.com. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
- "June 7, 1969". dead.net (Grateful Dead official website). Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- "July 16, 1970". dead.net (Grateful Dead official website). Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- Conners 2013, p. 91.
- Trager 1997, p. 152.
- Kreutzmann & Eisen 2015, p. 79.
- "The Grateful Dead Did Get It: Reporters and Cops". Rolling Stone (1). November 9, 1967. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Lifton, Dave (January 31, 2015). "45 Years Ago: The Grateful Dead’s Infamous ‘Truckin’’ Drug Bust". Classic Rock Magazine. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- Trager 1997, p. 261.
- Trager 1997, p. 142.
- Scully 2001, p. 212.
- Stanton 2003, p. 103.
- Sounes 2013, p. 96.
- Scully 2001, p. 230.
- Kreutzmann & Eisen 2015, p. 58.
- Trager 1997, p. 399.
- Malvinni 2013, p. 260.
- Trager 1997, pp. 38, 378.
- Trager 1997, p. 37.
- Trager 1997, p. 176.
- Conners, Peter (2013). JAMerica: The History of the Jam Band and Festival Scene. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-82066-3.
- Hollow, Michele (2009). Grateful Dead: What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been. Enslow. ISBN 978-0-766-03028-2.
- Jackson, Blair (1999). Garcia: An American Life. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-140-29199-5.
- Kreutzmann, Bill; Eisen, Benjy (2015). Deal: My Three Decades of Drumming, Dreams, and Drugs with the Grateful Dead. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-250-03380-2.
- Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-826-41815-9.
- Malvinni, David (2013). Grateful Dead and the Art of Rock Improvisation. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-810-88255-3.
- Perone, James (2005). Woodstock: An Encyclopedia of the Music and Art Fair. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-33057-5.
- Room, Adrian (2010). Dictionary of Pseudonyms: 13,000 Assumed Names and Their Origins, 5th ed. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-786-45763-2.
- Sclafani, Tony (2013). The Grateful Dead FAQ: All That's Left to Know About the Greatest Jam Band in History. Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-617-13582-8.
- Scully, Rock (2001). Living with the Dead: Twenty Years on the Bus with Garcia and the Grateful Dead. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-1-461-66113-9.
- Sounes, Howard (2013). 27: A History of the 27 Club through the Lives of Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison, Kurt Cobain, and Amy Winehouse. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-82169-1.
- Stanton, Scott (2003). The Tombstone Tourist: Musicians. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-743-46330-0.
- Trager, Oliver (1997). The American Book of the Dead. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81402-5.
- Pigpen's page on the Dead's Official Site
- Ron "Pigpen" McKernan at Find a Grave
- Ron C McKernan at Dead Blues Guys.com
- Essay on McKernan's life