Ron "Pigpen" McKernan
|Ron "Pigpen" McKernan|
|Birth name||Ronald Charles McKernan|
|Also known as||Pigpen|
September 8, 1945|
San Bruno, California, U.S.
|Origin||San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Died||March 8, 1973
Corte Madera, California, U.S.
|Genres||Blues, psychedelic rock, rock|
|Instruments||Vocals, organ, harmonica|
|Associated acts||Grateful Dead, Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions, The Warlocks|
Ronald Charles McKernan, nicknamed "Pigpen" (September 8, 1945 – March 8, 1973), was a founding member of the Grateful Dead. McKernan sang, and played organ and harmonica. He contributed a blues element to the group, regularly performing such songs as "Good Morning Little Schoolgirl", "Easy Wind", and his trademark song "Turn On Your Love Light"—a Bobby Bland cover that served as the finale for many Grateful Dead concerts from 1967 to 1972. In 1994, McKernan was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame along with the other members of the Grateful Dead.
McKernan was born in San Bruno, California, the son of an R&B and blues disc jockey. He grew up with many African-American friends and felt very strongly connected to black music and culture. As a youth, he taught himself blues piano and developed a biker image. In his early teens, McKernan left Palo Alto High School by mutual agreement with the school's principal. He also began using alcohol in his adolescence.
McKernan began spending time around coffeehouses and music stores, where he met Jerry Garcia. One night Garcia invited McKernan on stage to play harmonica and sing the blues. Garcia was impressed and McKernan became the blues singer in local jam sessions. A high-school friend named Roger gave him his nickname based on his "funky" approach to life. However, in an essay included with the Grateful Dead box-set The Golden Road (1965-1973) it is claimed that a girlfriend of McKernan's gave him the nickname, owing to his similarity to the permanently dirty character in the comic-strip Peanuts.
McKernan was a participant in the predecessor groups leading to the formation of the Grateful Dead, beginning with the Zodiacs and Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions. Bob Weir and Bill Kreutzmann were added and the band evolved into the Warlocks. Around 1965, McKernan urged the rest of the Warlocks to switch to electric instruments. Around this time Phil Lesh joined, and they became the Grateful Dead.
McKernan played blues organ as well as harmonica and vocals. While his friends were taking LSD, marijuana and other psychedelics, McKernan preferred alcoholic beverages such as Thunderbird and Southern Comfort. He steadily added more signature tunes to the Dead's repertoire, including some that lasted for the remainder of their live performance career such as "Turn On Your Love Light" and "In the Midnight Hour."
In 1967 and 1968 respectively, Mickey Hart and Tom Constanten joined the Grateful Dead, causing the band to take a stylistic turn from blues-based danceable rock toward full-blown experimental psychedelia influenced by avant-garde jazz, serialism, and world music traditions. Constanten often replaced Pigpen on keyboards. In October 1968, McKernan and Weir were nearly fired from the band because of their reluctance to rehearse. Ultimately, the task of firing them was delegated by Garcia to Rock Scully, who said that McKernan "took it hard." The remaining members did a number of shows under the monikers Mickey and the Hartbeats and Jerry Garrceeah and His Friends, mainly playing Grateful Dead songs without lyrics. Weir asked repeatedly to be let back into the band, promising to step up his playing, and eventually the rest of the band relented. McKernan was more stubborn, missing three Dead shows; he finally vowed not to "be lazy" anymore and rejoined the band. In November 1968, Constanten was hired full-time for the band, having only worked in the studio up to that point. Road manager Jon McIntire commented that "Pigpen was relegated to the congas at that point and it was really humiliating and he was really hurt, but he couldn't show it, couldn't talk about it."
McKernan achieved a new prominence throughout 1969, with versions of "Turn On Your Love Light", now the band's show-stopping finale, regularly taking fifteen to twenty minutes. When the Grateful Dead appeared at Woodstock, the band's set (which was marred by technical problems and general chaos) consisted mostly of a 48-minute version of the song.
Health problems and death
After Constanten's departure in January 1970 over musical and lifestyle differences, McKernan nominally resumed keyboard duties, although many concert tapes reveal that "he was only intermittently playing organ"; consequently, the 1971 live album Grateful Dead featured three overdubbed organ parts from fellow keyboardist Merl Saunders in addition to McKernan's contributions on "Big Railroad Blues", "The Other One", and "Me & Bobby McGee". However, his vocal performances remained an integral part of the band's live set; by early 1971, the band's cover of the Rascals' "Good Lovin'" (exemplified by April 1971 performances at Princeton University and the Fillmore East, the latter officially released on Ladies and Gentlemen... the Grateful Dead ) began to emerge as a secondary showcase of his talents.
During this period, he began to experience symptoms of congenital biliary cirrhosis unrelated to his alcoholism; after an August 1971 hospitalization, doctors requested that he stop touring indefinitely. Pianist Keith Godchaux was subsequently hired and remained a regular member of the band until 1979. Ever restless, the ailing McKernan rejoined the band in December 1971 to supplement Godchaux on harmonica, percussion, and organ. After their Europe '72 tour, his health had degenerated to the point where he could no longer continue on the road. He made his final concert appearance on June 17, 1972, at the Hollywood Bowl, in Los Angeles, California.
On March 8, 1973, he was found dead of a gastrointestinal hemorrhage at his home in Corte Madera, California. In a 2013 webcast under Bob Weir's Weir Here imprimatur, longtime Grateful Dead roadie Steve Parish asserted that McKernan succumbed to complications of Crohn's disease, a condition which reportedly also claimed the life of his brother Kevin. McKernan is buried at the Alta Mesa Memorial Park in Palo Alto, California.
McKernan had a short romantic relationship and longer friendship with Janis Joplin; a poster from the early 1970s featured them together. Joplin joined McKernan on stage at the Fillmore West in June 1969 with the Grateful Dead to sing his signature "Turn On Your Love Light," despite her dislike of the band's jamming style. The two reprised this duet July 16, 1970, at the Euphoria Ballroom in San Rafael, California.
McKernan was good friends with fellow band member Tom Constanten, based on their mutual aversion to psychedelics. He eventually served as best man when Constanten wed.
- The Grateful Dead (1967)
- Anthem of the Sun (1968)
- Aoxomoxoa (1969)
- Live/Dead (1969)
- Workingman's Dead (1970)
- American Beauty (1970)
- Grateful Dead (1971)
- Europe '72 (1972)
- History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1973)
- Two from the Vault (1992)
- Grayfolded (1994)
- Hundred Year Hall (1995)
- Dick's Picks Volume 4 (1996)
- Dick's Picks Volume 8 (1997)
- Live at the Fillmore East 2-11-69 (1997)
- Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997)
- So Many Roads (1965-1995) (1999)
- So Many Roads (1965-1995) Sampler (1999)
- Dick's Picks Volume 16 (2000)
- Ladies and Gentlemen... the Grateful Dead (2000)
- Dick's Picks Volume 22 (2001)
- Steppin' Out with the Grateful Dead: England '72 (2002)
- Dick's Picks Volume 26 (2002)
- Dick's Picks Volume 30 (2003)
- Birth of the Dead (2003)
- Rockin' the Rhein with the Grateful Dead (2004)
- Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005)
- Dick's Picks Volume 35 (2005)
- Grateful Dead Download Series Volume 6 (2005)
- Fillmore West 1969: The Complete Recordings (2005)
- Fillmore West 1969 (2005)
- Three from the Vault (2007)
- Road Trips Volume 1 Number 3 (2008)
- Road Trips Volume 2 Number 2 (2009)
- Road Trips Volume 3 Number 3 (2010)
- Road Trips Volume 4 Number 1 (2010)
- Europe '72: The Complete Recordings (2011)
- Europe '72 Volume 2 (2011)
- Winterland: May 30th 1971 (2012)
- Dave's Picks Volume 6 (2013)
- Family Dog at the Great Highway, San Francisco, CA 4/18/70 (2013)
- Dave's Picks Volume 10 (2014)
- 30 Trips Around the Sun (2015)
- 30 Trips Around the Sun: The Definitive Live Story 1965–1995 (2015)
- Jackson, Blair (1999). Garcia: An American Life. Penguin Books.
- Official Grateful Dead Website
- Official Grateful Dead Website
- McNally, Dennis, "The Dead at Warner Bros", in the box-set 'The Golden Road (1965-1973)', p. 19
- Jackson, p. 156
- Jackson, p. 157
- Video on YouTube
- Plot: Hillview Section 16 Lot 311. The coordinates are Lat: 37°23'54.15" N Long: 122°7'40.13" W.
- Bonhams Auctioneers (2007-05-08). "Lot Details". Bonhams.com. Retrieved 2009-03-22."androsform.com".
- Pigpen's page on the Dead's Official Site
- Ron "Pigpen" McKernan at Find a Grave
- Ron C McKernan at Dead Blues Guys.com
- Informative blog concerning the end of Pigpen's life