|Time of creation unknown; writing ceased and most tablets lost or destroyed in the 1860s|
|Languages||Assumed to be Rapa Nui|
|ISO 15924||Roro (620), Rongorongo|
Rongorongo // (Rapa Nui: [ˈɾoŋoˈɾoŋo]) is a system of glyphs discovered in the 19th century on Easter Island that appears to be writing or proto-writing. Numerous attempts at decipherment have been made, with none being successful. Although some calendrical and what might prove to be genealogical information has been identified, none of these glyphs can actually be read. If rongorongo does prove to be writing and proves to be an independent invention, it would be one of very few independent inventions of writing in human history.
Two dozen wooden objects bearing rongorongo inscriptions, some heavily weathered, burned, or otherwise damaged, were collected in the late 19th century and are now scattered in museums and private collections. None remain on Easter Island. The objects are mostly tablets shaped from irregular pieces of wood, sometimes driftwood, but include a chieftain's staff, a bird-man statuette, and two reimiro ornaments. There are also a few petroglyphs which may include short rongorongo inscriptions. Oral history suggests that only a small elite was ever literate and that the tablets were sacred.
Authentic rongorongo texts are written in alternating directions, a system called reverse boustrophedon. In a third of the tablets, the lines of text are inscribed in shallow fluting carved into the wood. The glyphs themselves are outlines of human, animal, plant, artifact and geometric forms. Many of the human and animal figures, such as glyphs 200 and 280 , have characteristic protuberances on each side of the head, possibly representing eyes.
Individual texts are conventionally known by a single uppercase letter and a name, such as Tablet C, the Mamari Tablet. The somewhat variable names may be descriptive or indicate where the object is kept, as in the Oar, the Snuffbox, the Small Santiago Tablet, and the Santiago Staff.
Etymology and variant names
The original name—or perhaps description—of the script is said to have been kohau motu mo rongorongo, "lines incised for chanting out", shortened to kohau rongorongo or "lines [for] chanting out". There are also said to have been more specific names for the texts based on their topic. For example, the kohau taꞌu ("lines of years") were annals, the kohau îka ("lines of fishes") were lists of persons killed in war (îka "fish" was homophonous with or used figuratively for "war casualty"), and the kohau ranga "lines of fugitives" were lists of war refugees.[note 1]
Some authors have understood the taꞌu in kohau taꞌu to refer to a separate form of writing distinct from rongorongo. Barthel recorded that, "The Islanders had another writing (the so-called "taꞌu script") which recorded their annals and other secular matters, but this has disappeared." However, Steven Roger Fischer writes that "the taꞌu was originally a type of rongorongo inscription. In the 1880s, a group of elders invented a derivative 'script' [also] called taꞌu with which to decorate carvings in order to increase their trading value. It is a primitive imitation of rongorongo." An alleged third script, the mama or vaꞌevaꞌe described in some mid-twentieth-century publications, was "an early twentieth-century geometric [decorative] invention".
Form and construction
The forms of the glyphs are standardized contours of living organisms and geometric designs about one centimeter high. The wooden tablets are irregular in shape and, in many instances, fluted (tablets B, E, G, H, O, Q, and possibly T), with the glyphs carved in shallow channels running the length of the tablets, as can be seen in the image of tablet G at right. It is thought that irregular and often blemished pieces of wood were used in their entirety rather than squared off due to the scarcity of wood on the island.
Except for a few possible glyphs cut in stone (see petroglyphs), and one possibility on barkcloth, all surviving secure texts are inscribed in wood. According to tradition, the tablets were made of toromiro wood. However, Catherine Orliac (2005) examined seven objects (tablets B, C, G, H, K, Q, and reimiro L) with stereo optical and scanning electron microscopes and determined that all were instead made from Pacific rosewood (Thespesia populnea); the same identification had been made for tablet M in 1934. This 15-meter tree, known as "Pacific rosewood" for its color and called makoꞌi in Rapanui, is used for sacred groves and carvings throughout eastern Polynesia and was evidently brought to Easter Island by the first settlers. However, not all the wood was native: Orliac (2007) established that tablets N, P, and S were made of South African yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius) and therefore that the wood had arrived with Western contact. Fischer describes P as "a damaged and reshapen European or American oar", as are A (which is European ash, Fraxinus excelsior) and V; notes that wood from the wreck of a Western boat was said to have been used for many tablets; and that both P and S had been recycled as planking for a Rapanui driftwood canoe, suggesting that by that time the tablets had little value to the islanders as texts. Several texts, including O, are carved on gnarled driftwood. The fact that the islanders were reduced to inscribing driftwood, and were regardless extremely economical in their use of wood, may have had consequences for the structure of the script, such as the abundance of ligatures and potentially a telegraphic style of writing that would complicate textual analysis.
William J. Thomson reported a calabash, now lost, that had been found in a tomb and was "covered with hieroglyphics similar to those found on the incised tablets." During the early missionary period that began in 1864, it was reported that women wore bark cloth decorated with "symbols"; a fragment of one of these survives, and appears to be rongorongo.
Oral tradition holds that, because of the great value of wood, only expert scribes used it, while pupils wrote on banana leaves. German ethnologist Thomas Barthel believed that carving on wood was a secondary development in the evolution of the script based on an earlier stage of incising banana leaves or the sheaths of the banana trunk with a bone stylus, and that the medium of leaves was retained not only for lessons but to plan and compose the texts of the wooden tablets. He found experimentally that the glyphs were quite visible on banana leaves due to the sap that emerged from the cuts and dried on the surface. However, when the leaves themselves dried they became brittle and would not have survived for long.
Barthel speculated that the banana leaf might even have served as a prototype for the tablets, with the fluted surface of the tablets an emulation of the veined structure of a leaf:
Practical experiments with the material available on [Easter Island] have proved that the above-mentioned parts of the banana tree are not only an ideal writing material, but that in particular a direct correspondence exists between the height of the lines of writing and the distance between the veins on the leaves and stems of the banana tree. The classical inscriptions can be arranged in two groups according to the height of the lines (10–12 mm vs. 15 mm); this corresponds to the natural disposition of the veins on the banana stem (on average 10 mm in the lower part of a medium-sized tree) or on the banana leaf ([...] maximum 15mm).— Barthel 1971:1169
Direction of writing
Larger tablets and staves may have been read without turning, if the reader were able to read upside-down.
Writing instruments 
According to oral tradition, scribes used obsidian flakes or small shark teeth, presumably the hafted tools still used to carve wood in Polynesia, to flute and polish the tablets and then to incise the glyphs. The glyphs are most commonly composed of deep smooth cuts, though superficial hair-line cuts are also found. In the closeup image at right, a glyph is composed of two parts connected by a hair-line cut; this is a typical convention for this shape. Several researchers, including Barthel, believe that these superficial cuts were made by obsidian, and that the texts were carved in a two-stage process, first sketched with obsidian and then deepened and finished with a worn shark tooth. The remaining hair-line cuts were then either errors, design conventions (as at right), or decorative embellishments.[note 2] Vertical strings of chevrons or lozenges, for example, are typically connected with hair-line cuts, as can be seen repeatedly in the closeup of one end of tablet B below. However, Barthel was told that the last literate Rapanui king, Ngaꞌara, sketched out the glyphs in soot applied with a fish bone and then engraved them with a shark tooth.
Tablet N, on the other hand, shows no sign of shark teeth. Haberlandt noticed that the glyphs of this text appear to have been incised with a sharpened bone, as evidenced by the shallowness and width of the grooves. N also "displays secondary working with obsidian flakes to elaborate details within the finished contour lines. No other rongo-rongo inscription reveals such graphic extravagance".
Other tablets appear to have been cut with a steel blade, often rather crudely. Although steel knives were available after the arrival of the Spanish, this does cast suspicion on the authenticity of these tablets.[note 3]
The glyphs are stylized human, animal, vegetable and geometric shapes, and often form compounds. Nearly all those with heads are oriented head up and are either seen face on or in profile to the right, in the direction of writing. It is not known what significance turning a glyph head-down or to the left may have had. Heads often have characteristic projections on the sides which may be eyes (as on the sea turtle glyph below, and more clearly on sea-turtle petroglyphs) but which often resemble ears (as on the anthropomorphic petroglyph in the next section). Birds are common; many resemble the frigatebird (see image directly below) which was associated with the supreme god Makemake.[note 4] 
Oral tradition holds that either Hotu Matuꞌa or Tuꞌu ko Iho, the legendary founder(s) of Rapa Nui, brought 67 tablets from their homeland. The same founder is also credited with bringing indigenous plants such as the toromiro. However, there is no homeland likely to have had a tradition of writing in Polynesia or even in South America. Thus rongorongo appears to have been an internal development. Given that few if any of the Rapanui people remaining on the island in the 1870s could read the glyphs, it is likely that only a small minority were ever literate. Indeed, early visitors were told that literacy was a privilege of the ruling families and priests who were all kidnapped in the Peruvian slaving raids or died soon afterwards in the resulting epidemics.
Dating the tablets
Little direct dating has been done. The start of forest-clearing for agriculture on Easter Island, and thus presumably colonization, has been dated to circa 1200, implying a date for the invention of rongorongo no earlier than the 13th century. Tablet Q (Small Saint Petersburg) is the sole item that has been carbon dated, but the results only constrain the date to sometime after 1680.[note 5] Glyph 67 () is thought to represent the extinct Easter Island palm,[note 6] which disappeared from the island's pollen record circa 1650, suggesting that the script itself is at least that old.
Texts A, P, and V can be dated to the 18th or 19th century by virtue of being inscribed on European oars. Orliac (2005) argued that the wood for tablet C (Mamari) was cut from the trunk of a tree some 15 meters (50 ft) tall,[note 7] and Easter Island has long been deforested of trees that size. Analysis of charcoal indicates that the forest disappeared in the first half of the 17th century. Roggeveen, who discovered Easter Island in 1722, described the island as "destitute of large trees" and in 1770 González de Ahedo wrote, "Not a single tree is to be found capable of furnishing a plank so much as six inches [15 cm] in width." Forster, with Cook's expedition of 1774, reported that "there was not a tree upon the island which exceeded the height of 10 feet [3 m]."
All of these methods date the wood, not the inscriptions themselves. Pacific rosewood is not durable, and is unlikely to survive long in Easter Island's climate.
1770 Spanish expedition
In 1770 the Spanish annexed Easter Island under Captain González de Ahedo. A signing ceremony was held in which a treaty of annexation was signed by an undisclosed number of chiefs "by marking upon it certain characters in their own form of script." (Reproduction at right.)
Several scholars[who?] have suggested that rongorongo may have been an invention inspired by this visit and the signing of the treaty of annexation. As circumstantial evidence, they note that no explorer reported the script prior to Eugène Eyraud in 1864,[note 9] 
However, known cases of the diffusion of writing, such as Sequoyah's invention of the Cherokee syllabary after seeing the power of English-language newspapers, or Uyaquk's invention of the Yugtun script inspired by readings from Christian scripture, involved greater contact than the signing of a single treaty. The glyphs could be crudely written rongorongo, as might be expected for Rapa Nui representatives writing with the novel instrument of pen on paper. The fact that the script was not otherwise observed by early explorers, who spent little time on the island, may reflect that it was taboo; such taboos may have lost power along with the tangata rongorongo (scribes) by the time Rapanui society collapsed following Peruvian slaving raids and the resulting epidemics, so that the tablets had become more widely distributed by Eyraud's day. 
Eugène Eyraud, a lay friar of the Congrégation de Picpus, landed on Easter Island on January 2, 1864, on the 24th day of his departure from Valparaíso. He was to remain on Easter Island for nine months, evangelizing its inhabitants. He wrote an account of his stay in which he reports his discovery of the tablets that year:
In every hut one finds wooden tablets or sticks covered in several sorts of hieroglyphic characters: They are depictions of animals unknown on the island, which the natives draw with sharp stones. Each figure has its own name; but the scant attention they pay to these tablets leads me to think that these characters, remnants of some primitive writing, are now for them a habitual practice which they keep without seeking its meaning.[note 11]— Eyraud 1866:71
In 1868 the Bishop of Tahiti, Florentin-Étienne "Tepano" Jaussen, received a gift from the recent Catholic converts of Easter Island. It was a long cord of human hair, a fishing line perhaps, wound around a small wooden board covered in hieroglyphic writing. Stunned at the discovery, he wrote to Father Hippolyte Roussel on Easter Island to collect all the tablets and to find natives capable of translating them. But Roussel could only recover a few, and the islanders could not agree on how to read them.
Yet Eyraud had seen hundreds of tablets only four years earlier. What happened to the missing tablets is a matter of conjecture. Eyraud had noted how little interest their owners had in them. Stéphen Chauvet reports that,
The Bishop questioned the Rapanui wise man, Ouroupano Hinapote, the son of the wise man Tekaki [who said that] he, himself, had begun the requisite studies and knew how to carve the characters with a small shark's tooth. He said that there was nobody left on the island who knew how to read the characters since the Peruvians had brought about the deaths of all the wise men and, thus, the pieces of wood were no longer of any interest to the natives who burned them as firewood or wound their fishing lines around them!
A. Pinart also saw some in 1877. [He] was not able to acquire these tablets because the natives were using them as reels for their fishing lines!— Chauvet 1935:381–382
Orliac has observed that the deep black indentation, about 10 centimeters (3.9 in) long, on lines 5 and 6 of the recto of tablet H is a groove made by the rubbing of a fire stick, showing that tablet H had been used for fire-making. Tablets S and P had been cut into lashed planking for a canoe, which fits the story of a man named Niari who made a canoe out of abandoned tablets.
As European-introduced diseases and raids by Peruvian slavers, including a final devastating raid in 1862 and a subsequent smallpox epidemic, had reduced the Rapa Nui population to under two hundred by the 1870s, it is possible that literacy had been wiped out by the time Eyraud discovered the tablets in 1866.[note 12]
Thus in 1868 Jaussen could recover only a few tablets, with three more acquired by Captain Gana of the Chilean corvette O'Higgins in 1870. In the 1950s Barthel found the decayed remains of half a dozen tablets in caves, in the context of burials. However, no glyphs could be salvaged.[note 13]
Of the 26 commonly accepted texts that survive, only half are in good condition and authentic beyond doubt.
British archaeologist and anthropologist Katherine Routledge undertook a 1914–1915 scientific expedition to Rapa Nui with her husband to catalog the art, customs, and writing of the island. She was able to interview two elderly informants, Kapiera and a leper named Tomenika, who allegedly had some knowledge of rongorongo. The sessions were not very fruitful, as the two often contradicted each other. From them Routledge concluded that rongorongo was an idiosyncratic mnemonic device that did not directly represent language, in other words, proto-writing, and that the meanings of the glyphs were reformulated by each scribe, so that the kohau rongorongo could not be read by someone not trained in that specific text. The texts themselves she believed to be litanies for priest-scribes, kept apart in special houses and strictly tapu, that recorded the island's history and mythology.[note 14] 
The 26 rongorongo texts with letter codes are inscribed on wooden objects, each with between 2 and 2320 simple glyphs and components of compound glyphs, for over 15,000 in all. The objects are mostly oblong wooden tablets, with the exceptions of I, a possibly sacred chieftain's staff known as the Santiago Staff; J and L, inscribed on reimiro pectoral ornaments worn by the elite; X, inscribed on various parts of a tangata manu ("birdman") statuette; and Y, a European snuff box assembled from sections cut from a rongorongo tablet. The tablets, like the pectorals, statuettes, and staves, were works of art and valued possessions, and were apparently given individual proper names in the same manner as jade ornaments in New Zealand. Two of the tablets, C and S, have a documented pre-missionary provenance, though others may be as old or older. There are in addition a few isolated glyphs or short sequences which might prove to be rongorongo.
Classic texts 
|Nickname / Description||Location||Notes|
|A||RR1||Tahua (the Oar)||Rome||1825 glyphs inscribed on a 91-centimetre (36 in) European or American oar blade. Ash wood.|
|B||RR4||Aruku kurenga||1135 glyphs on a 41-centimetre (16 in) fluted rosewood tablet.|
|C||RR2||Mamari||1000 glyphs on a 29-centimetre (11 in) unfluted rosewood tablet. Contains calendrical information; more pictographic than other texts.|
|D||RR3||Échancrée||Pape'ete||270 glyphs on a 30-centimetre (12 in) unfluted notched tablet. The tablet first given to Jaussen, as a spool for a cord of hair. The two sides are written in different hands. citation needed][|
|E||RR6||Keiti||(Leuven)||822 glyphs on a 39-centimetre (15 in) fluted tablet. Destroyed by fire in World War I.|
|F||RR7||Chauvet fragment||New York [note 15]||A 12-centimetre (4.7 in) fragment with 51 recorded crudely executed glyphs. citation needed][|
|G||RR8||Small Santiago||Santiago||720 glyphs on a 32-centimetre (13 in) fluted rosewood tablet. The verso may include a genealogy and does not resemble the patterns of other texts.|
|H||RR9||Large Santiago||1580 glyphs on a 44-centimetre (17 in) fluted rosewood tablet. Nearly duplicates P and Q.|
|I||RR10||Santiago staff||2920 glyphs inscribed on a 126-centimetre (50 in) chief's staff. The longest text, and the only one which appears to have punctuation. Among the patterns of the other texts, it resembles only Gv and Ta.|
|J||RR20||Large reimiro||London||A 73-centimetre (29 in) breast ornament decorated with two glyphs. May be old.|
|K||RR19||London||163 crudely executed glyphs paraphrasing Gr on a 22-centimetre (8.7 in) rosewood tablet.|
|L||RR21||Small reimiro||A 41-centimetre (16 in) breast ornament decorated with a line of 44 glyphs. May be old. Rosewood.|
|M||RR24||Large Vienna||Vienna||A 28-centimetre (11 in) rosewood tablet in poor condition. Side b is destroyed; 54 glyphs are visible on side a. An early cast preserves more of the text.|
|N||RR23||Small Vienna||172 intricately carved glyphs, loosely paraphrasing Ev, on a 26-centimetre (10 in) piece of yellowwood.|
|O||RR22||Berlin||Berlin||103-centimetre (41 in) piece of fluted driftwood with 90 legible glyphs on side a. In poor condition, none of the glyphs on side b can be identified.|
|P||RR18||Large St Petersburg||St. Petersburg||1163 glyphs inscribed on a 63-centimetre (25 in) European or American oar blade. Yellowwood. Had been used for planking. Nearly duplicates H and Q.|
|Q||RR17||Small St Petersburg||718 glyphs on a 44-centimetre (17 in) fluted rosewood tree trunk. Nearly duplicates H and P. A closeup of Qr3–7 is shown in the infobox.|
|R||RR15||Small Washington||Washington||357 glyphs, nearly all in phrases repeated on other texts, on a 24-centimetre (9.4 in) piece.|
|S||RR16||Large Washington||600 legible glyphs on a 63-centimetre (25 in) piece of yellowwood. Later cut for planking.|
|T||RR11||Fluted Honolulu||Honolulu||120 legible glyphs on a 31-centimetre (12 in) fluted tablet. In poor condition, side b is illegible.|
|U||RR12||Honolulu beam||27 legible glyphs on a 70-centimetre (28 in) European or American beam. In poor condition. The two sides are written in different hands.|
|V||RR13||Honolulu oar||22 legible glyphs on a 72-centimetre (28 in) European or American oar blade. In poor condition. One line of text, plus a separate pair of glyphs, on side a; traces of text on side b.|
|W||RR14||Honolulu fragment||A 7-centimetre (2.8 in) fragment with 8 glyphs on the one side that has been described.|
(New York birdman)
|New York||A 33-centimetre (13 in) birdman statuette with 37 superficially inscribed glyphs separated in seven short scattered texts.|
|Y||RR5||Paris snuffbox||Paris||A 7-centimetre (2.8 in) box cut and pieced together from three planed pieces of a tablet; 85 crude glyphs on outside of box only. citation needed][|
|Z||T4||Poike palimpsest||Santiago||citation needed] 11 centimetres (4.3 in).  [|
|n/a||n/a||Ragitoki||Undisclosed||Barkcloth, possibly illegitimate|
Crude glyphs have been found on a few stone objects and some additional wooden items, but most of these are thought to be fakes created for the early tourism market. Several of the 26 wooden texts are suspect due to uncertain provenance (X, Y, and Z), poor quality craftsmanship (F, K, V, W, Y, and Z), or to having been carved with a steel blade (K, V, and Y),[note 3] and thus, although they may prove to be genuine, should not be trusted in initial attempts at decipherment. Z resembles many early forgeries in not being boustrophedon, but it may be a palimpsest on an authentic but now illegible text.
In addition to the petroglyphs mentioned above, there are a few other very short uncatalogued texts that may be rongorongo. Fischer reports that "many statuettes reveal rongorongo or rongorongo-like glyphs on their crown." He gives the example of a compound glyph, , on the crown of a moꞌai pakapaka statuette.[note 16] 
There is some arbitrariness to which glyphs are grouped together, and there are inconsistencies in the assignments of numerical codes and the use of affixes which make the system rather complex.[note 17] However, despite its shortcomings, Barthel's is the only effective system ever proposed to categorize rongorongo glyphs.
For almost a century only a few of the texts were published. In 1875, the director of the Chilean National Museum of Natural History in Santiago, Rudolf Philippi, published the Santiago Staff, and Carroll (1892) published part of the Oar. Most texts remained beyond the reach of would-be decipherers until 1958, when Thomas Barthel published line drawings of almost all the known corpus in his Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift ("Bases for the Decipherment of the Easter Island script") which remains the fundamental reference to rongorongo. He transcribed texts A through X, over 99% of the corpus; the CEIPP estimates that it is 97% accurate. Barthel's line drawings were not produced free-hand but copied from rubbings, which helped ensure their faithfulness to the originals.
Fischer (1997) published new line drawings. These include lines scored with obsidian but not finished with a shark tooth, which had not been recorded by Barthel because the rubbings he used often did not show them, for example on tablet N. (However, in line Gv4 shown in the section on writing instruments above, the light lines were recorded by both Fischer and Barthel.) There are other omissions in Barthel which Fischer corrects, such as a sequence of glyphs at the transition from line Ca6 to Ca7 which is missing from Barthel, presumably because the carving went over the side of the tablet and was missed by Barthel's rubbing. (This missing sequence is right in the middle of Barthel's calendar.) However, other discrepancies between the two records are straightforward contradictions. For instance, the initial glyph of I12 (line 12 of the Santiago Staff) in Fischer does not correspond with that of Barthel or Philippi, 
In addition, the next glyph (glyph 20, a "spindle with three knobs") is missing its right-side "sprout" (glyph 10) in Philippi's drawing. This may be the result of an error in the inking, since there is a blank space in its place. The corpus is thus tainted with quite some uncertainty. It has never been properly checked for want of high-quality photographs.
As with most undeciphered scripts, there are many fanciful interpretations and claimed translations of rongorongo. However, apart from a portion of one tablet which has been shown to have to do with a lunar Rapa Nui calendar, none of the texts are understood. There are three serious obstacles to decipherment, assuming rongorongo is truly writing: the small number of remaining texts, the lack of context such as illustrations in which to interpret them, and the poor attestation of the Old Rapanui language, since modern Rapanui is heavily mixed with Tahitian and is therefore unlikely to closely reflect the language of the tablets.
The prevailing opinion is that rongorongo is not true writing but proto-writing, or even a more limited mnemonic device for genealogy, choreography, navigation, astronomy, or agriculture. For example, the Atlas of Languages states, "It was probably used as a memory aid or for decorative purposes, not for recording the Rapanui language of the islanders." If this is the case, then there is little hope of ever deciphering it.[note 19] For those who believe it to be writing, there is debate as to whether rongorongo is essentially logographic or syllabic, though it appears to be compatible with neither a pure logography nor a pure syllabary.
The Unicode Consortium has tentatively allocated range 1CA80–1CDBF of the Supplementary Multilingual Plane for encoding the Rongorongo script. An encoding proposal has been written by Michael Everson.
- Englert defines rogorogo as "recitar, declamar, leer cantando" (to recite, declaim, read chanting), and tagata rogorogo (rongorongo man) as "hombre que sabía leer los textos de los kohau rogorogo, o sea, de las tabletas con signos para la recitación" (a man who could read the texts of the kohau rongorongo, that is, of the tablets bearing signs for recitation). Rongorongo is the reduplication of rongo "recado, orden o mandato, mensaje, noticia" (a message, order, notice); tagata rogo is a "mensajero" (a messenger). Kohau are defined as "líneas tiradas a hilo hau sobre tabletas o palos para la inscripción de signos" (lines drawn with a string (hau) on tablets or sticks for the inscription of signs). The Rapanui word rongo /ɾoŋo/ has cognates in most other Austronesian languages, from Malay dengar /dəŋar/ to Fijian rogoca /roŋoða/ and Hawaiian lono /lono/, where these words have such meanings as "to listen", "to hear", etc.
- Barthel tested this experimentally, and Dederen (1993) reproduced several tablets in this fashion. Fischer comments,
On the Large St. Petersburg ([P]r3) [...] the original tracing with an obsidian flake describes a bird's bill identical to a foregoing one; but when incising, the scribe reduced this bill to a much more bulbous shape [...] since he now was working with the different medium of a shark's tooth. There are many such scribal quirks on the "Large St. Petersburg" [tablet P]. The rongorongo script is a "contour script" (Barthel 1955:360) [...] with various internal or external lines, circles, dashes or dots added [...] Often such features exist only in the hair-line pre-etching effected by obsidian flakes and not incised with a shark's tooth. This is particularly evident on the "Small Vienna" [tablet N].
- For example, Métraux said of tablet V in 1938, "its authenticity is doubtful. The signs appear to have been incised with a steel implement, and do not show the regularity and beauty of outline which characterise the original tablets." 
- However, a glyph resembling a chicken or rooster is not found, despite chickens being the mainstay of the economy and some of the tablets supposedly commemorating "how many men [a chief] had killed, how many chickens he had stolen".
- "The conventional radiocarbon age obtained [...] is 80 ±40 BP and the 2-sigma calibration age (95% probability) is Cal AD 1680 to Cal AD 1740 (Cal BP 270 to 200) and Cal AD 1800 to 1930 (Cal BP 150 to 20) and AD 1950 to 1960 (Cal BP 0 to 0); in fact, this rongorongo was collected in 1871 [so the later date cannot be correct]."
- Following the Jaussen list, which identified it as the niu coconut palm, a species not introduced until after European contact.
- Mamari is 19.6 cm (7½″) wide and includes sapwood along its edges; a trunk of that diameter corresponds to Pacific rosewood's maximum height of 15 m.
- These were traced from the original, which has since been lost, and so may not retain their original orientations. They were published with the long line vertical on the left, and the large glyph upright on the right.
- This interprets the 1770 reports as not meaning that the Spaniards had seen Easter Island writing prior to the signing of the treaty, but had simply presumed that they would have had writing: González de Ahedo had given instructions to "procure the attestations of the recognised Chiefs or Caciques of the islanders, signed in their native characters".
- See image. Other examples of petroglyphs which resemble rongorongo glyphs can be seen here and here.
- Dans toutes les cases on trouve des tablettes de bois ou des bâtons couverts de plusieurs espèces de caractères hiéroglyphiques: ce sont des figures d'animaux inconnues dans l'île, que les indigènes tracent au moyen de pierres tranchantes. Chaque figure a son nom; mais le peu de cas qu'ils font de ces tablettes m'incline à penser que ces caractères, restes d'une écriture primitive, sont pour eux maintenant un usage qu'ils conservent sans en chercher le sens.
- Métraux (1940) reports that, "The present population of 456 natives is entirely derived from the 111 natives left after the abandonment of the island by the French missionaries in 1872." However, Routledge (1919) gives a figure of 171 left after an evacuation led by Father Roussel in 1871, mostly old men, and Cooke (1899) states that the evacuation of some 300 islanders was in 1878, that "When H. M. S. Sappho touched at the island in 1882 it was reported that but 150 of the inhabitants were left", and goes on to give a summary of a complete census he received from Salmon in 1886 which listed 155 natives and 11 foreigners.
- Fischer translates Barthel, concerning four of these tablets: To judge by the form, size, and type of keeping one can say with a high degree of certainty that this involved tablets that were presented at two interments.
- However, Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007) believe that the limited and repetitive nature of the texts precludes them recording anything as diverse as history or mythology.
- In the collection of the Merton D. Simpson Gallery.
- citation needed] [
- "RONGORONGO: Transliteration Codes". www.rongorongo.org. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09. Retrieved 2008-06-09.
- 55 glyphs would be required for a pure syllabary, assuming that long vowels were ignored or treated as vowel sequences.
- Other examples of protowriting, such as the Dongba script of China, have proved impossible to read without help. However, the original conclusion that rongorongo did not encode language may have been based on spurious statistics. See decipherment of rongorongo for details.
- This basic inventory of rongorongo, proposed by Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007), accounts for 99.7% of the intact texts, except for the idiosyncratic Staff.
- Robinson, Andrew (2009). "The death of RongoRongo". Writing and Script: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191579165.
- Englert 1993
- Blust & Trussel (2020) *deŋeR
- Barthel 1958:66
- Fischer 1997:667
- Fischer 1997:ix
- Fischer 1997:382
- Skjølsvold 1994, as cited in Orliac 2005
- Fischer 1997:483
- Fischer 1997:497
- Fischer 1997:382–383; see also decipherment of rongorongo
- Guy, Jacques B. M. (1992). "À propos des mois de l'ancien calendrier pascuan (On the months of the old Easter Island calendar)". Journal de la Société des Océanistes. 94 (1): 119–125. doi:10.3406/jso.1992.2611. (in French)
- Barthel 1971:1168
- Fischer 1997:386
- Fischer 1997:353
- Métraux 1940:404
- Horley 2009
- Fischer 1997:389–390
- Barthel 1959:164
- Haberlandt 1886:102
- Fischer 1997:501
- Métraux 1938
- Guy 2006
- Routledge 1919:251
- Fischer 1997:367
- Cooke 1899:712, Englert 1970:149–153
- Date ranges are 1200–1250 and 1180–1290. Mann et al. 2008
- Orliac 2005
- "JAUSSEN LIST (see page 5)". Archived from the original on April 8, 2009.
- Flenley & Bahn 1992:172
- Corney (1903), plate between pp 48 & 49.
- Corney 1903:104
- For example, Flenley & Bahn 1992:203–204
- Corney 1903:47–48
- Bahn 1996
- Lee 1992
- Eyraud 1866
- Fischer 1997:21–24
- Orliac 2003/2004:48–53
- Routledge 1919:207
- Métraux 1940:3
- Routledge 1919:208
- Cooke 1899:712
- Barthel 1959:162–163
- Fischer 1997:526
- Fischer 1997:Appendices
- Routledge 1919:253–254
- Buck 1938:245
- Fischer 1997
- Fischer 1997:534
- Fischer 1997:543
- Pozdniakov 1996:294
- Macri 1995; see also Rapanui language
- Guy 2000
- Fischer 1997:451
- Barthel 1958: Appendix
- Philippi 1875
- Guy 1998a
- Englert 1970:80
- Comrie et al. 1996:100
- Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov, 2007
- "Roadmap to the SMP". Roadmaps to Unicode. Unicode Consortium. 10 Jan 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Everson, Michael (4 Dec 1998). "Table XXX - Row 30: Rongorongo" (PDF). Proposal for the Universal Character Set. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Bahn, Paul (1996). "Cracking the Easter Island code". New Scientist. 150 (2034): 36–39.
- Barthel, Thomas S. (1958). Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift (Bases for the Decipherment of the Easter Island Script) (in German). Hamburg: Cram, de Gruyter.
- ———— (June 1958). "The 'Talking Boards' of Easter Island". Scientific American. 198 (6): 61–68. Bibcode:1958SciAm.198f..61B. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0658-61.
- ———— (1959). "Neues zur Osterinselschrift (News on the Easter Island Script)". Zeitschrift für Ethnologie (in German). 84: 161–172.
- ———— (1971). Pre-contact Writing in Oceania. Current Trends in Linguistics. Vol. 8. Den Haag, Paris: Mouton. pp. 1165–1186.
- Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (June 21, 2020). "Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition". Retrieved October 16, 2022.
- Buck, Peter H. (1938). Vikings of the Pacific. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Carroll, Alan (1892). "The Easter Island inscriptions, and the translation and interpretation of them". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 1: 103–106, 233–252.
- Chauvet, Stéphen-Charles (2004) . L'île de Pâques et ses mystères (Easter Island and its Mysteries) (in French). on-line translation by Ann Altman. Paris: Éditions Tel.
- Comrie, Bernard; Stephen Matthews; Maria Polinsky (1996). The Atlas of Languages. London: Quarto.
- Cooke, George H. (1899). "Te Pito te Henua, known as Rapa Nui, commonly called Easter Island". Report of the United States National Museum for 1897. Washington: Government Printing Office. pp. 689–723.
- Corney, Bolton Glanvill, ed. (1903). The voyage of Captain Don Felipe González in the ship of the line San Lorenzo, with the frigate Santa Rosalia in company, to Easter Island in 1770-1. Preceded by an extract from Mynheer Jacob Roggeveen's official log of his discovery of and visit to Easter Island in 1722. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society.
- Dederen, François; Steven Roger Fischer (1993). "Traditional Production of the Rapanui Tablets". In Fischer (ed.). Easter Island Studies: Contributions to the History of Rapanui in Memory of William T. Mulloy. Oxbow Monograph. Vol. 32. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
- Englert, Sebastian (1970). Island at the Center of the World. edited and translated by William Mulloy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
- ———— (1993). La tierra de Hotu Matuꞌa – Historia y Etnología de la Isla de Pascua, Gramática y Diccionario del antiguo idioma de la isla (The Land of Hotu Matuꞌa: History and Ethnology of Easter Island, Grammar and Dictionary of the Old Language of the Island) (in Spanish) (6th ed.). Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria.
- ———— (2002) . Legends of Easter Island. translation by Ben LeFort and Pilar Pacheco of Leyendas de Isla de Pascua (textos bilingües) [Santiago de Chile: Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile]. Easter Island: Father Sebastian Englert Anthropological Museum.
- Eyraud, Eugène (1866). "Lettre du Fr. Eugène Eyraud, au T.R.P. Supérieur général (1864)". Annales de la Propagation de la Foi (Annals of the Propagation of the Faith) (in French). pp. 36: 52–71, 124–138. Lyon.
- Fischer, Steven Roger (1997). RongoRongo, the Easter Island Script: History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
- Flenley, John R.; Paul G. Bahn (1992). Easter Island, Earth Island. London: Thames & Hudson.
- Guy, Jacques B.M. (1998a). "Un prétendu déchiffrement des tablettes de l'île de Pâques (A purported decipherment of the Easter Island tablets)". Journal de la Société des Océanistes (in French). 106: 57–63. doi:10.3406/jso.1998.2041.
- ———— (1998b). "Rongorongo: The Easter Island Tablets". Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
- ———— (2000). "The Rongorongo of Easter Island: The Hand-Drawn Reproductions". Archived from the original on 2007-01-06. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Haberlandt, Michael (1886). "Ueber Schrifttafeln von der Osterinsel (On the written tablets of Easter Island)". Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien (in German). 16: 97–102.
- Horley, Paul (2009). "Rongorongo Script: Carving Techniques and Scribal Corrections". Journal de la Société des Océanistes. 129 (129): 249–261. doi:10.4000/jso.5813.
- Lee, Georgia (1992). The Rock Art of Easter Island: Symbols of Power, Prayers to the Gods. Los Angeles: UCLA Institute of Archaeology Publications.
- Macri, Martha J. (1996) . "RongoRongo of Easter Island". In Daniels and Bright (ed.). The World's Writing Systems. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 183–188.
- Mann, Daniel; J. Edward; J. Chase; W. Beck; R. Reanier; M. Mass; B. Finney; J. Loret (2008). "Drought, vegetation change, and human history on Rapa Nui (Isla de Pascua, Easter Island)" (PDF). Quaternary Research. Elsevier B.V. 69 (1): 16–28. Bibcode:2008QuRes..69...16M. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2007.10.009. S2CID 10915480. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-04.
- McDorman, Richard E. (2009). "Universal Iconography in Writing Systems: Evidence and Explanation in the Easter Island and Indus Valley Scripts" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- Métraux, Alfred (1938). "Two Easter Island Tablets in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum". Man. London: Royal Anthropological Institute. 38 (1): 1–4. doi:10.2307/2789179. JSTOR 2789179.
- ———— (1940). "Ethnology of Easter Island". Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Press. 160.
- McLaughlin, Shawn (2004). "Rongorongo and the Rock Art of Easter Island". Rapa Nui Journal. 18: 87–94.
- Orliac, Catherine (2003–2004). Manifestation de l'expression symbolique en Océanie : l'exemple des bois d'œuvre de l'Ile de Pâques (Manifestation of symbolic expression in Oceania: The example of the woodworking of Easter Island). Cultes, rites et religions (in French). Vol. V. pp. (6): 48–53.
- ———— (2005). "The Rongorongo Tablets from Easter Island: Botanical Identification and 14C Dating". Archaeology in Oceania. 40 (3): 115–119. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4453.2005.tb00597.x. Archived from the original on 2006-11-09.
- ———— (2007). "Botanical Identification of the Wood of the Large Kohau Rongorongo Tablet of St Petersburg". Rapa Nui Journal. 21 (1): 7–10.
- Philippi, Rudolfo A. (1875). "Iconografia de la escritura jeroglífica de los indigenas de la isla de Pascua (Iconography of the hieroglyphic writing of the natives of Easter Island)". Anales de la Universidad de Chile (in Spanish). 47: 670–683.
- Pozdniakov, Konstantin (1996). "Les Bases du Déchiffrement de l'Écriture de l'Ile de Pâques (The Bases of Deciphering the Writing of Easter Island)" (PDF). Journal de la Société des Océanistes (in French). 103 (2): 289–303. doi:10.3406/jso.1996.1995. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-25.
- Pozdniakov, Konstantin; Igor Pozdniakov (2007). "Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary Results of a Statistical Analysis" (PDF). Forum for Anthropology and Culture. 3: 3–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-25.
- Routledge, Katherine (1919). The Mystery of Easter Island: The story of an expedition. London and Aylesbury: Hazell, Watson and Viney.
- Skjølsvold, Arne (1994). Arne Skjølsvold (ed.). Archaeological Investigations at Anakena, Easter Island. The Kon Tiki Museum Occasional Papers. Vol. 3. Oslo: Kon-Tiki Museum. pp. 5–120.
- The Rongorongo of Easter Island – the most complete and balanced description of rongorongo on the internet at the time, from a researcher with the CEIPP. (Archived as of February 27, 2005)
- Kohaumotu – a more recent professional site, by Philip Spaelti. Includes a mirror of the CEIPP site.
- Rongorongo corpus viewer – see, highlight, and compare both the Barthel and Fischer transcriptions.
- Michael Everson's draft Unicode proposal for Rongorongo
- The Rock Art of Rapa Nui by Georgia Lee
- Splendid Isolation: Art of Easter Island, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Rongorongo