Rose Bowl Game
|Rose Bowl Game|
|Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual|
|"The Granddaddy of Them All"|
|Previous stadiums||Tournament Park
|Previous locations||Durham, North Carolina
|Conference tie-ins||Big Ten, Pac-12|
|Previous conference tie-ins||Pacific Coast|
|Payout||US$18,000,000 (As of 2009[update])|
Tournament East–West football game (1902, 1916–1922)
Rose Bowl (1923–1998)
Rose Bowl presented by AT&T (1999–2002)
Rose Bowl presented by PlayStation 2 (2003)
Rose Bowl presented by Citi (2004–2010)
Rose Bowl presented by Vizio (2011–2014)
|Oregon vs. Florida State (Oregon 59–20)|
The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California. When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, January 2 (14 times now). The Rose Bowl is nicknamed "The Granddaddy of Them All" because it is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902, and has been played annually since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game. It is a part of the Tournament of Roses "America's New Year Celebration", which also includes the historic Tournament of Roses Parade.
Beginning with the 2015 game, the official name for sponsorship is the "Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual". Vizio was the previous sponsor, since 2012; prior sponsors included AT&T, Sony, and Citi. In 2015, the game will also be officially known as the "College Football Playoff semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual".
The Rose Bowl Game has traditionally hosted the conference champions from the Big Ten and Pac-12 conferences (or their predecessors), but due to its past and present membership in several consortiums that seek to determine a national champion in Division I FBS, in 2002, the Rose Bowl began to infrequently deviate from its traditional match-up in order to facilitate championship games. In 2002 and 2006 (2001 and 2005 football seasons), under the Bowl Championship Series system, the Rose Bowl was designated as its championship game, and hosted the top two teams determined by the BCS system. Beginning in 2015, the Rose Bowl is part of the College Football Playoff system, and will host one of its semi-final games every three years. During non-Playoff years, the Rose Bowl will revert to a Pac-12/Big Ten matchup.
- 1 History
- 2 Sponsorship and broadcasting rights
- 3 Frequent participants
- 4 Game arrangements
- 5 Appearances and wins-loss records
- 6 Game results
- 7 Rose Bowl Player of the Game Awards
- 8 Game records
- 9 Top ranked teams
- 10 Twice in a season
- 11 Rose Bowl Hall of Fame
- 12 All-Century Class
- 13 Player and coach
- 14 Coaches with two teams
- 15 Related events
- 16 Related notes
- 17 Related books
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 Bibliography
- 21 External links
Originally titled the "Tournament East–West football game", the first Rose Bowl was played on January 1, 1902, starting the tradition of New Year's Day bowl games. The football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of the Rose Parade. The inaugural game featured Fielding H. Yost's dominating 1901 Michigan team, representing the East, which crushed a previously 3-1-2 team from Stanford University, representing the West, by a score of 49–0 after Stanford quit in the third quarter. Michigan finished the season 11–0 and was crowned the national champion. Yost had been Stanford's coach the previous year. The game was so lopsided that for the next 13 years, the Tournament of Roses officials ran chariot races, ostrich races, and other various events instead of football. But, on New Year's Day 1916 football returned to stay as The State College of Washington (now Washington State University) defeated Brown University in the first annual Rose Bowl with that explicit name.
Tournament Park and Rose Bowl stadium
Before the Rose Bowl was built for the January 1, 1923 match, games were played in Pasadena's Tournament Park, approximately three miles southeast of the current Rose Bowl stadium near the campus of Caltech. Tournament Park was determined to be unsuitable for the larger and larger crowds gathering to watch the game and a new, permanent home for the game was commissioned.
The Rose Bowl stadium, designed after the Yale Bowl in New Haven, then hosted the first "Rose Bowl" game in 1923. The name of the stadium was alternatively "Tournament of Roses Stadium" or "Tournament of Roses Bowl", until the name "Rose Bowl" was settled on before the 1923 Rose Bowl game.
The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. For many years, the Rose Bowl stadium had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium in 1998. The maximum stated seating capacity was 104,594 from 1972 to 1997. Capacity was lowered following the 1998 Rose Bowl. The 2006 Rose Bowl game, which was also the BCS championship game, had a crowd of 93,986; and a crowd of 94,118 saw the 2011 Rose Bowl game between TCU and Wisconsin. As of 2012, the Rose Bowl is number seven on the List of American football stadiums by capacity with a current official seating capacity of 92,542 and is still the largest stadium that hosts post-season bowl games. The Rose Bowl is also the only BCS bowl game that is held in a non-NFL stadium.
Team selection 1916–1946
In the game’s early years, except during World War I, the Rose Bowl always pitted a team—not necessarily the conference champion—from the Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), the predecessor of the current Pacific-12 Conference, against an opponent from the Eastern U.S. During the last two years of World War I, teams from military bases met in the Rose Bowl. During its history, a number of notable matchups have been made with the top football teams and top coaches of the time. These include the 1925 Rose Bowl, featuring Knute Rockne's Notre Dame team, featuring the Four Horsemen, against "Pop" Warner's Stanford team; the 1926 Rose Bowl, featuring Alabama Crimson Tide’s win over Washington; and the 1940 Rose Bowl, featuring Howard Jones' USC Trojans against Bob Neyland's Tennessee Volunteers. During this period, there were ten games in which undefeated teams were matched.
1942 venue change to Durham, North Carolina
After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and a series of attacks on West Coast shipping beginning on December 18, 1941, there were concerns about a possible Japanese attack on the West Coast. The Rose Parade, with a million watchers, and the Rose Bowl, with 90,000 spectators, were presumed to be ideal targets for the Japanese. Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt recommended that the Rose Parade and Rose Bowl festivities be canceled. The Rose Bowl committee originally planned to cancel the game. On December 16, 1941, Duke University invited the game and Oregon State to Duke's home stadium in Durham, North Carolina.
Big Nine–PCC agreement
During World War II, many college football schools had dropped some conference opponents and instead played football against local military base teams. Many colleges could not even field teams due to the draft and manpower requirements. After the war was over, demobilization and the G.I. Bill enabled returning servicemen to attend college. The 1946 season was the first true post-war college football season with travel restrictions lifted and civilian college opponents returning to schedules.
The Big Nine and PCC were of the same accord when it came to treating players as amateurs, as compared to the semi-professional status that the Southern Universities proposed. Also, the Big Nine and PCC both had the same attitudes towards desegregation and allowing African-Americans to play football. Many other universities were still segregated. None of the Southeastern Conference schools had an African American athlete until 1966. The Cotton Bowl, Orange Bowl, and Sugar Bowl would not be integrated until 1948, 1955, and 1956 respectively.
The Big Nine agreed,[when?] after eight years of negotiating over payments, rules, and ticket allocations, to a five-year exclusive deal with the Rose Bowl to send the conference champion to meet the PCC conference champion. UCLA, USC, Minnesota and Illinois all voted against it.
Big Ten–AAWU/Pac-8/10 agreement
When the PCC dissolved prior to the 1959 season following a pay-for-play scandal in 1958, there was no official agreement in force. The Tournament of Roses selected from the former members of PCC and invited Washington, the first champion of the newly formed Athletic Association of Western Universities (AAWU), to play Big Ten champion Wisconsin in the 1960 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten authorized its members to accept any Rose Bowl invitation at their discretion.
The AAWU signed an agreement with the Rose Bowl that remained in force from the 1961 Rose Bowl until the advent of the BCS era in 1998. In 1962, after Minnesota changed its vote against pursuing a new agreement (resolving a 5–5 voting deadlock which had prevented any new negotiations for years), a Big Ten agreement was finalized, which went into effect with the 1963 Rose Bowl and lasted until the BCS era.
While the Big Ten supplied the "East" representative and the PCC, AAWU, or Pac-8/10 supplied the "West" representative from the 1947 Rose Bowl to the BCS era, statements about an "exclusive" Rose Bowl agreement existing during this period are not entirely accurate: the Big Ten was not part of any agreement for the 1961 and 1962 games and the status of the agreement for 1960 is questionable, at best. The fact that the 1961 Big Ten champion, Ohio State, declined the invitation to play in the 1962 Rose Bowl (without penalty) is the clearest evidence that this "exclusive agreement" did not exist in these years.
The AAWU used "Big Five", "Big Six", and "Pacific-8" as unofficial nicknames (each reflecting the number of conference members). It officially adopted the "Pacific-8" name for the 1968 season. The name changed to "Pacific-10" with the arrival of Arizona and Arizona State in 1978, its last official name change prior to the formation of the BCS in 1998. The Big Ten Conference retained the same name throughout this period, even though it had eleven members by the start of the BCS era due to the addition of Penn State in 1990.
Both conferences had a "no repeat" rule in force for a number of years. Under this rule, any team that had appeared in the Rose Bowl game the previous season could not go, even if they were the conference champion. The notable exceptions to this rule were Washington playing in the 1960 and 1961 games and Minnesota playing in the 1961 and 1962 games during the period when the conference agreements were in a state of flux. The Big Ten abolished this rule in 1972. The AAWU/Pac-8 had abandoned its no-repeat rule by the time Southern California played in four consecutive Rose Bowl games from 1967 to 1970.
Both conferences also had "exclusive agreements" with the Rose Bowl game, in the sense that member schools were not allowed to play in any other bowl game. Both conferences abolished this rule before the 1975 college football season. As a result, Michigan and USC were allowed to play in the 1976 Orange Bowl and the 1975 Liberty Bowl, respectively.
Bowl Championship Series
Since the 1998 season, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series, team selection for the Rose Bowl was tied to the other three BCS bowls, although in any given year the Rose Bowl still attempts, if possible, to maintain the traditional Pac-10 (currently Pac-12 after the addition of Utah and Colorado in 2011) versus Big Ten format. Twice in this era, the Rose Bowl had served as the BCS championship game.
The 2002 game served as the BCS championship game between the BCS No. 1 ranked Miami, then a member of the Big East Conference, and the BCS No. 2 ranked Nebraska, then a member of the Big 12 Conference. The Nebraska selection as the BCS No. 2 team was controversial because Oregon was ranked No. 2 in both the AP and Coaches Polls, while Nebraska was ranked No. 4 in both polls and did not play in its conference championship game (No. 3 Colorado, who played Oregon in that year's Fiesta Bowl, did and won the Big 12's automatic bid to the BCS). This prevented a West Coast team playing in the Rose Bowl for the first time, and it also marked the first match up since 1946 to not feature the traditional pairing of Pac-10 vs. Big Ten teams.
The 2006 Rose Bowl game featured offensive powerhouses Texas, riding a 19-game winning streak, and USC, which entered the game with a 34-game winning streak and two Heisman Trophy winners. Texas won 41–38. The game's television viewership was the highest for college football contest since the 1987 Fiesta Bowl between Penn State and Miami.
On two other occasions during the BCS era, Rose Bowl participation has expanded beyond the Big Ten and Pac-10. The 2003 Rose Bowl couldn't select Big Ten co-champion and automatic qualifier Ohio State, who finished No. 2 in the BCS and thus received a bid to the Fiesta Bowl to play for the national championship. The Rose Bowl was poised to select Big Ten co-champion Iowa as an at-large in order to preserve the traditional Big Ten/Pac-10 match up. However, the Orange Bowl, which selected ahead of the Rose Bowl that year, chose the Hawkeyes. As a result, the Rose Bowl featured the first appearance by Oklahoma, who faced Pac-10 Champion Washington State. The 2005 game featured Texas of the Big 12 Conference, selected, amid some controversy, over California of the Pac-10, marking the second time a West Coast team did not make the Rose Bowl. The controversy was the result of the BCS computer rankings which elevated Texas over California. Texas went on to defeat Michigan in the 2005 game, featuring a four-touchdown performance by Vince Young, foreshadowing his 467-yard performance a year later in the 2006 defeat of USC that won the National Title for Texas.
The 2004 game is also noteworthy. In this game, USC defeated Michigan, 28–14, thus earning the top ranking in the AP Poll and a share of the national championship with BCS champion LSU (USC, despite being No. 1 in the AP poll, did not qualify for the BCS championship game because of their standing in the BCS system).
The current Rose Bowl arrangement, which will run until the 2014 Rose Bowl Game, is as follows. The Big Ten and Pac-12 (the new name of the Pac-10) retain their bids. A provision has been inserted mandating that the first time that either conference cannot fill their bid, due to a school from the Big Ten or Pac-12 qualifying for the BCS National Championship Game, and if a non-BCS conference school qualifies, the Rose Bowl is required to take that school.
Texas Christian University (TCU) became the first team from a non-automatic qualifying conference to play in the Rose Bowl in the BCS era. The 2010 TCU Horned Frogs finished their second consecutive regular season at 12–0, were back-to-back champions of the Mountain West Conference, and ranked No. 3 in the final BCS Poll. TCU defeated No. 5 Wisconsin 21–19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl. TCU's appearance satisfied the 'first time' clause of the current agreement.
The 100th Rose Bowl Game featured a traditional pairing of Big Ten Champion versus Pac-12 Champion, with Michigan State playing against Stanford on January 1, 2014. Michigan State won the game, 24–20.
The Bowl Championship Series ended with the January 6, 2014 BCS National Championship Game.
College Football Playoff
Beginning with the 2014 college football season, the Rose Bowl game will be a semifinal game of the College Football Playoff every three years, replacing the BCS. The first game was played on January 1, 2015 and is known as the College Football Playoff semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual. It featured the Oregon Ducks of the Pac-12 Conference and the Florida State Seminoles, the first Atlantic Coast Conference team to participate in the Rose Bowl. Oregon defeated Florida State, 59–20, ending the Seminoles' 29 game-winning streak, which dated back to the end of the 2012 season. Oregon advanced to the 2015 College Football Playoff National Championship played on January 12. The 59 points are a new Rose Bowl scoring record.
Sponsorship and broadcasting rights
For many years the Rose Bowl eschewed sponsorship, but for the 1999 Rose Bowl, the game became known as The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T. Unlike the other bowl games, the sponsor was not added to the title of the game, but instead as a presenter. In 2002 it was branded The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2. From 2003 to 2010, after the agreement with Sony expired, the game was presented by Citi.
On June 2010, Citi decided to end sponsorship of the Rose Bowl games, including the National Championship game. In October 2010, HDTV maker Vizio signed a 4-year contract to be the official sponsor of the Rose Bowl games through 2014. After Vizio declined to renew sponsorshipin in 2014, financial services giant Northwestern Mutual became the new presenting sponsor.
The 1952 Rose Bowl game was the first nationally televised bowl game and the first nationally televised college game of any sport. From 1952 to 1988, the Rose Bowl was televised by NBC at 2 p.m. PST, and in most years was the only New Year's Day bowl airing at that time. The 1962 Rose Bowl was the first college football game broadcast in color.
From 1989 to 2010, the game was broadcast on ABC, usually at 2 p.m. PST; the 2005 Rose Bowl was the first one broadcast in HDTV. Though, beginning in 2007, FOX had the broadcast rights to the other Bowl Championship Series games, the Rose Bowl, which negotiates its own television contract independent of the BCS, had agreed to keep the game on ABC.
Beginning with the 2010 season, ESPN (majority-owned by ABC's parent company, The Walt Disney Company) now broadcasts all the BCS games, including the Rose Bowl game. The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio and by ESPN International for Latin America. In 2013 ESPN Deportes provided the first Spanish language telecast in the U.S. of the Rose Bowl Game.
The Rose Bowl game contract with ESPN was extended on June 28, 2012, to 2026, for a reportedly $80 million per year. Northwestern Mutual takes over as presenting sponsor beginning in 2015 and will continue until 2020.
|“||If there are any Big Ten teams that shoot for a national championship, they're damn fools...You play to win the Big Ten championship, and if you win it and go to the Rose Bowl and win it, then you've had a great season.||”|
— Bo Schembechler of Michigan, July 1989
USC has played the most times in the Rose Bowl, with 33 appearances, followed by Michigan (20); Ohio State, Stanford, and Washington (14 each); and UCLA (12). Alabama, 4–1–1 in Rose Bowls, has made the most appearances of any team outside the Pac-12 and Big Ten conferences. Pittsburgh appeared four times in a nine-year period, from 1927 to 1936. Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools, the record for longest drought since a team's last Rose Bowl appearance is held by California (1959), followed by Minnesota (1962), Oregon State (1965), and Indiana (1968).
USC has also won the most Rose Bowls (24), followed by Michigan (8), Washington and Ohio State (7 each), and Stanford (6). Michigan has lost the most (12), followed by USC (9), Ohio State, UCLA and Stanford (7 each), Washington and Wisconsin (6 each). Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools who have played in at least one Rose Bowl, the record for the longest period since a win is held jointly by Indiana and Nebraska, which have never won, followed by Washington State (1916), Cal (1939), Oregon State (1942), Northwestern (1949), and Iowa (1959). As of 2013, head coaches Howard Jones (5–0) and John Robinson (4–0) lead the list of undefeated Rose Bowl records.
The most frequent Rose Bowl matchup is USC–Michigan, occurring for the eighth time in 2007, with USC holding a 6–2 advantage (including rare meetings outside the Rose Bowl, USC leads this series 6–4). The next most frequent matchup is USC–Ohio State, occurring for the seventh time in 1985, with USC holding a 4–3 advantage.
From the 1946 season (1947 Rose Bowl), when the Big Ten-Rose Bowl agreement began, through the 1971 season (1972 Rose Bowl), the Big Ten did not permit the same team to represent that Conference in the Rose Bowl in consecutive years. There was one exception: Minnesota played in the 1961 Rose Bowl and 1962 Rose Bowl games, as previously explained in the section on the conference agreements after the collapse of the Pacific Coast Conference.
Also of note, during this era Big Ten and Pac-8 teams could play only in the Rose Bowl; this restriction was not lifted until the 1975 season.
Archie Griffin of Ohio State and Brian Cushing of USC are the only players to ever start in four Rose Bowl games. Legendary coach Woody Hayes led Ohio State to the Rose Bowl from 1973 to 1976, while USC head coach Pete Carroll led the Trojans to the Rose Bowl from 2006 to 2009.
Current members of the Pac-12 or the Big Ten to have not appeared in the Rose Bowl are Arizona (who joined the then-Pac-10 in 1978), Colorado and Utah (who both joined the Pac-12 in 2011), and Maryland and Rutgers (who both joined the Big Ten in Fall 2014), though California appeared in the Rose Bowl only as a member of a predecessor league to the Pac-12. Similar to Cal, Nebraska played in the 1941 and 2002 games, but was not a member of the Big Ten Conference at these times. Penn State has played in three Rose Bowls (1923, 1995, and 2009), but was not a member of the Big Ten for the 1923 game. Idaho and Montana, who were members of the Pacific Coast Conference from 1922 until 1958 and 1950 respectively, never finished near the top in the PCC football standings. Former Big Ten member Chicago withdrew from the league prior to the bowl arrangement being set. Relatively new Pac-12 members Colorado and Utah have yet to appear in one, Colorado and Utah having joined their new conferences on July 1, 2011. The most recent additions to the Big Ten, Maryland and Rutgers, joined the conference in Fall 2014, and have no pre-1947 appearances or BCS-era appearances prior to their move to the Big Ten.
USC has played every current Big Ten school in the Rose Bowl except for Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Maryland, and Rutgers. Michigan has played every school in the Pac-12 in the Rose Bowl except Oregon, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado.
The Rose Bowl was exclusively a Big Ten-Pac-10 affair for 52 years, from 1946 (1947 Rose Bowl) through 1997 (1998 Rose Bowl). While the Big Ten dominated the game in the late 1940s and 1950s, and the Pac-10 dominated during the 1970s and early 1980s, over the entire 52-year span, each conference won 26 games.
The BCS era covered sixteen games, starting with the 1999 (85th) Rose Bowl to the last game in the BCS era, the 2014 (100th) Rose Bowl . Since then, of the eleven games featuring a Big Ten-Pac-12 matchup, the Pac-12 leads in wins, 7-4. However, the 2007 (93rd) Rose Bowl and 2008 (94th) Rose Bowl, each Big Ten losses to the Pac-12, actually featured the Big Ten runner-up, as conference champion Ohio State was selected to play each of those years in the BCS National Championship Game.
The 2002 and 2006 Rose Bowls represented the National Championship game. In 2002, there was neither a Big 10 or Pac 10 school. Oregon was in the Fiesta Bowl, while Illinois was in the Sugar Bowl. In 2006, USC, BCS No. 1, represented the Pac 10 in the National Championship Game in the Rose Bowl. Big Ten Champion Penn State, BCS No. 3, played in the Orange Bowl. Ohio State, BCS No. 4, also played in Fiesta Bowl that year.
The 2011 Rose Bowl Game marked the first time during the BCS era that a school from a non-BCS conference played in the game (as Oregon, the Pacific-10 champion, was selected to play in the BCS National Championship Game). TCU, led by QB Andy Dalton, beat Wisconsin 21–19.
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (December 2012)|
Beginning with the 1947 Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast representative was the home team, and the Big Nine representative was the visitor. This arrangement would alternate each year. The stadium seating started with the Big Nine representatives in the end zone, but eventually was set with the Big Ten fans and team on the West (press box) side, and Pacific-10 fans and team on the East side. The home team wears their darkest home jerseys, and the visiting team wears the visiting jerseys. There have been exceptions. UCLA wore their home jerseys in the 1962, 1966, and 1976 Rose Bowl games.
From 1947 through 2001, the Big Ten team was the home team in odd-numbered years, and the Pac-10 team was the home team in even-numbered years. In 2003, Washington State was the home team, as a non-Big Ten or Pac-10 school (Oklahoma of the Big 12) was the opponent; the same applied in 2005, when Michigan played another Big 12 school, Texas.
Beginning with the 2002 Rose Bowl, Nebraska was home, with team and fans on the East sideline. Since 2006, the home team has been the team with the highest BCS season ending ranking. For the 2005 Rose Bowl, the Michigan team was on the East sideline, Texas was the visiting team and was on the West sideline. For the 2006 Rose Bowl, USC was the home team and Texas was the visiting team on the West sideline. Traditionally, the Big Ten (or its BCS replacement) is on the West side (press box) and the Pac-12 team is on the East side.
During the BCS era, the institution with the higher BCS ranking performed the national anthem, and performed first at halftime. Except in BCS championship years, the National Anthem was performed by the band. In BCS Championship years, a performer was invited to sing the Anthem, the last being LeAnn Rimes in 2006. The Rose Bowl does not have other performers during the halftime show besides the school marching bands. As part of the television contract, a portion of each band's halftime performance is shown on television. Each school and each conference are allocated television spots to advertise. For the 100th game on January 1, 2014, Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love sang the national anthem. This was the first time in Rose Bowl history that the anthem was performed by singers rather than by a marching band. Today, the institution with the higher ranking by the CFP selection committee performs the national anthem and performs first at halftime.
Appearances and wins-loss records
^ The Pacific Coast Conference, predecessor to the Pacific-12 Conference, had their first football season in 1916, so Washington State's appearance in 1916 for the 1915 season and Stanford's appearance in 1902 for the 1901 season do not count toward the conference's total.
* Penn State was not a member of the Big Ten at the time of their 1923 Rose Bowl appearance, so Penn State's appearance in 1923 for the 1922 season does not count toward the Big Ten's conference's total
† Nebraska was not a member of the Big Ten at the time of either of their appearances. Therefore, as of 2014, they have not represented the Big Ten in the Rose Bowl.
‡ The Southeastern Conference has one current member and two former members who made additional appearances in the Rose Bowl while those schools were not members of the SEC. Alabama made additional appearances in 1926, 1927, and 1931 before becoming a charter member of the SEC in 1932. Another SEC charter member, Georgia Tech, made an appearance in 1929, and left the SEC in 1964. Tulane, also a charter member, made an appearance in 1932, prior to the SEC's establishment in December of that year. Tulane left the SEC in 1966.
Winners in boldface
Italics denote a tie game
|Date played||West / PCC / Pac-12||East / Big Ten||Notes|
|January 1, 1902||Stanford||0||Michigan||49||notes|
|January 1, 1916||Washington State||14||Brown||0||notes|
|January 1, 1917||Oregon||14||Pennsylvania||0||notes|
|January 1, 1918^||Mare Island – USMC||19||Camp Lewis – US Army||7||notes|
|January 1, 1919^||Mare Island – USMC||0||Great Lakes – US Navy||17||notes|
|January 1, 1920||Oregon||6||Harvard||7||notes|
|January 1, 1921||California||28||Ohio State||0||notes|
|January 2, 1922||California||0||Washington & Jefferson||0||notes|
|January 1, 1923||USC||14||Penn State||3||notes|
|January 1, 1924||Washington||14||Navy||14||notes|
|January 1, 1925||Stanford||10||Notre Dame||27||notes|
|January 1, 1926||Washington||19||Alabama||20||notes|
|January 1, 1927||Stanford||7||Alabama||7||notes|
|January 2, 1928||Stanford||7||Pittsburgh||6||notes|
|January 1, 1929||California||7||Georgia Tech||8||notes|
|January 1, 1930||USC||47||Pittsburgh||14||notes|
|January 1, 1931||Washington State||0||Alabama||24||notes|
|January 1, 1932||USC||21||Tulane||12||notes|
|January 2, 1933||USC||35||Pittsburgh||0||notes|
|January 1, 1934||Stanford||0||Columbia||7||notes|
|January 1, 1935||Stanford||13||Alabama||29||notes|
|January 1, 1936||Stanford||7||SMU||0||notes|
|January 1, 1937||#5 Washington||0||#3 Pittsburgh||21||notes|
|January 1, 1938||#2 California||13||#4 Alabama||0||notes|
|January 2, 1939||#7 USC||7||#3 Duke||3||notes|
|January 1, 1940||#3 USC||14||#2 Tennessee||0||notes|
|January 1, 1941||#2 Stanford||21||#7 Nebraska||13||notes|
|January 1, 1942*||#12 Oregon State||20||#2 Duke||16||notes|
|January 1, 1943||#13 UCLA||0||#2 Georgia||9||notes|
|January 1, 1944||USC||29||#12 Washington||0||notes|
|January 1, 1945||#7 USC||25||#12 Tennessee||0||notes|
|January 1, 1946||#11 USC||14||#2 Alabama||34||notes|
|January 1, 1947||#4 UCLA||14||#5 Illinois||45||notes|
|January 1, 1948||#8 USC||0||#2 Michigan||49||notes|
|January 1, 1949||#4 California||14||#7 Northwestern||20||notes|
|January 2, 1950||#3 California||14||#6 Ohio State||17||notes|
|January 1, 1951||#5 California||6||#9 Michigan||14||notes|
|January 1, 1952||#7 Stanford||7||#4 Illinois||40||notes|
|January 1, 1953||#5 USC||7||#11 Wisconsin||0||notes|
|January 1, 1954||#5 UCLA||20||#3 Michigan State||28||notes|
|January 1, 1955||#17 USC||7||#1 Ohio State||20||notes|
|January 2, 1956||#4 UCLA||14||#2 Michigan State||17||notes|
|January 1, 1957||#10 Oregon State||19||#3 Iowa||35||notes|
|January 1, 1958||Oregon||7||#2 Ohio State||10||notes|
|January 1, 1959||#16 California||12||#2 Iowa||38||notes|
|January 1, 1960||#8 Washington||44||#6 Wisconsin||8||notes|
|January 2, 1961||#6 Washington||17||#1 Minnesota||7||notes|
|January 1, 1962||#16 UCLA||3||#6 Minnesota||21||notes|
|January 1, 1963||#1 USC||42||#2 Wisconsin||37||notes|
|January 1, 1964||Washington||7||#3 Illinois||17||notes|
|January 1, 1965||#8 Oregon State||7||#4 Michigan||34||notes|
|January 1, 1966||#5 UCLA||14||#1 Michigan State||12||notes|
|January 2, 1967||USC||13||#7 Purdue||14||notes|
|January 1, 1968||#1 USC||14||#4 Indiana||3||notes|
|January 1, 1969||#2 USC||16||#1 Ohio State||27||notes|
|January 1, 1970||#5 USC||10||#7 Michigan||3||notes|
|January 1, 1971||#12 Stanford||27||#2 Ohio State||17||notes|
|January 1, 1972||#16 Stanford||13||#4 Michigan||12||notes|
|January 1, 1973||#1 USC||42||#3 Ohio State||17||notes|
|January 1, 1974||#7 USC||21||#4 Ohio State||42||notes|
|January 1, 1975||#5 USC||18||#3 Ohio State||17||notes|
|January 1, 1976||#11 UCLA||23||#1 Ohio State||10||notes|
|January 1, 1977||#3 USC||14||#2 Michigan||6||notes|
|January 2, 1978||#13 Washington||27||#4 Michigan||20||notes|
|January 1, 1979||#3 USC||17||#5 Michigan||10||notes|
|January 1, 1980||#3 USC||17||#1 Ohio State||16||notes|
|January 1, 1981||#16 Washington||6||#5 Michigan||23||notes|
|January 1, 1982||#12 Washington||28||#13 Iowa||0||notes|
|January 1, 1983||#5 UCLA||24||#19 Michigan||14||notes|
|January 2, 1984||UCLA||45||#4 Illinois||9||notes|
|January 1, 1985||#18 USC||20||#6 Ohio State||17||notes|
|January 1, 1986||#13 UCLA||45||#4 Iowa||28||notes|
|January 1, 1987||#7 Arizona State||22||#4 Michigan||15||notes|
|January 1, 1988||#16 USC||17||#8 Michigan State||20||notes|
|January 2, 1989||#5 USC||14||#11 Michigan||22||notes|
|January 1, 1990||#12 USC||17||#3 Michigan||10||notes|
|January 1, 1991||#8 Washington||46||#17 Iowa||34||notes|
|January 1, 1992||#2 Washington||34||#4 Michigan||14||notes|
|January 1, 1993||#9 Washington||31||#7 Michigan||38||notes|
|January 1, 1994||#14 UCLA||16||#9 Wisconsin||21||notes|
|January 2, 1995||#12 Oregon||20||#2 Penn State||38||notes|
|January 1, 1996||#17 USC||41||#3 Northwestern||32||notes|
|January 1, 1997||#2 Arizona State||17||#4 Ohio State||20||notes|
|January 1, 1998||#8 Washington State||16||#1 Michigan||21||notes|
|January 1, 1999||#6 UCLA||31||#9 Wisconsin||38||notes|
|January 1, 2000||#22 Stanford||9||#4 Wisconsin||17||notes|
|January 1, 2001||#4 Washington||34||#14 Purdue||24||notes|
|January 3, 2002†||#1 Miami (FL)||37||#4 Nebraska||14||notes|
|January 1, 2003||#7 Washington State||14||#8 Oklahoma||34||notes|
|January 1, 2004||#1 USC||28||#4 Michigan||14||notes|
|January 1, 2005||#6 Texas||38||#13 Michigan||37||notes|
|January 4, 2006†||#1 USC||38||#2 Texas||41||notes|
|January 1, 2007||#8 USC||32||#3 Michigan||18||notes|
|January 1, 2008||#6 USC||49||#13 Illinois||17||notes|
|January 1, 2009||#5 USC||38||#6 Penn State||24||notes|
|January 1, 2010||#7 Oregon||17||#8 Ohio State||26||notes|
|January 1, 2011||#3 TCU||21||#4 Wisconsin||19||notes|
|January 2, 2012||#6 Oregon||45||#9 Wisconsin||38||notes|
|January 1, 2013||#8 Stanford||20||Wisconsin||14||notes|
|January 1, 2014||#5 Stanford||20||#4 Michigan State||24||notes|
|January 1, 2015‡||#2 Oregon||59||#3 Florida State||20||notes|
^ During WWI, military teams played
† Denotes BCS National Championship Game
‡ Denotes College Football Playoff semifinal game
Rose Bowl Player of the Game Awards
The most valuable player in the Rose Bowl game is given a crystal trophy that is the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award. The award was created in 1953 and awarded retroactively for players all the way back to the 1902 Rose Bowl. Occasionally, the award has been shared by two players. Beginning with the 2005 Rose Bowl Game, the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award has been given to both offensive and defensive players of the game. Only four players have ever been named the Player of the Game in more than one Rose Bowl: Bob Schloredt, Washington (1960, 1961), Charles White, USC (1979, 1980), Ron Dayne, Wisconsin (1999, 2000), and Vince Young, Texas (2005, 2006).
|Team||Performance vs. opponent||Year|
|Most points scored||59, Oregon vs. Florida State||2015|
|Most points scored in regulation (both teams)||83, Oregon and Wisconsin||2012|
|Most points scored in a half||41 (second half), Oregon vs. Florida State||2015|
|Most points scored in a half (both teams)||56 (first half), Oregon and Wisconsin||2012|
|Fewest points allowed||0, Washington vs. Iowa (tied with 17 others)||1982|
|First downs||32, Wisconsin vs. USC||1963|
|Rushing yards||503, Michigan vs. Stanford||1902|
|Passing yards||456, Oregon vs. Penn State||1995|
|Total yards||639, Oregon vs. Florida State||2015|
|Individual||Performance, team vs. opponent||Year|
|Total offense||467, Vince Young, Texas vs. USC (59 plays)||2006|
|Touchdowns||4, Vince Young, Texas vs. USC (tied with 4 others)||2006|
|Rushing yards||247, Charles White, USC vs. Ohio State (39 attempts, 1 TD)||1980|
|Rushing TDs||5, Neil Snow, Michigan vs. Stanford||1902|
|Passing yards||456, Danny O'Neil, Oregon vs. Penn State (41-61-2, 2 TD)||1995|
|Tackles||17, John Boyett, Oregon vs. Wisconsin (tied with 1 other)||2012|
|Sacks||3, Kenny Rowe, Oregon vs. Ohio State (tied with 3 others)||2010|
|Interceptions||3, Bill Paulman, Stanford vs. SMU (tied with 1 other)||1936|
|Long plays||Performance, team vs. opponent||Year|
|Touchdown run||91, De'Anthony Thomas, Oregon vs. Wisconsin||2012|
|Touchdown pass||76, Rick Leach to Curt Stephenson, Michigan vs. Washington||1978|
|Kickoff return||103, Al Hoisch, UCLA vs. Illinois (TD)||1947|
|Punt return||86, Aramis Dandoy, USC vs. Ohio State (TD)||1955|
|Interception return||78, Elmer Layden, Notre Dame vs. Stanford (TD)||1925|
|Fumble return||58, Tony Washington, Oregon vs. Florida State (TD)||2015|
|Punt||73, Don Bracken, Michigan vs. Washington||1981|
|Field goal||52, Rob Houghtlin, Iowa vs. UCLA||1986|
Note: When there is a tie, the most recent one will be listed.
Top ranked teams
No. 1 ranked teams
- 1954 Season/1955 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 17 USC, 20–7
- 1960 Season/1961 Game: No. 6 Washington defeated No. 1 Minnesota, 17–7
- 1962 Season/1963 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 2 Wisconsin, 42–37
- 1965 Season/1966 Game: No. 5 UCLA defeated No. 1 Michigan State, 14–12
- 1968 Season/1969 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 2 USC, 27–16
- 1972 Season/1973 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 3 Ohio State, 42-17
- 1975 Season/1976 Game: No. 11 UCLA defeated No. 1 Ohio State, 23-10
- 1979 Season/1980 Game: No. 3 USC defeated No. 1 Ohio State, 17–16
- 1997 Season/1998 Game: No. 1 Michigan defeated No. 8 Washington State, 21–16
- 2001 Season/2002 BCS National Championship Game: No. 1 Miami defeated No. 4 Nebraska, 37–14
- 2003 Season/2004 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 4 Michigan, 28–14
- 2005 Season/2006 BCS National Championship Game: No. 2 Texas defeated No. 1 USC, 41–38
No. 1 vs. No. 2 teams
- 1962 Season/1963 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 2 Wisconsin, 42–37
- 1968 Season/1969 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 2 USC, 27–16. Ohio State was voted national champion
- 2005 Season/2006 BCS National Championship Game: No. 2 Texas defeated No. 1 USC, 41–38. Texas was voted national champion
Twice in a season
Five times in Rose Bowl Game history, the two participants had played during the regular season. In three of those occurrences the same team won both the regular season game and the Rose Bowl Game. UCLA won three of those five Rose Bowl games.
- 1956 Iowa 14, Oregon State 13; 1957 Rose Bowl Rematch: Iowa 35, Oregon State 19
- 1965 Michigan State 13, UCLA 3; 1966 Rose Bowl Rematch: UCLA 14, Michigan State 12
- 1975 Ohio State 41, UCLA 20; 1976 Rose Bowl Rematch: UCLA 23, Ohio State 10
- 1982 UCLA 31, Michigan 27; 1983 Rose Bowl Rematch: UCLA 24, Michigan 14
- 1987 Michigan State 27, USC 13; 1988 Rose Bowl Rematch: Michigan State 20, USC 17
Rose Bowl Hall of Fame
Inductees (by year):
- 1989 – C.W. "Bump" Elliott, Michigan; W.W. "Woody" Hayes, Ohio State; Howard Jones, USC; Jim Plunkett, Stanford
- 1990 – Archie Griffin, Ohio State; Bob Reynolds, Stanford; Neil Snow, Michigan; Wallace Wade, Brown, Alabama, & Duke; Charles White, USC
- 1991 – Rex Kern, Ohio State; John McKay, USC; Ernie Nevers, Stanford; Roy Riegels, California; Bob Schloredt, Washington; John Sciarra, UCLA; Russell Stein, Washington & Jefferson; Charley Trippi, Georgia; Ron Vander Kelen, Wisconsin; George Wilson, Washington
- 1992 – Frank Albert, Stanford; Bob Chappuis, Michigan; Sam Cunningham, USC; Bill Daddio, Pittsburgh; Bob Griese, Purdue; Hollis Huntington, Oregon & Mare Island Marines; Shy Huntington, Oregon; Elmer Layden, Notre Dame; Jim Owens, Washington
- 1993 – Frank Aschenbrenner, Northwestern; Dixie Howell, Alabama; Don Hutson, Alabama; Curly Morrison, Ohio State; Brick Muller, California; Julius Rykovich, Illinois; Bo Schembechler, Michigan; O.J. Simpson, USC; Bob Stiles, UCLA; Buddy Young, Illinois
- 1994 – Vic Bottari, California; Jim Hardy, USC; Don James, Washington; Bob Jeter, Iowa; Lay Leishman, Tournament of Roses; Pat Richter, Wisconsin; Russell Sanders, USC
- 1995 – Gary Beban, UCLA; Dick Butkus, Illinois; Harry Gilmer, Alabama; Pat Haden, USC; Al Krueger, USC; Doyle Nave, USC; Ted Shipkey, Stanford
- 1996 – Eric Ball, UCLA; Pete Beathard, USC; John Ferraro, USC; Stan Hahn, Tournament of Roses; John Ralston, Stanford; Bill Tate, Illinois
- 1997 – Terry Donahue, UCLA; Jim Grabowski, Illinois; Warren Moon, Washington; Erny Pinckert, USC; Ken Ploen, Iowa; Sandy Stephens, Minnesota
- 1998 – Jack Crabtree, Oregon; Don Durdan, Oregon State; J.K. McKay, USC; Rick Neuheisel, UCLA; Bill Nicholas, Tournament of Roses; Butch Woolfolk, Michigan
- 1999 – Al Hoisch, UCLA; Keith Jackson, ABC Sports; Dave Kaiser, Michigan State
- 2000 – Johnny Mack Brown, Alabama; Marv Goux, USC
- 2001 – No inductees
- 2002 – Ambrose "Amblin' Amby" Schindler, USC; Mel Anthony, Michigan
- 2003 – Harriman Cronk, Tournament of Roses; Danny O'Neil, Oregon; John Robinson, USC
- 2004 – Alan Ameche, Wisconsin; Rudy Bukich, USC; Wayne Duke, Big Ten; Jim Stivers, Tournament of Roses
- 2005 – Richard N. Frank, Lawry’s Restaurants (Beef Bowl); Curt Gowdy, Sports Broadcaster
- 2006 – Steve Emtman, Washington; Rube Samuelsen, Sports Journalist; Jeff Van Raaphorst, Arizona State
- 2007 – Pete Johnson, Ohio State; Tom Ramsey, UCLA; Dennis Swanson, Television Executive
- 2008 – Keyshawn Johnson, USC; Virgil "Virg" Lubberden, USC (administrator); Chuck Ortmann, Michigan
- 2009 – Barry Alvarez, Wisconsin; Tom Hansen, Pacific-10 Conference; John Hicks, Ohio State
- 2010 – Brad Budde, USC; Hayden Fry, Iowa; Leroy Keyes, Purdue
- 2011 – Ron Dayne, Wisconsin; Dick Enberg, NBC; George Fleming, Washington
- 2012 – John Cooper, Arizona State and Ohio State; Brian Griese, Michigan; and Ron Yary, USC
- 2013 – Lloyd Carr, Michigan; Orlando Pace, Ohio State; Lynn Swann, USC
- 2014 – Knute Rockne, Notre Dame; Dick Vermeil, UCLA and Ki-Jana Carter, Penn State
- 2015 – Mark Brunell, Washignton; Jim Muldoon (Pac-10); Fritz Pollard, Brown; and Tyrone Wheatley, Michigan
The Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class was announced by Rose Bowl Hall of Fame member Keith Jackson, on Sunday, December 8, 2013 at 4:00 p.m. at Tournament House.
- 1900s–1910s: George Halas (Great Lakes Navy)
- 1920s: Ernie Nevers (Stanford)
- 1930s: Don Hutson (Alabama) and Howard Jones (USC)
- 1940s: Charley Trippi (Georgia)
- 1950s: Woody Hayes (Ohio State)
- 1960s: John McKay (USC)
- 1970s: Archie Griffin (Ohio State)
- 1980s: Bo Schembechler (Michigan)
- 1990s: Ron Dayne (Wisconsin)
- 2000s: Vince Young (Texas)
- 2010s: Montee Ball (Wisconsin)
In addition to being named as All-Century representatives for their respective decades, John McKay and Archie Griffin were named the 100th Rose Bowl Game All-Century Coach and Player respectively. Griffin and McKay (represented by his son John McKay, Jr.) will participate in the 2014 Rose Parade.
- 1900–1919: Patty Driscoll (Great Lakes Navy, 1919), Neil Snow (Michigan, 1902) and George Halas (Great Lakes Navy, 1919)
- 1920–1929: Ernie Nevers (Stanford, 1925), Elmer Layden (Notre Dame, 1925) and Johnny Mack Brown (Alabama, 1926)
- 1930–1939: Millard "Dixie" Howell (Alabama, 1935), Don Hutson (Alabama, 1935) and Howard Jones (USC, 1930, 1932–33, 1939–40)
- 1940–1949: Bob Chappuis (Michigan, 1948), Harry Gilmer (Alabama, 1946) and Charley Trippi (Georgia, 1943)
- 1950–1959: Alan Ameche (Wisconsin, 1953), Bob Jeter (Iowa, 1959) and Woody Hayes (Ohio State, 1954, 1957, 1968, 1970, 1972–1975)
- 1960–1969: Ron Vander Kelen (Wisconsin, 1963), O.J. Simpson (USC, 1968-69) and John McKay (USC, 1963, 1967–70, 1973–1975)
- 1970–1979: Jim Plunkett (Stanford, 1971), Charles White (USC, 1979–1980) and Archie Griffin (Ohio State, 1973–1976)
- 1980–1989: Don James (Washington, 1978, 1981–82, 1991–93), John Robinson (USC, 1977, 1979–80, 1996) and Bo Schembechler (Michigan, 1970, 1972, 1977–79, 1981, 1983, 1987, 1989–90)
- 1990–1999: Barry Alvarez (Wisconsin, 1994, 1999, 2000 and 2013), Keyshawn Johnson (USC, 1996) and Ron Dayne (Wisconsin, 1999 and 2000)
- 2000–2009: Matt Leinart (USC, 2004 and 2006), Vince Young (Texas, 2005–06) and Brian Cushing (USC, 2006–09), John David Booty (USC 2006–07)
- 2010–2012: Terrelle Pryor (Ohio State, 2010), Tank Carder (TCU, 2011) and Montee Ball (Wisconsin, 2011–13)
Player and coach
Nine former players have come back to coach a team in the game (played and coached, as listed by the Tournament of Roses Association):
- Bret Bielema: Iowa (1991); Wisconsin (2011, 2012)
- Terry Donahue: UCLA (1966); UCLA (1983, 1984, 1986, 1994)
- Bump Elliott: Michigan (1948); Michigan (1965)
- Pete Elliott: Michigan (1948); California (1959); Illinois (1964)
- Jess Hill: USC (1930); USC (1953, 1955)
- Shy Huntington: Oregon (1917); Oregon (1920)
- Rick Neuheisel: UCLA (1983, 1984 – MVP); Washington (2001)
- John Robinson: Oregon (1958); USC (1977, 1979, 1980, 1996)
- Chuck Taylor: Stanford (1941); Stanford (1952)
Coaches with two teams
- Hugo Bezdek: Oregon, 1917; Mare Island, 1918; Penn State, 1923 (three teams)
- John Cooper: Arizona State, 1987; Ohio State, 1997 (Only coach to win the Rose Bowl Game with both a Big Ten and Pac-10 team)
- Bill “Lone Star” Dietz: Washington State, 1916; Mare Island, 1919
- Pete Elliott: California, 1959; Illinois, 1964
- Robert Folwell: Pennsylvania, 1917; Navy 1924
- Tommy Prothro: Oregon State, 1965; UCLA 1966
- Wallace Wade: Alabama, 1926, 1927, 1931; Duke 1939, 1942
- Selection Sunday, December 7, 2014
- Lawry's Beef Bowl – December 27, 28, 2014
- Hall of Fame ceremony, Pasadena Convention Center, December 30, 2014
- Kickoff Luncheon, Rose Bowl, December 31, 2014
- Rose Bowl Game Public Tailgate, January 1, 2015
- January 1, 1918 – Hugo Bezdek was the first college football coach to lead two separate schools (Oregon, 1917 and Mare Island, 1918) to victories; He also coached Penn State in a loss in the 1923 Rose Bowl
- January 2, 1922 – First bowl game not played on New Year's Day
- January 3, 2002 – First time hosting the BCS National Championship where Miami defeated Nebraska, 37-14, and the Rose Parade and the Rose Bowl Game were held on separate days
- America's New Year Celebration. The Rose Parade & Rose Bowl Game. Albion Publishing Group, Santa Barbara, CA. 1999
- Samuelsen, Rube - The Rose Bowl Game. Doubleday Company and Inc. 1951
- Big Ten Conference football media guide (PDF copy available at http://bigten.cstv.com)
- Pacific-10 Conference football media guide (PDF copy available at http://www.pac-10.org)
- Moran Malcolm, Keith Jackson – The Rose Bowl: 100th: The History of the Granddaddy of Them All. Whitman Publishing, LLC, 06/01/2013. ISBN 9780794837938.
- Myerberg, Paul (May 14, 2014). "Northwestern Mutual to sponsor Rose Bowl". USA Today. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- The 1942 game was played in Duke Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, due to a restriction on crowds allowed on the West Coast after Pearl Harbor.
- Tournament of Roses Press Release, December 7, 2008
- NCAA Division 1 football records book. NCAA, 2007 Edition, pages 296–302 Major Bowl Game Attendance
- Cohen, Rich (2013). Monsters: The 1985 Chicago Bears and the Wild Heart of Football. Macmillan. p. 39. ISBN 9780374298685.
- Mary L. Grady, Mercer Island High School Marching Band to march in 2012 Tournament of Roses Parade, Mercer Island Reporter, September 24, 2010
- Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, by Robert Ours, 2004, pgs. 3-4
- Huge Flagstaff For Pasadena. Enormous Steel Pole 122 and ½ Feet Long Will Stand in Rose Bowl. Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1922. Monday afternoon at 2 o'clock the new flagstaff of the Tournament of Roses stadium, now called the Rose Bowl, will be put in place with suitable ceremony under auspices of the Pasadena Lions Club, donor of the pole.
- The Michigan Stadium Story
- University of Michigan Official Athletics site – Michigan Stadium
- Tournament of Roses Parade FAQs. In 2006, attendance was 93,986.
- Historic information on the Rose Bowl
- The Way We Really Were: The Golden State in the Second Great War. Lotchin, Roger W. 2000. Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. ISBN 0-252-02505-9. page 14.
- "ROSE BOWL GAME CALLED OFF", San Antonio Light, December 14, 1941, pB-1
- Forbidding Crowds. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941
- Zimmerman, Paul - Duke Likely to Play Beavers in Durham. Blue Devils Invite Foes Rose Bowl, Shrine Grid Games Halted as Other Sports Events in Balance. Los Angeles Times, December 15, 1941.
- "Rose Bowl Timeline". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
- Zimmerman, Paul - Scene of Rose Bowl Shifted to Durham, N.C. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941. Perpetuation of the annual Rose Bowl intersectional football classic was assured yesterday when the Tournament of Roses officials and Oregon State College accepted the hospitality of Duke University.
- R.I.P. Time Magazine, December 6, 1943
- Michael Oriard - King Football: Sport and Spectacle in the Golden Age of Radio & Newsreels, Movies & Magazines, The Weekly & The Daily Press. Published 2004 UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-5545-6 Chapter 3:Who cares about reform?
- football, gridiron. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: www.britannica.com/eb/article-234274. Football in the United States - The racial transformation of American football. Encyclopædia Britannica
- Big Ten Football media guide (2007 Edition) page 5
- Rose Bowl History Big Ten Tamed the West from 1948–59. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), December 30, 1997
- Non-BCS teams to get vacated bids
- RICHARD SANDOMIR - TV SPORTS; A Private Line for the Rose Bowl. New York Times, January 1, 1999
- Citi out as Rose Bowl sponsor, ESPN.com, June 22, 2010
- ,'sportsillustrated.com', October 19, 2010
- "Northwestern Mutual lands Rose Bowl deal". L.A. Biz.
- Gruver, 2002 pg. 48
- Disney makes $125 million BCS bid. Variety, November 12, 2008
- Reid Cherner & Tom Weir, "Rose Bowl headed to ESPN", USA today, June 12, 2009
- "BCS National Championship and Bowl Games on ESPN Deportes". ESPN. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- ESPN REACHES LONG-TERM EXTENSION WITH PASADENA TOURNAMENT OF ROSES, BIG TEN AND PAC-12, Tournament of Roses Association, June 28, 2012
- Sam Farmer, ESPN agrees to pay $80 million a year to broadcast Rose Bowl, Los Angeles Times, July 16, 2012
- Moran, Malcolm (1989-08-27). "COLLEGE FOOTBALL '89; Defining the 80's? No Easy Task". The New York Times.
- Rittenberg, Adam (December 26, 2012). "Alvarez savors return to Rose Bowl". ESPN. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- "List of Rose Bowl Games from official website".
- Celebrated Singers Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love to Sing National Anthem at Historic 100th Rose Bowl Game, Tournament of Roses Association, December 8, 2013
- 2008 Rose Bowl Program, 2008 Rose Bowl. Accessed 26 January 2008.
- Knute Rockne, Dick Vermeil and Ki-Jana Carter to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame, Tournament of Roses Association, August 26, 2014
- Mark Brunell, Fritz Pollard, Tyrone Wheatley and Jim Muldoon to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame presented by Northwestern Mutual
- First Group of Finalists Unveiled for Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class, Tournament of Roses Association, September 22, 2013
- 2012 Rose Bowl Game presented by Vizio Historical Media Guide, Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association, December 2011
- All Events, Tournament of Roses Association, July 25, 2013
- Gruver, Edward (2002), Nitschke. Lanham:Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN 1-58979-127-4
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