The Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), developed by the sociologist Morris Rosenberg, is a self-esteem measure widely used in social-science research. It uses a scale of 0–30 where a score less than 15 may indicate a problematic low self esteem.
The RSES is designed similar to the social-survey questionnaires. Five of the items have positively worded statements and five have negatively worded ones. The scale measures global self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self. The original sample for which the scale was developed consisted of 5,024 high-school juniors and seniors from 10 randomly selected schools in New York State. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale is considered a reliable and valid quantitative tool for self-esteem assessment.
The RSES has been translated and adapted to various languages, such as Persian, French, Chinese, Italian, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. The scale is extensively used in cross-cultural studies in up to 53 different nations.
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