Rosenberg self-esteem scale

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The Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), developed by the sociologist Morris Rosenberg,[1] is a self-esteem measure widely used in social-science research. It uses a scale of 0–30 where a score less than 15 may indicate a problematic low self esteem.[2]

The RSES is designed similar to the social-survey questionnaires. Five of the items have positively worded statements and five have negatively worded ones. The scale measures global self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self. The original sample for which the scale was developed consisted of 5,024 high-school juniors and seniors from 10 randomly selected schools in New York State. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale is considered a reliable and valid quantitative tool for self-esteem assessment.[3]

The RSES has been translated and adapted to various languages, such as Persian,[4] French,[5] Chinese,[6] Italian,[7] German,[8] Portuguese,[9] and Spanish.[10] The scale is extensively used in cross-cultural studies in up to 53 different nations.[11]


  1. ^ Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. online pdf here:
  2. ^ "Rosenberg self-esteem scale" (PDF)., by The Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  3. ^ Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Robins, R. W. (2015). Measuring self-esteem. In G. J. Boyle, D. H. Saklofske, & G. Matthews (Eds.). Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs (pp. 131-157). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
  4. ^ Shapurian, R., Hojat, M., & Nayerahmadi, H. (1987). Psychometric characteristics and dimensionality of a Persian version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 65, 27–34.
  5. ^ Vallieres, E.F., & Vallerand, R.J. (1990). Traduction et validation Canadienne-Française de l’Echelle de l’Estime de soi de Rosenberg. International Journal of Psychology, 25, 305–316. (in French)
  6. ^ Cheng, S.T., & Hamid, P.N. (1995). An error in the use of translated scales: The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale for Chinese. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81, 431–434.
  7. ^ Prezza, M., Trombaccia, F.R., & Armento, L. (1997). La scala dell´autostima di Rosenberg: traduzione e validazione italiana. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 223, 35–44
  8. ^ von Collani, G., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2003). Eine revidierte Fassung der deutschsprachigen Skala zum Selbstwertgefühl von Rosenberg. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychology, 24, 3–7.
  9. ^ Santos, P.J., & Maia, J. (2003). Análise factorial confirmatória e validaçao preliminar de uma versao portuguesa da escala de auto-estima de Rosenberg. Psicologia: Teoria, Investigaçao e Prática, 2, 253–268.
  10. ^ José Martín-Albo, Juan L. Núñez, José G. Navarro, & Fernando Grijalvo (2007) The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Translation and Validation in University Students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol. 10, No. 2, 458–467
  11. ^ Schmitt, D.P., & Allik, J. (2005). Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture-specific features of global self esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 623–642.

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