Rosenberg self-esteem scale
The RSES is designed similar to social-survey questionnaires. It is a ten-item Likert-type scale with items answered on a four-point scale—from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Five of the items have positively worded statements and five have negatively worded ones. The scale measures state self-esteem by asking the respondents to reflect on their current feelings. The original sample for which the scale was developed consisted of 5,024 high-school juniors and seniors from 10 randomly selected schools in New York State. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale is considered a reliable and valid quantitative tool for self-esteem assessment.
The RSES has been translated and adapted to various languages, such as Persian, French, Chinese, Italian, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. The scale is extensively used in cross-cultural studies in up to 53 different nations.
- Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Blascovich, Jim and Joseph Tomaka. 1993. "Measures of Self-Esteem." Pp. 115-160 in J.P. Robinson, P.R. Shaver, and L.S. Wrightsman (eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes. Third Edition. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research.
- Shapurian, R., Hojat, M., & Nayerahmadi, H. (1987). Psychometric characteristics and dimensionality of a Persian version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 65, 27-34.
- Vallieres, E.F., & Vallerand, R.J. (1990). Traduction et validation Canadienne-Française de l’Echelle de l’Estime de soi de Rosenberg. International Journal of Psychology, 25, 305-316.
- Cheng, S.T., & Hamid, P.N. (1995). An error in the use of translated scales: The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale for Chinese. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81, 431-434.
- Prezza, M., Trombaccia, F.R., & Armento, L. (1997). La scala dell´autostima di Rosenberg: traduzione e validazione italiana. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 223, 35-44
- von Collani, G., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2003). Eine revidierte Fassung der deutschsprachigen Skala zum Selbstwertgefühl von Rosenberg. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 24, 3-7.
- Santos, P.J., & Maia, J. (2003). Análise factorial confirmatória e validaçao preliminar de uma versao portuguesa da escala de auto-estima de Rosenberg. Psicologia: Teoria, Investigaçao e Prática, 2, 253-268.
- José Martín-Albo, Juan L. Núñez, José G. Navarro, & Fernando Grijalvo (2007) The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Translation and Validation in University Students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol. 10, No. 2, 458-467
- Schmitt, D.P., & Allik, J. (2005). Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture-specific features of global selfesteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 623-642.