Rosids

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Rosids
Temporal range: Mid Cretaceous - recent
Euphorbia heterophylla (Painted Euphorbia) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 9720.jpg
Euphorbia heterophylla
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Superrosids
Clade: Rosids
Orders[1]

The rosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species,[2] more than a quarter of all angiosperms.[3]

The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families.[4]

Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago.[5][6]

Name[edit]

The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling.[7] The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN. The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis.

Three different definitions of the rosids were used. Some authors included the orders Saxifragales and Vitales in the rosids.[8] Others excluded both of these orders.[9] The circumscription used in this article is that of the APG IV classification, which includes Vitales, but excludes Saxifragales.

Relationships[edit]

The rosids and Saxifragales form the superrosids clade.[2][9] This is one of three groups that compose the Pentapetalae (core eudicots minus Gunnerales),[10] the others being Dilleniales and the superasterids (Berberidopsidales, Caryophyllales, Santalales, and asterids).[9]

Classification[edit]

The rosids consist of two groups: the order Vitales and the eurosids (true rosids). The eurosids, in turn, are divided into two groups: fabids (Fabidae, eurosids I) and malvids (Malvidae, eurosids II).[9]

Orders[edit]

The rosids consist of 17 orders. In addition to Vitales, there are 8 orders in fabids and 8 orders in malvids. Some of the orders have only recently been recognized.[9] These are Vitales,[11] Zygophyllales,[12] Crossosomatales,[13] Picramniales,[14] and Huerteales.[15]

Phylogeny[edit]

The phylogeny of Rosids shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website.[9]


Vitales


eurosids 
fabids 

Zygophyllales



COM clade 

Celastrales




Malpighiales



Oxalidales




nitrogen‑fixing clade 

Fabales




Rosales




Fagales



Cucurbitales







malvids


Geraniales



Myrtales





Crossosomatales




Picramniales




Sapindales




Huerteales




Brassicales



Malvales









The nitrogen-fixing clade contains a high number of actinorhizal plants (which have root nodules containing nitrogen fixing bacteria, helping the plant grow in poor soils). Not all plants in this clade are actinorhizal, however.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. 
  2. ^ a b Hengchang Wang, Michael J. Moore, Pamela S. Soltis, Charles D. Bell, Samuel F. Brockington, Roolse Alexandre, Charles C. Davis, Maribeth Latvis, Steven R. Manchester, and Douglas E. Soltis (10 Mar 2009), "Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (10): 3853–3858, Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3853W, doi:10.1073/pnas.0813376106, PMC 2644257free to read, PMID 19223592 
  3. ^ Robert W. Scotland & Alexandra H. Wortley (2003), "How many species of seed plants are there?", Taxon, 52 (1): 101–104, doi:10.2307/3647306, JSTOR 3647306 
  4. ^ Douglas E. Soltis; Pamela S. Soltis; Peter K. Endress & Mark W. Chase (2005), Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms, Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer, ISBN 978-0-87893-817-9 
  5. ^ Davies, T.J., Barraclough, T.G., Chase, M.W., Soltis, P.S., Soltis, D.E., and Savolainen, V. (2004), "Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101 (7): 1904–1909, Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.1904D, doi:10.1073/pnas.0308127100, PMC 357025free to read, PMID 14766971 
  6. ^ Susana Magallón & Amanda Castillo (2009), "Angiosperm diversification through time", American Journal of Botany, 96 (1): 349–365, doi:10.3732/ajb.0800060, PMID 21628193 
  7. ^ James L. Reveal (2008), "A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants", Home page of James L. Reveal and C. Rose Broome 
  8. ^ J. Gordon Burleigh; Khidir W. Hilu & Douglas E. Soltis (2009), File 7, "Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms" (PDF), BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9: 61, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-61, PMC 2674047free to read, PMID 19292928 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Peter F. Stevens (2001), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website 
  10. ^ Philip D. Cantino; James A. Doyle; Sean W. Graham; Walter S. Judd; Richard G. Olmstead; Douglas E. Soltis; Pamela S. Soltis & Michael J. Donoghue (2007), "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta" (PDF), Taxon, 56 (3): 822–846, doi:10.2307/25065865 
  11. ^ James L. Reveal. (1995). page 72 in Newly required suprageneric names in vascular plants. Phytologia 79(2):68-76
  12. ^ Chalk, L. 1983. Wood structure. Pp. 1-51 [1-2 by C. R. Melcalfe], in Metcalfe, C. R., & Chalk, L., Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, Second Edition. Volume II. Wood Structure and Conclusion of the General Introduction. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-854559-0.
  13. ^ Klaus Kubitzki (2007), "Introduction to Crossosomatales", in Klaus Kubitzki, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol.IX, Berlin,Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 
  14. ^ John Hutchinson The Families of Flowering Plants 3rd edition. 1973. Oxford University Press.
  15. ^ Andreas Worberg; Mac H. Alford; Dietmar Quandt & Thomas Borsch (2009), "Huerteales sister to Brassicales plus Malvales, and newly circumscribed to include Dipentodon, Gerrardina, Huertea, Perrottetia, and Tapiscia", Taxon, 58 (2): 468–478 
  16. ^ Wall, L. (2000), "The actinorhizal symbiosis", Journal of Plant Growth and Regulation, 19 (2): 167–182, doi:10.1007/s003440000027, PMID 11038226 

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Rosids at Wikimedia Commons