Ross 154

Coordinates: Sky map 18h 49m 49.3625s, −23° 50′ 10.437″
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Ross 154
Ross 154 is located in the constellation Sagittarius.
Ross 154 is located in the constellation Sagittarius.
Ross 154
Location of Ross 154 in the constellation Sagittarius

Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Sagittarius
Right ascension 18h 49m 49.36378s[1]
Declination –23° 50′ 10.4474″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 10.44[2]
Spectral type M3.5V[2]
B−V color index 1.76[3]
Variable type Flare star[4]
Radial velocity (Rv)−11.12±0.57[1] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: +639.368 mas/yr[1]
Dec.: –193.958 mas/yr[1]
Parallax (π)336.0266 ± 0.0317 mas[1]
Distance9.7063 ± 0.0009 ly
(2.9760 ± 0.0003 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)13.07[2]
Mass0.177 ± 0.004[5] M
Radius0.200 ± 0.008[5] R
Luminosity0.004015±0.000048[5] L
Surface gravity (log g)5.00 ± 0.05[6] cgs
[5] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]-0.25[7] dex
Rotation2.848 ± 0.001[8] days
Rotational velocity (v sin i)3.5 ± 1.5[7] km/s
Ageunder 1[7] Gyr
Other designations
CD−23° 14742, GCTP 4338, GJ 729, HIP 92403, LHS 3414, V1216 Sagittarii.[9]
Database references

Ross 154 (V1216 Sgr) is a star in the southern zodiac constellation of Sagittarius. It has an apparent visual magnitude of 10.44,[2] making it much too faint to be seen with the naked eye. At a minimum, viewing Ross 154 requires a telescope with an aperture of 6.5 cm (3 in) under ideal conditions.[10] The distance to this star can be estimated from parallax measurements, which places it at 9.71 light-years (2.98 parsecs) away from Earth.[1] It is the nearest star in the southern constellation Sagittarius, and one of the nearest stars to the Sun.


This star was first catalogued by American astronomer Frank Elmore Ross in 1925, and formed part of his fourth list of new variable stars.[11] In 1926, he added it to his second list of stars showing a measurable proper motion after comparing its position with photographic plates taken earlier by fellow American astronomer E. E. Barnard.[12] A preliminary parallax value of 0.362 ± 0.006 arcseconds was determined in 1937 by Walter O'Connell using photographic plates from the Yale telescope in Johannesburg, South Africa. This placed the star at the sixth position of the then-known nearby stars.[13]

A broadband optical light curve for V1216 Sagittarii, plotted from Kepler data[14]

Ross 154 was found to be a UV Ceti-type flare star, with a mean time between major flares of about two days.[4] The first such flare activity was observed from Australia in 1951 when the star increased in magnitude by 0.4.[15] Typically, the star will increase by 3–4 magnitudes during a flare.[16] The strength of the star's surface magnetic field is an estimated 2.2 ± 0.1 kG.[17] Ross 154 is an X-ray source and it has been detected by several X-ray observatories. The quiescent X-ray luminosity is about 9 × 1027 ergs s−1.[7] X-ray flare emission from this star has been observed by Chandra observatory, with a particularly large flare emitting 2.3 × 1033 erg.[7]

A stellar classification of M3.5V[2] makes this a red dwarf star that is generating energy through the nuclear fusion of hydrogen at its core. It has an estimated 18% of the Sun's mass and 20% of the Sun's radius,[5] but it is radiating only 0.4% of the luminosity of the Sun.[5] In contrast to the Sun where convection only occurs in the outer layers, a red dwarf with a mass this low will be entirely convective.[18] Based on the relatively high projected rotation, this is probably a young star with an estimated age of less than a billion years.[7] The abundance of elements heavier than helium is about half that in the Sun.[7]

No low-mass companions have been discovered in orbit around Ross 154.[19] Nor does it display the level of excess infrared emission that would suggest the presence of circumstellar dust. Such debris disks are rare among M-type star systems older than about 10 million years, having been primarily cleared away by drag from the stellar wind.[20] The space velocity components of this star in the galactic coordinate system are [U, V, W] = [–12.2, –1.0, –7.2] km s−1.[21] It has not been identified as a member of a specific stellar moving group[22] and is orbiting through the Milky Way galaxy at a distance from the core that varies from 27.65–30.66 kly (8.48–9.40 kpc) with an orbital eccentricity of 0.052.[23] Based on its low velocity relative to the Sun, this is believed to be a young disk (Population I) star.[24] This star will make its closest approach to the Sun in about 157,000 years, when it comes within 6.39 ± 0.10 ly (1.959 ± 0.031 pc).[25]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Vallenari, A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (2023). "Gaia Data Release 3. Summary of the content and survey properties". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 674: A1. arXiv:2208.00211. Bibcode:2023A&A...674A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202243940. S2CID 244398875. Gaia DR3 record for this source at VizieR.
  2. ^ a b c d e Staff (January 1, 2008), The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems, Research Consortium on Nearby Stars, archived from the original on May 13, 2012, retrieved 2008-06-12
  3. ^ Corben, P. M.; et al. (1972), "U, B, V photometry of 500 southern stars", Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa, 31: 7–22, Bibcode:1972MNSSA..31....8C
  4. ^ a b Jarrett, A. H.; Grabner, G. (1976), "On the Period Between Flares of V1216 Sagittarii", Information Bulletin on Variable Stars, 1221 (1221): 1, Bibcode:1976IBVS.1221....1J
  5. ^ a b c d e f Pineda, J. Sebastian; et al. (September 2021). "The M-dwarf Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Sample. I. Determining Stellar Parameters for Field Stars". The Astrophysical Journal. 918 (1): 23. arXiv:2106.07656. Bibcode:2021ApJ...918...40P. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac0aea. S2CID 235435757. 40.
  6. ^ Mentuch, Erin; et al. (2008), "Lithium Depletion of Nearby Young Stellar Associations", The Astrophysical Journal, 689 (2): 1127–1140, arXiv:0808.3584, Bibcode:2008ApJ...689.1127M, doi:10.1086/592764, S2CID 16859859
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Wargelin, B. J.; et al. (2008), "X-Ray Flaring on the dMe Star, Ross 154", The Astrophysical Journal, 676 (1): 610–627, arXiv:0712.2791, Bibcode:2008ApJ...676..610W, doi:10.1086/528702, S2CID 53357714
  8. ^ Ibañez Bustos, R. V.; Buccino, A. P.; Messina, Sergio; Lanza, A. F.; Mauas, P. J. D. (December 2020), "Activity-rotation in the dM4 star Gl 729. A possible chromospheric cycle", Astronomy & Astrophysics, 644, arXiv:2011.10391, Bibcode:2020A&A...644A...2I, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039164, S2CID 226313606
  9. ^ "V* V1216 Sgr -- Flare Star", SIMBAD, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, retrieved 2008-06-12
  10. ^ Mills, H. Robert (1994), Practical Astronomy: A User-friendly Handbook for Skywatchers, Horwood Publishing, pp. 199, ISBN 1-898563-02-0
  11. ^ Ross, Frank E. (1926), "New variable stars, (fourth list)", Astronomical Journal, 37: 91, Bibcode:1927AJ.....37Q..91R, doi:10.1086/104790
  12. ^ Ross, Frank E. (February 1926), "New proper-motion stars, (second list)", Astronomical Journal, 36 (856): 124–128, Bibcode:1926AJ.....36..124R, doi:10.1086/104699
  13. ^ O'Connell, Walter (February 1938), "A faint star of large parallax", Astronomical Journal, 46 (1078): 204, Bibcode:1938AJ.....46..204O, doi:10.1086/105447
  14. ^ "MAST: Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes". Space Telescope Science Institute. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  15. ^ Mayall, Margaret W. (February 1953), "Variable Star Notes", Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 47: 23–28, Bibcode:1953JRASC..47...23M
  16. ^ Costa, R.; Cristaldi, S.; Rodono, M. (1970), "Cooperative Observations of the Flare Star V1216 Sgr", Information Bulletin on Variable Stars, 461: 1–4, Bibcode:1970IBVS..461....1C
  17. ^ Reiners, Ansgar; Basri, Gibor (February 2007). "The First Direct Measurements of Surface Magnetic Fields on Very Low Mass Stars". The Astrophysical Journal. 656 (2): 1121–1135. arXiv:astro-ph/0610365. Bibcode:2007ApJ...656.1121R. doi:10.1086/510304. S2CID 17743657.
  18. ^ Reiners, Ansgar; Basri, Gibor (March 2009), "On the magnetic topology of partially and fully convective stars", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 496 (3): 787–790, arXiv:0901.1659, Bibcode:2009A&A...496..787R, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200811450, S2CID 15159121
  19. ^ Hinz, Joannah L.; et al. (2002), "A Near-Infrared Wide-Field Proper Motion Search for Brown Dwarfs", The Astronomical Journal, 123 (4): 2027–2032, arXiv:astro-ph/0201140, Bibcode:2002AJ....123.2027H, doi:10.1086/339555, S2CID 12737223
  20. ^ Plavchan, Peter; Jura, M.; Lipscy, S. J. (October 2005), "Where Are the M Dwarf Disks Older Than 10 Million Years?", The Astrophysical Journal, 631 (2): 1161–1169, arXiv:astro-ph/0506132, Bibcode:2005ApJ...631.1161P, doi:10.1086/432568, S2CID 3498251
  21. ^ "Annotations on V* V1216 Sgr object". SIMBAD. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  22. ^ Montes, D.; et al. (2001), "Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single stars" (PDF), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 328 (1): 45–63, arXiv:astro-ph/0106537, Bibcode:2001MNRAS.328...45M, doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04781.x, S2CID 55727428, archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-09-22, retrieved 2018-10-26
  23. ^ Allen, C.; Herrera, M. A. (1998), "The galactic orbits of nearby UV Ceti stars", Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, 34: 37–46, Bibcode:1998larm.confE.115A
  24. ^ Veeder, G. J. (1974), "Old disk flare stars", Astronomical Journal, 79: 702–704, Bibcode:1974AJ.....79..702V, doi:10.1086/111600
  25. ^ Bobylev, V. V. (March 2010), "Searching for stars closely encountering with the solar system", Astronomy Letters, 36 (3): 220–226, arXiv:1003.2160, Bibcode:2010AstL...36..220B, doi:10.1134/S1063773710030060, S2CID 118374161

External links[edit]