A keep, known as the Tower of Kingorne Wester, was in existence on the site from 1119. It was later referred to as Burntisland Castle, and by 1382 was called Abbot's Hall, as it was the home of the Abbot of Dunfermline. The present building is largely of the 16th century, though with a 13th-century basement, which contains lancet windows and may represent the remains of a chapel. It was rebuilt by Peter Durie of Durie from 1552, and the arms of Abbot George Durie, and the date 1554, appear over the main door.
During the war of the Rough Wooing the English soldier John Luttrell landed at Burntisland on 28 December 1547. He burnt boats and buildings at the pier, and the owners of Rossend surrendered the castle to him.
In April 1594 James VI came to Rossend from Leith with his guard, and unsuccessfully tried to capture two rebel supporters of the Earl of Bothwell, Archibald Wauchope of Niddrie and John Wemyss of Logie.
In 1651 it was captured by the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell, and in the later 17th century it was owned by the Wemyss family, who remodelled the top floor.
In 1915 Thomas Ross was arrested whilst studying the castle, for sketching in a prohibited area, and fined five shillings.
The castle was acquired by the Town Council in 1952. In 1957, an early 17th-century painted timber ceiling was discovered; it is now in the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. The ceiling includes the initials 'SRM' for 'Sir Robert Melville of Murdocairney' and emblems copied from the Devises Heroïques of Claude Paradin. The council threatened to demolish the property, which had been allowed to deteriorate, but it was saved after a public inquiry in 1972. It was bought in 1975 by the architecture firm Robert Hurd & Partners, who restored it and retain the building as their offices. It is a category B listed building.
It was bought in 2019 by private owners who have restored it
- Historic Environment Scotland. "ROSSEND CASTLE WITH BOUNDARY WALLS AND RAILINGS (Category B Listed Building) (LB22872)". Retrieved 2019-03-14.
- "Rossend Castle, Site Number NT28NW 23.00". CANMORE. RCAHMS. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
- Joseph Bain, Calendar State Papers Scotland: 1547-1563, vol. 1 (Edinburgh, 1898), p. 58.
- Bain, Joseph, ed., Calendar of State Papers Scotland, vol. 1 (Edinburgh, 1898), p. 684 no. 1170.
- David Stevenson, Scotland's Last Royal Wedding (John Donald: Edinburgh, 1997), p. 102.
- Annie I. Cameron, Calendar State Papers Scotland: 1593-1595, vol. 11 (Edinburgh, 1936), p. 308.
- Bath, Michael, Renaissance Decorative Painting in Scotland (NMS, 2003), pp. 258-60.