Roswitha Esser (born 18 January 1941 in Bad Godesberg) is a West German sprint canoeist who competed from the mid-1960s to the early 1970s. Competing in three Summer Olympics, she won two gold medals in the K-2 500 m event (1964, 1968).
Esser also won seven medals at the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships with two golds (K-2 500 m: 1963, 1970), four silvers (K-1 500 m: 1966, K-4 500 m: 1963, 1966, 1971), and a bronze (K-4 500 m: 1970).
- 1960: Soviet Union (Mariya Shubina, Antonina Seredina)
- 1964: Germany (Roswitha Esser, Annemarie Zimmermann)
- 1968: West Germany (Roswitha Esser, Annemarie Zimmermann)
- 1972: Soviet Union (Lyudmila Pinayeva, Kateryna Koryshko)
- 1976: Soviet Union (Nina Gopova, Galina Kreft)
- 1980: East Germany (Carsta Genäuß, Martina Bischof)
- 1984: Sweden (Agneta Andersson, Anna Olsson)
- 1988: East Germany (Birgit Fischer, Anke Nothnagel)
- 1992: Germany (Ramona Portwich, Anke von Seck)
- 1996: Sweden (Susanne Gunnarsson, Agneta Andersson)
- 2000: Germany (Birgit Fischer, Katrin Wagner-Augustin)
- 2004 – 2008: Hungary (Katalin Kovács, Nataša Janić)
- 2012: Germany (Franziska Weber, Tina Dietze)