In the days of printing with metal type sorts, it was common to rotate letters and digits 180° to create new symbols. This was done for example with the Palaeotype alphabet, the International Phonetic Alphabet, the Fraser script, and for some mathematical symbols. Perhaps the earliest instance of this that is still in use was turned e for schwa.
In this table, parentheses mark letters that stand in for themselves or for another. For instance, a rotated 'b' would be a 'q', and indeed some physical typefaces didn't bother with distinct sorts for those letters, while a rotated 's' would be itself. Long s with a combining dot below, ⟨ſ̣⟩, can stand in for a rotated j.
The Fraser script creates a number of duplicates of the rotated capitals.
|Rotated small cap||ᴐ||ⱻ||ⅎ||(ʜ)||(ɪ)||ɾ||ꟺ[a]||(ɴ)||(ᴏ)||ᴚ||(ꜱ)||–||–||–||(ᴢ)|
The letters ⅁, ⅂, ⅄ are specified as sans-serif. Additional small cap forms are found in the literature (e.g. turned ᴀ ᴋ ʟ ᴜ), but are not supported as of Unicode 13. Turned ɢ was added to the extIPA in 2015 and should have Unicode support soon.
Other rotated letters include the digraphs ᴂ and ᴔ. The "rotated" capital Q in Unicode is only turned 90 degrees: ℺.
Greek and Cyrillic
Many of the few rotated Greek letters are intended for mathematical notation. In this table, an en dash is used to mark Greek and Cyrillic letters that are not distinct from a Latin letter. Reversed L, ⟨⅃⟩, can stand in for a rotated gamma Γ, though it is defined[where?] as sans serif.
In some fonts, turned Σ is available as an allograph of Ʒ.
In addition, the horseshoe ʊ ᶷ of the IPA has allographs that are a turned small-capital Ω.
Other rotated symbols include ɞ (rotated or reversed ʚ), ʖ (rotated ʕ) ⱹ (rotated ɽ), ɺ (rotated ɼ), ʁ (equivalent to rotated Cyrillic я, though historically it's an inverted Latin ʀ), the digits ↊ and ↋, the insular g Ꝿ ꝿ, and the ampersand ⅋. The 'turned comma' ⟨‘⟩ is, as its name suggests, a rotated comma. It is used for the Hawaiian letter ʻokina. Spanish uses the rotated punctuation marks ¡ and ¿.
In addition to turned letters, Unicode supports a few reversed (mirror-image) letters such as ɘ, Ƨ ƨ, Ƹ ƹ, ʕ, ᴎ, ᴙ, ꟻ, ⅃ and ꟼ; Cyrillic Ԑ ԑ (reversed З з) and Ꙡ ꙡ (as well as Cyrillic И и and Я я, which are graphically equivalent to reversed Latin N ɴ and R ʀ), superscript ᶟ ᴻ, and the tresillo Ꜫ ꜫ, which historically is a reversed three. Current IPA ɜ is officially a reversed rather than rotated ɛ; the older rotated ᴈ is now deprecated.
- ⟨ꟺ⟩ displays a number of ways in different typefaces, but officially it is a turned small capital M.
- ⟨ꟽ⟩ is actually an inverted M.